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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528529/the-influence-of-depolarization-block-on-seizure-like-activity-in-networks-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#1
Christopher M Kim, Duane Q Nykamp
The inhibitory restraint necessary to suppress aberrant activity can fail when inhibitory neurons cease to generate action potentials as they enter depolarization block. We investigate possible bifurcation structures that arise at the onset of seizure-like activity resulting from depolarization block in inhibitory neurons. Networks of conductance-based excitatory and inhibitory neurons are simulated to characterize different types of transitions to the seizure state, and a mean field model is developed to verify the generality of the observed phenomena of excitatory-inhibitory dynamics...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#2
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528380/the-rat-corticospinal-system-is-functionally-and-anatomically-segregated
#3
Rafael Olivares-Moreno, Yunuen Moreno-Lopez, Luis Concha, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Miguel Condés-Lara, Matilde Cordero-Erausquin, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni
The descending corticospinal (CS) projection has been considered a key element for motor control, which results from direct and indirect modulation of spinal cord pre-motor interneurons in the intermediate gray matter of the spinal cord, which, in turn, influences motoneurons in the ventral horn. The CS tract (CST) is also involved in a selective and complex modulation of sensory information in the dorsal horn. However, little is known about the spinal network engaged by the CST and the organization of CS projections that may encode different cortical outputs to the spinal cord...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528379/collateralization-of-projections-from-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-to-the-nucleus-accumbens-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#4
Xinwen Dong, Sa Li, Gilbert J Kirouac
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is a midline thalamic nucleus with dense projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsolateral region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTDL) and the lateral/capsular region of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL/CeC). Recent experimental evidence indicates that the PVT is involved in both appetitive and aversive behaviors. However, it is unknown if subgroups of neurons in the PVT innervate different subcortical targets or if the same neurons issue collaterals to multiple areas...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528375/hypothalamic-signaling-in-body-fluid-homeostasis-and-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Brian J Kinsman, Haley N Nation, Sean D Stocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528366/cdk5-mediated-phosphorylation-dependent-ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-gp78-accelerates-neuronal-death-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Qingzhi Wang, Fengjuan Jiao, Pei Zhang, Jianguo Yan, Zheng Zhang, Feng He, Qian Zhang, Zexi Lv, Xiang Peng, Hongwei Cai, Bo Tian
The molecular mechanisms responsible for the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain obscure. Loss of function of E3 ubiquitin ligases is associated with mitochondria dysfunction, dysfunction of protein degradation, and α-synuclein aggregation, which are major contributors to neurodegeneration in PD. Recent research has thus focused on E3 ubiquitin ligase glycoprotein 78 (GP78); however, the role of GP78 in PD pathogenesis remains unclear. Notably, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) controls multiple cellular events in postmitotic neurons, and CDK5 activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD...
May 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528360/a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-midbrain-superior-colliculus-that-generates-saccadic-motor-commands
#7
Bahadir Kasap, A John van Opstal
Single-unit recordings suggest that the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) acts as an optimal controller for saccadic gaze shifts. The SC is proposed to be the site within the visuomotor system where the nonlinear spatial-to-temporal transformation is carried out: the population encodes the intended saccade vector by its location in the motor map (spatial), and its trajectory and velocity by the distribution of firing rates (temporal). The neurons' burst profiles vary systematically with their anatomical positions and intended saccade vectors, to account for the nonlinear main-sequence kinematics of saccades...
May 20, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528319/quantitative-dla-based-compressed-sensing-for-t1-weighted-acquisitions
#8
Pavel Svehla, Khieu-Van Nguyen, Jing-Rebecca Li, Luisa Ciobanu
High resolution Manganese Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI), which uses manganese as a T1 contrast agent, has great potential for functional imaging of live neuronal tissue at single neuron scale. However, reaching high resolutions often requires long acquisition times which can lead to reduced image quality due to sample deterioration and hardware instability. Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques offer the opportunity to significantly reduce the imaging time. The purpose of this work is to test the feasibility of CS acquisitions based on Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) sampling patterns for high resolution quantitative T1-weighted imaging...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528240/negative-correlation-between-csf-lactate-levels-and-moca-scores-in-male-chinese-subjects
#9
Haijun Wang, Xiaohua Tan, Jinzhong Xu, Hui Li, Meiling Wang, Suling Chen, Xiaoyu Yang, Yanlong Liu, Fan Wang
Lactate is a product of glycolysis by astrocytes and can be generated as a primary metabolic energy source by neurons. Lactate plays multifunctional role in human brain energy metabolism and cognitive function. However, no direct evidence demonstrated the link between lactate and cognition in normal condition. In the present study, concentrations of lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were measured to investigate the association of lactate with cognitive ability, which was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in 99 male Chinese subjects...
