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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724279/alterations-in-striatal-circuits-underlying-addiction-like-behaviors
#1
REVIEW
Hyun Jin Kim, Joo Han Lee, Kyunghwa Yun, Joung-Hun Kim
Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724200/effect-of-memantine-on-serum-levels-of-neuron-specific-enolase-and-on-the-glasgow-coma-scale-in-patients-with-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Majid Mokhtari, Hossein Nayeb-Aghaei, Mehran Kouchek, Mir Mohammad Miri, Reza Goharani, Arash Amoozandeh, Sina Akhavan Salamat, Mohammad Sistanizad
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability and death globally. Despite significant progress in neuromonitoring and neuroprotection, pharmacological interventions have failed to generate favorable results. We examined the effect of memantine on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker of neuronal damage, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in patients with moderate TBI. Patients were randomly assigned to the control group (who received standard TBI management) and the treatment group (who, alongside their standard management, received enteral memantine 30 mg twice daily for 7 days)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723918/heterogeneity-of-p53-dependent-genomic-responses-following-ethanol-exposure-in-a-developmental-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#3
Maria Camargo Moreno, Sandra M Mooney, Frank A Middleton
Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723899/cognition-neurons-couple-up-to-make-decisions
#4
Stephen V David
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723889/distinct-timescales-of-population-coding-across-cortex
#5
Caroline A Runyan, Eugenio Piasini, Stefano Panzeri, Christopher D Harvey
The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723570/dynamic-control-of-dendritic-mrna-expression-by-cnot7-regulates-synaptic-efficacy-and-higher-cognitive-function
#6
Rhonda L McFleder, Fernanda Mansur, Joel D Richter
Translation of mRNAs in dendrites mediates synaptic plasticity, the probable cellular basis of learning and memory. Coordination of translational inhibitory and stimulatory mechanisms, as well as dendritic transport of mRNA, is necessary to ensure proper control of this local translation. Here, we find that the deadenylase CNOT7 dynamically regulates dendritic mRNA translation and transport, as well as synaptic plasticity and higher cognitive function. In cultured hippocampal neurons, synaptic stimulation induces a rapid decrease in CNOT7, which, in the short-term, results in poly(A) tail lengthening of target mRNAs...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723559/kmt2a-and-kmt2b-mediate-memory-function-by-affecting-distinct-genomic-regions
#7
Cemil Kerimoglu, M Sadman Sakib, Gaurav Jain, Eva Benito, Susanne Burkhardt, Vincenzo Capece, Lalit Kaurani, Rashi Halder, Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, Roman Stilling, Hendrik Urbanke, Andrea Kranz, A Francis Stewart, Andre Fischer
Kmt2a and Kmt2b are H3K4 methyltransferases of the Set1/Trithorax class. We have recently shown the importance of Kmt2b for learning and memory. Here, we report that Kmt2a is also important in memory formation. We compare the decrease in H3K4 methylation and de-regulation of gene expression in hippocampal neurons of mice with knockdown of either Kmt2a or Kmt2b. Kmt2a and Kmt2b control largely distinct genomic regions and different molecular pathways linked to neuronal plasticity. Finally, we show that the decrease in H3K4 methylation resulting from Kmt2a knockdown partially recapitulates the pattern previously reported in CK-p25 mice, a model for neurodegeneration and memory impairment...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723550/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-primitive-macrophages-provide-a-platform-for-modeling-tissue-resident-macrophage-differentiation-and-function
#8
Kazuyuki Takata, Tatsuya Kozaki, Christopher Zhe Wei Lee, Morgane Sonia Thion, Masayuki Otsuka, Shawn Lim, Kagistia Hana Utami, Kerem Fidan, Dong Shin Park, Benoit Malleret, Svetoslav Chakarov, Peter See, Donovan Low, Gillian Low, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Ruizhu Zeng, Jinqiu Zhang, Chi Ching Goh, Ahmet Gul, Sandra Hubert, Bernett Lee, Jinmiao Chen, Ivy Low, Nurhidaya Binte Shadan, Josephine Lum, Tay Seok Wei, Esther Mok, Shohei Kawanishi, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Anis Larbi, Michael Poidinger, Laurent Renia, Lai Guan Ng, Yochai Wolf, Steffen Jung, Tamer Önder, Evan Newell, Tara Huber, Eishi Ashihara, Sonia Garel, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Florent Ginhoux
Tissue macrophages arise during embryogenesis from yolk-sac (YS) progenitors that give rise to primitive YS macrophages. Until recently, it has been impossible to isolate or derive sufficient numbers of YS-derived macrophages for further study, but data now suggest that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be driven to undergo a process reminiscent of YS-hematopoiesis in vitro. We asked whether iPSC-derived primitive macrophages (iMacs) can terminally differentiate into specialized macrophages with the help of growth factors and organ-specific cues...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723388/region-specific-impairments-in-parvalbumin-interneurons-in-social-isolation-reared-mice
#9
