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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813012/inhibitory-effect-of-lycopene-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-in-neuronal-cells
#1
Sinwoo Hwang, Joo Weon Lim, Hyeyoung Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Brain amyloid-β deposition is a crucial feature of AD, causing neuronal cell death by inducing oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate NF-κB, which induces expression of Nucling. Nucling is a pro-apoptotic factor recruiting the apoptosome complex. Lycopene is an antioxidant protecting from oxidative stress-induced cell damage. We investigated whether lycopene inhibits amyloid-β-stimulated apoptosis through reducing ROS and inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and NF-κB-mediated Nucling expression in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells...
August 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812939/removing-dysfunctional-mitochondria-from-axons-independent-of-mitophagy-under-pathophysiological-conditions
#2
Mei-Yao Lin, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Yuxiang Xie, Qian Cai, Zu-Hang Sheng
Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in major neurodegenerative diseases. Long-term cumulative pathological stress leads to axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Therefore, the early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. We recently investigated the axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer disease (AD)-linked neurons...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812431/oral-administration-of-curcumin-attenuates-visceral-hyperalgesia-through-inhibiting-phosphorylation-of-trpv1-in-rat-model-of-ulcerative-colitis
#3
Mei Yang, Juan Wang, Chunxue Yang, Hongxiu Han, Weifang Rong, Guohua Zhang
Background Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. The present study was designed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of curcumin on visceral hyperalgesia and inflammation in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. We observed the effects of orally administered curcumin on the disease activity index, histological change in colon, colorectal distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex, the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and phosphorylated TRPV1 in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis rats...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812418/neurotoxicity-of-cgmp-in-the-vertebrate-retina-from-the-initial-research-on-rd-mutant-mice-to-zebrafish-genetic-approaches
#4
Maria Iribarne, Ichiro Masai
Zebrafish are an excellent animal model for research on vertebrate development and human diseases. Sophisticated genetic tools including large-scale mutagenesis methodology make zebrafish useful for studying neuronal degenerative diseases. Here, we review zebrafish models of inherited ophthalmic diseases, focusing on cGMP metabolism in photoreceptors. cGMP is the second messenger of phototransduction, and abnormal cGMP levels are associated with photoreceptor death. cGMP concentration represents a balance between cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) and guanylate cyclase (GC) activities in photoreceptors...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812416/role-of-branchiomotor-neurons-in-controlling-food-intake-of-zebrafish-larvae
#5
James R Allen, Kiran D Bhattacharyya, Emilia Asante, Badr Almadi, Kyle Schafer, Jeremy Davis, Jane Cox, Mark Voigt, John A Viator, Anand Chandrasekhar
The physical act of eating or feeding involves the coordinated action of several organs like eyes and jaws, and associated neural networks. Moreover, the activity of the neural networks controlling jaw movements (branchiomotor circuits) is regulated by the visual, olfactory, gustatory and hypothalamic systems, which are largely well characterized at the physiological level. By contrast, the behavioral output of the branchiomotor circuits and the functional consequences of disruption of these circuits by abnormal neural development are poorly understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812267/oxytocin-and-parental-behaviors
#6
Chihiro Yoshihara, Michael Numan, Kumi O Kuroda
The oxytocin/vasopressin ancestor molecule has been regulating reproductive and social behaviors for more than 500 million years. In all mammals, oxytocin is the hormone indispensable for milk-ejection during nursing (maternal milk provision to offspring), a process that is crucial for successful mammalian parental care. In laboratory mice, a remarkable transcriptional activation occurs during parental behavior within the anterior commissural nucleus (AC), the largest magnocellular oxytocin cell population within the medial preoptic area (although the transcriptional activation was limited to non-oxytocinergic neurons in the AC)...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812264/oxytocin-and-steroid-actions
#7
Gustav F Jirikowski, Scott D Ochs, Jack D Caldwell
Biosynthesis and secretion of the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin largely depends on steroid hormones. Estradiol, corticosterone, and vitamin D seem to be the most prominent actors. Due to their lipophilic nature, systemic steroids are thought to be capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, thus mediating central functions including neuroendocrine and behavioral control. The actual mode of action of steroids in hypothalamic circuitry is still unknown: Most of the oxytocinergic perikarya lack nuclear steroid receptors but express proteins suspected to be membrane receptors for steroids...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812263/molecular-basis-of-oxytocin-receptor-signalling-in-the-brain-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know
#8
Marta Busnelli, Bice Chini
Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in regulating the social behaviour of all vertebrates, has been proposed as a treatment for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders characterised by deficits in the social domain. Over the last few decades, advances focused on understanding the social effects of OT and its role in physiological conditions and brain diseases, but much less has been done to clarify the molecular cascade of events involved in mediating such effects and in particular the cellular and molecular pharmacology of OT and its target receptor (OTR) in neuronal and glial cells...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812237/pharmacological-effects-on-ceroid-lipofuscin-and-neuronal-structure-in-cln3-%C3%A2-ex7-8-mouse-brain-cultures
#9
Douglas E Brenneman, David A Pearce, Attila Kovacs, Shawn DeFrees
Juvenile Batten disease (JBD) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development of blindness, seizures, and progressive motor, psychiatric, and cognitive impairment. A model of JBD expressing the predominant human mutation (Cln3 (∆ex7/8) ) has been explored. Dissociated brain cultures from Cln3 (∆ex7/8) knock-in mice were compared to wild type (WT) for effects on granules of ceroid lipofuscin (CL) and neuronal structure. Utilizing high content image analysis of CL granules identified with antibodies to mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c or tripeptidyl peptidase-1, significant increases in the areas for both immunoreactive granules were observed in Cln3 (∆ex7/8) cultures in comparison to WT...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812231/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-conditioned-medium-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-impaired-by-n-acetyl-cysteine-supplementation
#10
Teodoro Palomares, María Cordero, Cristina Bruzos-Cidon, María Torrecilla, Luisa Ugedo, Ana Alonso-Varona
Oxidative stress is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation, and therefore, has been proposed as a key target for novel therapies for these diseases. Recently, adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-based cell therapy has emerged as a novel strategy for neuroprotection. In this study, we evaluate the therapeutic role of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in a new in vitro model of ec23/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Yd)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812143/serotonin-in-psychiatry-in-vitro-disease-modeling-using-patient-derived-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Krishna C Vadodaria, Shani Stern, Maria C Marchetto, Fred H Gage
Several lines of evidence implicate serotonin in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Much of our current understanding of biological mechanisms underlying serotonergic alterations in mood disorders comes from animal studies. Innovation in induced pluripotent stem cell and transdifferentiation technologies for deriving neurons from adult humans has enabled the study of disease-relevant cellular phenotypes in vitro...