May 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528202/microrna-129-5p-inhibits-the-development-of-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-related-epilepsy-by-targeting-hmgb1-through-the-tlr4-nf-kb-signaling-pathway
#10
Ai-Hua Liu, Ya-Ting Wu, Yu-Ping Wang
The study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) on the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AE)-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model. AE-related epilepsy models were established. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control, model, miR-129-5p mimics, miR-129-5p inhibitor, HMGB1 shRNA, TLR4/NF-kB (TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway was inhibited) and miR-129-5p mimics+HMGB1 shRNA groups respectively. Latency to a first epilepsy seizure attack was recorded...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#11
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528135/presymptomatically-applied-ampa-receptor-antagonist-prevents-calcium-increase-in-vulnerable-type-of-motor-axon-terminals-of-mice-modeling-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Roland Patai, Melinda Paizs, Massimo Tortarolo, Caterina Bendotti, Izabella Obál, József I Engelhardt, László Siklós
Increased intracellular calcium (Ca), which might be the consequence of an excess influx through Ca-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, plays a crucial role in degeneration of motor neurons. Previously we demonstrated that the presymptomatic application of AMPA receptor antagonist, talampanel, could reduce Ca elevation in spinal motor neurons of mice carrying the G93A mutation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), modeling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It remained to be examined whether the remote, functionally semi-autonomous motor axon terminals could be rescued from the Ca overload, or if the terminals, where the degeneration possibly starts, already experience intractable changes at early time points...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528122/probdnf-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-mouse-neural-stem-cells
#13
Jia-Yi Li, Jia Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
ProBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is an important regulator of neurodegeneration, hippocampal long-term depression, and synaptic plasticity. ProBDNF and its receptors pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), vps10p domain-containing receptor Sortilin and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are expressed in neuronal and glial cells. The role of proBDNF in regulation of neurogenesis is not fully defined. This study aims to uncover the function of proBDNF in regulating the differentiation, migration and proliferation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528079/the-lateral-habenula-and-the-serotonergic-system
#14
REVIEW
Martin Metzger, Debora Bueno, Leandro B Lima
The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). After decades of relative neglect, interest in the Hb resurged when it was demonstrated that LHb neurons play a key role in encoding disappointments and expectation of punishments. Consistent with such a role, the LHb has been implicated in a broad array of functions and pathologic conditions, notably in mechanisms of stress and pain, as well as in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527958/treadmill-exercise-produces-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-murine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-by-regulating-the-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#15
Jung-Hoon Koo, Yong-Chul Jang, Dong-Ju Hwang, Hyun-Seob Um, Nam-Hee Lee, Jae-Hoon Jung, Joon-Yong Cho
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopamine depletion and a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treadmill exercise is a promising non-pharmacological approach for reducing the risk of PD and other neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on α-synuclein-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527957/streptozotocin-alters-glucose-transport-connexin-expression-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-functions-in-neurons-and-astrocytes
#16
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sarika Singh
The study was undertaken to explore the cell specific streptozotocin (STZ) induced mechanistic alterations. STZ induced rodent model is a well established experimental model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in our previous studies we have established it as an in vitro screening model of AD by employing N2A neuronal cells. Therefore, STZ was selected in the present study to understand the STZ induced cell specific alterations by utilizing neuronal N2A and astrocytes C6 cells. Both neuronal and astrocyte cells were treated with STZ at 10, 50, 100 and 1000μM concentration for 48 h...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527956/comparison-of-the-induction-of-c-fos-egfp-and-fos-protein-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-and-hypothalamus-resulting-from-subcutaneous-capsaicin-or-formalin-injection
#17
Yasuhito Motojima, Takanori Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Takashi Maruyama, Satomi Sonoda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Makoto Kawasaki, Hideo Ohnishi, Akinori Sakai, Yoichi Ueta
We evaluated whether a c-fos-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic rat line, which expresses the c-fos and eGFP fusion gene, can be useful for the study of nociceptive pathways and processing. Capsaicin solution (15%) or formalin (5%) was subcutaneously injected bilaterally into the hind paws (100 μL per each paw) of adult male c-fos-eGFP transgenic or wild type rats. Control rats were injected with ethanol or physiological saline respectively. Transgenic and wild type rats were perfused at 1...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527955/neuroprotective-effect-of-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonist-pha-543613-in-an-in-vivo-excitotoxic-adult-rat-model
#18
Laura Foucault-Fruchard, Aurélie Doméné, Guylène Page, Marguerite Windsor, Patrick Emond, Nuno Rodrigues, Frédéric Dollé, Annelaure Damont, Frédéric Buron, Sylvain Routier, Sylvie Chalon, Daniel Antier
Neuroinflammation is a key component of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. The link between nicotine intake and positive outcome has been established, suggesting a role played by nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), especially α7nAChRs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential dose effects of PHA 543613 on neuron survival and striatal microglial activation in a rat model of brain excitotoxicity. A preliminary study was performed in vitro to confirm PHA 543613 agonist properties on α7nAChRs...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527861/cellular-computational-generalized-neuron-network-for-frequency-situational-intelligence-in-a-multi-machine-power-system
#19
Yawei Wei, Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy
To prevent large interconnected power system from a cascading failure, brownout or even blackout, grid operators require access to faster than real-time information to make appropriate just-in-time control decisions. However, the communication and computational system limitations of currently used supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system can only deliver delayed information. However, the deployment of synchrophasor measurement devices makes it possible to capture and visualize, in near-real-time, grid operational data with extra granularity...
April 4, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527846/characterization-of-dental-pulp-myofibroblasts-in-rat-molars-after-pulpotomy
#20
Naoki Edanami, Nagako Yoshiba, Naoto Ohkura, Ryosuke Takeuchi, Aiko Tohma, Yuichiro Noiri, Kunihiko Yoshiba
INTRODUCTION: Myofibroblasts express alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and play a critical role in wound healing. Myofibroblast differentiation is controlled by the joint actions of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and the extradomain A fibronectin splice variant (EDA-FN). Currently, the contribution of myofibroblasts to dental pulp healing is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed expressional characteristics of α-SMA-positive cells and investigated TGF-β1, EDA-FN, and α-SMA expression levels after pulpotomy to better understand dental pulp healing...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
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