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Many neuropsychiatric disorders show localized dysfunction in specific cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying such region-specific vulnerabilities are unknown. Post-mortem analyses have demonstrated a selective reduction in the expression of parvalbumin (PV) in GABAergic interneurons in the frontal rather than the sensory cortex of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and bipolar disorders. PV neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), and are protected from oxidative stress...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723387/sigma-1-receptor-activation-modifies-intracellular-calcium-exchange-in-the-g93a-hsod1-als-model
#10
Vedrana Tadić, Ayse Malci, Nadine Goldhammer, Beatrice Stubendorff, Saikata Sengupta, Tino Prell, Silke Keiner, Jingyu Liu, Madlen Guenther, Christiane Frahm, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Aberrations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) have been well established within amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a severe motor neuron disease. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is controlled in part through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria Ca(2+) cycle (ERMCC). The ER supplies Ca(2+) to the mitochondria at close contacts between the two organelles, i.e. the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). The Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is enriched at MAMs, where it acts as an inter-organelle signalling modulator...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723347/heart-rate-variability-is-enhanced-by-long-lasting-pleasant-touch-at-ct-optimized-velocity
#11
Chantal Triscoli, Ilona Croy, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Håkan Olausson, Uta Sailer
INTRODUCTION: The present study explores whether long-lasting pleasant touch has positive effects on the stress response, reward sensitivity, mood, and interoceptive awareness. METHODS: 40 participants received either 35minutes of brush stroking targeting C-tactile fibres (CT) or vibration on the forearm, and rated pleasantness and intensity. Prior and after, stress response (cortisol and heart rate variability), reward sensitivity, mood and interoceptive awareness were measured...
July 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723268/assay-of-calcium-transients-and-synapses-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons-by-kinetic-image-cytometry-and-high-content-analysis-an-in-vitro-model-system-for-postchemotherapy-cognitive-impairment
#12
Patrick M McDonough, Natalie L Prigozhina, Ranor C B Basa, Jeffrey H Price
Postchemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) is commonly exhibited by cancer patients treated with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, including the endocrine disruptor tamoxifen (TAM). The etiology of PCCI is poorly understood. Our goal was to develop high-throughput assay methods to test the effects of chemicals on neuronal function applicable to PCCI. Rat hippocampal neurons (RHNs) were plated in 96- or 384-well dishes and exposed to test compounds (forskolin [FSK], 17β-estradiol [ES]), TAM or fulvestrant [FUL], aka ICI 182,780) for 6-14 days...
July 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722769/promoter-iv-bdnf-deficiency-disturbs-cholinergic-gene-expression-of-chrna5-chrm2-and-chrm5-effects-of-drug-and-environmental-treatments
#13
Kazuko Sakata, Abigail E Overacre
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes maturation of cholinergic neurons. However, how activity-dependent BDNF expression affects specific cholinergic gene expression remains unclear. This study addressed this question by determining mRNA levels of 22 acetylcholine receptor subunits, the choline transporter (CHT), and the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in mice deficient in activity-dependent BDNF via promoter IV (KIV) and control wild-type mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed significant reductions in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 5 (CHRNA5) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM5) in the hippocampus, but significant increases in M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM2) in the frontal cortex of KIV mice compared to wild-type mice...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722750/protein-kinase-d-exerts-neuroprotective-functions-during-oxidative-stress-via-nuclear-factor-kappab-independent-signaling-pathways
#14
Hanna Liliom, Krisztián Tárnok, Zsófia Ábrahám, Bence Rácz, Angelika Hausser, Katalin Schlett
Members of the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine kinases are known to exert diverse roles in neuronal stress responses. Here we show the transient activation and nuclear translocation of endogenous PKD upon oxidative stress induced by H2 O2 treatment in primary neuronal cultures. Using pharmacological inhibition we show that PKD activity protects neurons from oxidative stress induced cell death. Although members of the canonical NFκB pathway were phosphorylated upon H2 O2 treatment, it was found that the neuronal response to oxidative stress is not executed through the nuclear translocation and activity of RelA...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722693/ikk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-satellite-glia-activation-induces-spinal-cord-microglia-activation-and-neuropathic-pain-after-nerve-injury
