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Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Benedikt Hacker, Christoph Schultheiß, Michael Döring, Ursula Kurzik-Dumke
This study provides first insights into the involvement of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila NOT and yeast ALG3 gene, in various putative molecular networks. HNOT/ALG3 encodes two translated transcripts encoding precursor proteins differing in their N-terminus and showing 33% identity with the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 3 (ALG3) protein. Experimental evidence for the functional homology of the proteins of fly and man in the N-glycosylation has still to be provided. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid technique we identify 17 molecular partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Kelsey A Herrmann, Heather T Broihier
Although retrograde neurotrophin signaling has provided an immensely influential paradigm for understanding growth factor signaling in the nervous system, recent studies indicate that growth factors also signal via cell-autonomous, or autocrine, mechanisms. Autocrine signals have been discovered in many neuronal contexts, providing insights into their regulation and function. The growing realization of the importance of cell-autonomous signaling stems from advances in both conditional genetic approaches and in sophisticated analyses of growth factor dynamics, which combine to enable rigorous in vivo dissection of signaling pathways...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Yi Yan, Vitor Sencadas, Tiantian Jin, Xufeng Huang, Wilford Lie, Dongbin Wei, Zhengyi Jiang
Processing conditions deeply affect the mechanical, chemical and biological properties of elastomeric based nanocomposites. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed in poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) prepolymer, followed by curing under vacuum at 120 °C. It was observed an increase of the water contact angle with the amount of MWCNTs added, as well as the tensile strength and Young modulus, without compromising the elastomeric behaviour of the pristine PGS matrix. The cross-linking degree was determined by the Flory-Rehner swelling method and through the mechanical rubber elasticity model, and an increase of more than six-fold was observed, which demonstrates the chemical conjugation between the MWCNTs and the PGS polymer chains, resulting in stiff and elastomeric nanocomposites...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Jeffrey Zielich, Elena Tzima, Eva Ayla Schröder, Faten Jemel, Barbara Conradt, Eric J Lambie
P5B ATPases are present in the genomes of diverse unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, indicating that they have an ancient origin, and that they are important for cellular fitness. Inactivation of ATP13A2, one of the four human P5B ATPases, leads to early-onset Parkinson's disease (Kufor-Rakeb Syndrome). The presence of an invariant PPALP motif within the putative substrate interaction pocket of transmembrane segment M4 suggests that all P5B ATPases might have similar transport specificity; however, the identity of the transport substrate(s) remains unknown...
2018: PloS One
Sergio Crespo-Garcia, Nadine Reichhart, Sergej Skosyrski, Marco Foddis, Jim Wu, Aleksandar Figura, Christina Herrspiegel, Martina Füchtemeier, Celeste Sassi, Ulrich Dirnagl, Antonia M Joussen, Olaf Strauss
Animal models of disease are an indispensable element in our quest to understand pathophysiology and develop novel therapies. Ex vivo studies have severe limitations, in particular their inability to study individual disease progression over time. In this respect, non-invasive in vivo technologies offer multiple advantages. We here used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice, an established model for ischemic retinopathy, and performed a multimodal in vivo and ex vivo follow-up. We used scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), ocular coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography (ERG) over 6 weeks followed by ex vivo analyses...
2018: PloS One
Shannon N Rhoads, Zachary T Monahan, Debra S Yee, Frank P Shewmaker
Subcellular mislocalization and aggregation of the human FUS protein occurs in neurons of patients with subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. FUS is one of several RNA-binding proteins that can functionally self-associate into distinct liquid-phase droplet structures. It is postulated that aberrant interactions within the dense phase-separated state can potentiate FUS's transition into solid prion-like aggregates that cause disease. FUS is post-translationally modified at numerous positions, which affect both its localization and aggregation propensity...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Peter Stacey, Anne Mai Wassermann, Laura Kammonen, Emma Impey, Anna Wilbrey, Darren Cawkill
Screening against a disease-relevant phenotype to identify compounds that change the outcome of biological pathways, rather than just the activity of specific targets, offers an alternative approach to find modulators of disease characteristics. However, in pain research, use of in vitro phenotypic screens has been impeded by the challenge of sourcing relevant neuronal cell types in sufficient quantity and developing functional end-point measurements with a direct disease link. To overcome these hurdles, we have generated human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived sensory neurons at a robust production scale using the concept of cryopreserved "near-assay-ready" cells to decouple complex cell production from assay development and screening...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Supriya Mallick, Rony Benson, Goura K Rath
Introduction: Extraventricular neurocytoma is a rare neuronal tumor arising outside the ventricles. However, because of its rarity, its optimum treatment remains undefined. Materials and Methods: We intended to perform an individual patient data analysis to examine the patterns of care and prognostic factors involved in the treatment of extraventricular neurocytomas. PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar were searched with the following MeSH terms: "Neurocytoma, Extra ventricular neurocytoma, Spinal neurocytoma AND treatment, Survival" to find all possible publications pertaining to EVN...