August 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#12
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812062/clinical-and-experimental-studies-of-a-novel-p525r-fus-mutation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St Clair, Edward J Kasarskis, Haining Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of a novel fused in sarcoma (FUS) mutation in a young adult female amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient with rapid progression of weakness and to experimentally validate the consequences of the P525R mutation in cellular neuronal models. METHODS: We conducted sequencing of genomic DNA from the index patient and her family members. Immunocytochemistry was performed in various cellular models to determine whether the newly identified P525R mutant FUS protein accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusions...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812061/behavioral-comorbidities-and-drug-treatments-in-a-zebrafish-scn1lab-model-of-dravet-syndrome
#14
Brian P Grone, Tiange Qu, Scott C Baraban
Loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A cause Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy in which patients experience comorbid behavioral conditions, including movement disorders, sleep abnormalities, anxiety, and intellectual disability. To study the functional consequences of voltage-gated sodium channel mutations, we use zebrafish with a loss-of-function mutation in scn1lab, a zebrafish homolog of human SCN1A. Homozygous scn1lab(s552/s552) mutants exhibit early-life seizures, metabolic deficits, and early death...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812058/environmental-pollutants-and-neurodevelopment-review-of-benefits-from-closure-of-a-coal-burning-power-plant-in-tongliang-china
#15
Vrinda Kalia, Frederica Perera, Deliang Tang
Background. Understanding preventable causes of neurodevelopmental disorders is a public health priority. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from combustion of fossil fuel, lead, and mercury are among known neurodevelopmental toxicants. Method. For the first time, we comprehensively review the findings from a study by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health and Chinese partners that followed 2 groups of mother-child pairs, one from 2002 and another from 2005, in Tongliang County, China. Pregnant mothers in the 2 cohorts experienced different exposure to PAH because a local coal-burning power plant was shut down in 2004...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812049/importance-of-adiponectin-activity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Masaaki Waragai, Gilbert Ho, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Kazunari Sekiyama, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
A recent study suggested that insulin resistance may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, it is of note that upregulation of plasma adiponectin (APN), a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation, has recently been associated with the severities of amyloid deposits and cognitive deficits in the elderly, suggesting that APN may enhance the risk of AD. These results are unanticipated because AD has been linked to type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders in which hypoadiponectinemia has been firmly established, and because APN ameliorated neuropathological features in a mouse model of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811775/metformin-attenuate-ptz-induced-apoptotic-neurodegeneration-in-human-cortical-neuronal-cells
#17
Fehmida Bibi, Ikram Ullah, Myeong Ok Kim, Muhammad Imran Naseer
OBJECTIVE: Seizures are one of the neurodegenerative disorders of human being. Metformin has antioxidant properties and commonly used as an oral antidiabetic drug. The current study was aimed to observe the neuroprotective effect of metformin against PTZ-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in human cortical neuronal cell culture. METHODS: To observe that exposure of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) at the dose of (30mM) for 30 minutes induced neuronal cell death by activation of caspase-3 in human cortical neuronal 2 (HCN-2) cell line...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811673/improving-a-genetically-encoded-voltage-indicator-by-modifying-the-cytoplasmic-charge-composition
#18
Sungmoo Lee, Tristan Geiller, Arong Jung, Ryuichi Nakajima, Yoon-Kyu Song, Bradley J Baker
An improved genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI) was achieved by altering the charge composition of the region linking the voltage-sensing domain of the GEVI to a pH-sensitive fluorescent protein. Negatively charged linker segments reduced the voltage-dependent optical signal while positively charged linkers increased the signal size. Arginine scanning mutagenesis of the linker region improved the signal size of the GEVI, Bongwoori, yielding fluorescent signals as high as 20% ΔF/F during the firing of action potentials...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811669/paraventricular-thalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-reward-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling
#19
Zhi Yi Ong, Jing-Jing Liu, Zhiping P Pang, Harvey J Grill
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons receive hindbrain and hypothalamic inputs, and project to forebrain sites involved in reward and motivation function. The role of PVT in energy balance and reward control is however understudied. Given that PVT neurons express glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R), which are critical to feeding and body weight control, we tested the hypothesis that PVT GLP-1R signaling contributes to food intake and reward inhibition. To assess the hypothesis, behavioral tests including chow and high-fat diet intake, meal patterns, conditioned place preference for high-fat food, cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking, and motivation to work for sucrose were employed following intra-PVT delivery of either GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4 (Ex4), or GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-9-39 (Ex9)...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#20
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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