#15
Hyoungsub Lim, Hyunkyoung Lee, Kyungchul Noh, Sung Joong Lee
Increasing evidence indicates that both microglia and satellite glial cell (SGC) activation play causal roles in neuropathic pain development after peripheral nerve injury; however, the activation mechanisms and their contribution to neuropathic pain remain elusive. To address this issue, we generated Ikkβ conditional knockout mice (Cnp-Cre/Ikkβ; cIkkβ) in which IKK/NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory SGC activation was abrogated. In these mice, nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation and pain hypersensitivity were significantly attenuated compared to those in control mice...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722682/activation-of-the-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway-by-probucol-contributes-to-inhibiting-inflammation-and-neuronal-apoptosis-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Zipeng Zhou, Chang Liu, Shurui Chen, Haosen Zhao, Kang Zhou, Wei Wang, Yajiang Yuan, Zhuo Li, Yue Guo, Zhaoliang Shen, Xifan Mei
The nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses. Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a massive release of inflammatory factors and free radicals, which seriously compromise nerve recovery and axon regeneration. In this study, we examined the efficacy of probucol on anti-inflammatory responses and functional recovery after SCI by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. We also investigated the mechanism by which inflammation is inhibited in this process...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722651/ephrin-a-epha-specific-co-adaptation-as-a-novel-mechanism-in-topographic-axon-guidance
#17
Felix Fiederling, Markus Weschenfelder, Martin Fritz, Anne von Philipsborn, Martin Bastmeyer, Franco Weth
Genetic hardwiring during brain development provides computational architectures for innate neuronal processing. Thus, the paradigmatic chick retinotectal projection, due to its neighborhood preserving, topographic organization, establishes millions of parallel channels for incremental visual field analysis. Retinal axons receive targeting information from quantitative guidance cue gradients. Surprisingly, novel adaptation assays demonstrate that retinal growth cones robustly adapt towards ephrin-A/EphA forward and reverse signals, which provide the major mapping cues...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722508/atg5-and-atg7-dependent-autophagy-in-dopaminergic-neurons-regulates-cellular-and-behavioral-responses-to-morphine
#18
Ling-Yan Su, Rongcan Luo, Qianjin Liu, Jing-Ran Su, Lu-Xiu Yang, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Yong-Gang Yao
The molecular basis of chronic morphine exposure remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that macroautophagy/autophagy of dopaminergic neurons would mediate the alterations of neuronal dendritic morphology and behavioral responses induced by morphine. Chronic morphine exposure caused Atg5 (autophagy related 5)- and Atg7 (autophagy related 7)-dependent and dopaminergic neuron-specific autophagy resulting in decreased neuron dendritic spines and the onset of addictive behaviors. In cultured primary midbrain neurons, morphine treatment significantly reduced total dendritic length and complexity, and this effect could be reversed by knockdown of Atg5 or Atg7...
July 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722429/detection-of-k-efflux-from-stimulated-cortical-neurons-by-an-aptamer-modified-silicon-nanowire-field-effect-transistor
#19
Ankur Anand, Chia-Rung Liu, Ai-Chuan Chou, Wan-Hsuan Hsu, Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Yi-Cheng Lin, Chi-An Dai, Fan-Gang Tseng, Chien-Yuan Pan, Yit-Tsong Chen
The concentration gradient of K(+) across the cell membrane of a neuron determines its resting potential and cell excitability. During neurotransmission, the efflux of K(+) from the cell via various channels will not only decrease the intracellular K(+) content but also elevate the extracellular K(+) concentration. However, it is not clear to what extent this change could be. In this study, we developed a multiple-parallel-connected silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) modified with K(+)-specific DNA-aptamers (aptamer/SiNW-FET) for the real-time detection of the K(+) efflux from cultured cortical neurons...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722341/proteomic-analysis-of-neuroblastoma-derived-exosomes-new-insights-into-a-metastatic-signature
#20
Marta Colletti, Andrea Petretto, Angela Galardi, Virginia Di Paolo, Luigi Tomao, Chiara Lavarello, Elvira Inglese, Maurizio Bruschi, Ana Amor Lopez, Luisa Pascucci, Birgit Geoerger, Hector Peinado, Locatelli Franco, Di Giannatale Angela
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor. Around 70% of patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis present bone-marrow infiltration, which is considered a marker of poor outcome; however, the mechanism underlying this specific tropism has to be elucidated. Tumor-derived exosomes may support metastatic progression in several tumors by interacting with the microenvironment, and may serve as tumor biomarkers. The main objective of this study was to identify an exosomal signature associated with NB metastatic bone-marrow dissemination...
July 19, 2017: Proteomics
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