March 2018: Neurology India
Rajeev Ranjan, Arra Abhinay, Monalisa Mishra
Neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, etc., are serious life-threatening diseases, which involve degeneration of the neurons with time. Numerous studies have discussed the role of microbes in neurodegeneration. Oral cavity being the primary site of infection acts as a gateway for gigantic population of microbes to the human body. Oral infection is known to be associated with neurodegeneration. The current review summarizes various mechanisms due to which the oral microbiome can cause neurodegeneration...
March 2018: Neurology India
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Valerie Jeanneret, Juan P Ospina, Ariel Diaz, Luis G Manrique, Paola Merino, Laura Gutierrez, Enrique Torre, Fang Wu, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Cerebral ischemia causes the presynaptic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a postsynaptic structure that provides a matrix where signaling transduction of excitatory synapses takes place. The postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is the most abundant scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD), where it modulates the postsynaptic response to the presynaptic release of glutamate by regulating the anchoring of glutamate receptors to the PSD. We found that tPA induces the local translation of PSD-95 mRNA and the subsequent recruitment of PSD-95 protein to the PSD, via plasminogen-independent activation of TrkB receptors...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Halef Okan Dogan, Begum Yurdakok, Kubra Dogan, Sevil Vural, Fatma Meric Yilmaz, Atilla Isgoren
Aroclor 1254 is a widespread toxic compound of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), which can create significant nervous problems. No remedies have been found to date. The aim of this study was to reveal the damage that occurs in the central nervous system of rat pups exposed to Aroclor 1254 in the prenatal period, and to show the inhibiting effect of curcumin, which is a strong anti-oxidant and neuroprotective substance. The study established 3 groups of adult female and male Wistar albino rats. The rats were mated within these groups and the offspring rats were evaluated within the group given Aroclor 1254 only (n=10) and the group given both Aroclor 1254 and curcumin (n=10) and the control group (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Shinji Kakei, Takahiro Ishikawa, Jongho Lee, Takeru Honda, Donna S Hoffman
BACKGROUND: In order to optimize outcomes of novel therapies for cerebellar ataxias (CAs), it is desirable to start these therapies while declined functions are restorable: i.e. while the so-called cerebellar reserve remains. OBJECTIVE: In this mini-review, we tried to define and discuss the cerebellar reserve from physiological and morphological points of view. METHOD: The cerebellar neuron circuitry is designed to generate spatiotemporally organized outputs, regardless of the region...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Chye Soi Moi, Chia Kin Yen, Khuen Yen Ng, Koh Rhun Yian
Protein misfolding and aggregation have been considered the common pathological hallmarks for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). These abnormal proteins aggregation damage mitochondria and induce oxidative stress and resulting neuronal cell death. Prolong neuronal damage activates microglia and astrocytes, development of inflammation reaction and further promotes neurodegeneration. Thus, elimination of abnormal proteins aggregation without eliciting any adverse effects are the main treatment strategies...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
In situ hybridization enables visualization of mRNA localization, and immunohistochemistry enables visualization of protein localization within a tissue or organism. Both techniques have been extensively utilized in zebrafish (Thisse et al., Development 119:1203-1215, 1993; Dutton et al., Development 128:4113-4125, 2001; Gilmour et al., Neuron 34:577-588, 2002; Lyons et al., Curr Biol 15:513-524, 2005) including for visualization of mRNA localization in Schwann cells (Lyons et al., Curr Biol 15:513-524, 2005; Monk et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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