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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813895/customized-therapy-using-distributions-of-reaching-errors
#1
Moria F Bittmann, James L Patton, Felix C Huang
While there has been recent success with robotic therapy approaches, individual differences in motor impairments motivate the need for customized therapy. Our latest work with healthy participants considered the likelihood of one's error to construct a customized force field training environment, which we termed an error field. We believe error statistics could characterize individual motor impairments for stroke survivors. Here we present preliminary results from a pilot study testing this therapy technique on individuals following stroke...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813674/an-integrated-systems-biology-approach-identifies-trim25-as-a-key-determinant-of-breast-cancer-metastasis
#2
Logan A Walsh, Mariano J Alvarez, Erich Y Sabio, Marsha Reyngold, Vladimir Makarov, Suranjit Mukherjee, Ken-Wing Lee, Alexis Desrichard, Şevin Turcan, Martin G Dalin, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Shuibing Chen, Linda T Vahdat, Andrea Califano, Timothy A Chan
At the root of most fatal malignancies are aberrantly activated transcriptional networks that drive metastatic dissemination. Although individual metastasis-associated genes have been described, the complex regulatory networks presiding over the initiation and maintenance of metastatic tumors are still poorly understood. There is untapped value in identifying therapeutic targets that broadly govern coordinated transcriptional modules dictating metastatic progression. Here, we reverse engineered and interrogated a breast cancer-specific transcriptional interaction network (interactome) to define transcriptional control structures causally responsible for regulating genetic programs underlying breast cancer metastasis in individual patients...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813301/stress-and-child-development-a-review-of-the-family-stress-model
#3
REVIEW
April S Masarik, Rand D Conger
In the present report, we provide an illustrative review of the Family Stress Model (FSM) framework [1] to understand how family stress influences children across development in physical, social-emotional, and cognitive domains. We note that the FSM as a theory has evolved through inspection of: (a) new explanatory pathways (mediators); (b) factors that moderate FSM pathways; and (c) joint tests of competing models. Also important, most researchers cited in this review used longitudinal designs to test the proposed causal ordering of FSM pathways, which replicated among a diverse set of families varied in structure, ethnic background, and geographic location...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813258/the-added-value-of-rodent-models-in-studying-parental-influence-on-offspring-development-opportunities-limitations-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Jelle Knop, Marian Joëls, Rixt van der Veen
Over the past decades, the influence of parental care on offspring development has been a topic of extensive research in both human and animal models. Rodent models offer several unique advantages over human studies, allowing for higher levels of environmental control, exploration of interventions, genetic control and examination of underlying neurobiological mechanisms in greater spatiotemporal detail. Although exploitation of these opportunities has led to increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying susceptibility to the early-life environment, translation of results to human parenting and child development appears to be challenging...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813191/effect-and-efficiency-of-an-embedded-palliative-care-nurse-practitioner-in-an-oncology-clinic
#5
Anne M Walling, Sarah F D'Ambruoso, Jennifer L Malin, Sara Hurvitz, Ann Zisser, Anne Coscarelli, Robin Clarke, Andrew Hackbarth, Christopher Pietras, Frances Watts, Bruce Ferrell, Samuel Skootsky, Neil S Wenger
PURPOSE: To test a simultaneous care model for palliative care for patients with advanced cancer by embedding a palliative care nurse practitioner (NP) in an oncology clinic. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of the intervention in two oncologists' clinics beginning March 2014 by using implementation strategies, including use of a structured referral mechanism, routine symptom screening, integration of a psychology-based cancer supportive care center, implementation team meetings, team training, and a metrics dashboard for continuous quality improvement...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812836/understanding-internal-accountability-in-nigeria-s-routine-immunization-system-perspectives-from-government-officials-at-the-national-state-and-local-levels
#6
Daniel J Erchick, Asha S George, Chukwunonso Umeh, Chizoba Wonodi
BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage in Nigeria has remained low, and studies have identified a lack of accountability as a barrier to high performance in the immunization system. Accountability lies at the heart of various health systems strengthening efforts recently launched in Nigeria, including those related to immunization. Our aim was to understand the views of health officials on the accountability challenges hindering immunization service delivery at various levels of government...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812687/community-structure-follows-simple-assembly-rules-in-microbial-microcosms
#7
Jonathan Friedman, Logan M Higgins, Jeff Gore
Microorganisms typically form diverse communities of interacting species, whose activities have tremendous impact on the plants, animals and humans they associate with. The ability to predict the structure of these complex communities is crucial to understanding and managing them. Here, we propose a simple, qualitative assembly rule that predicts community structure from the outcomes of competitions between small sets of species, and experimentally assess its predictive power using synthetic microbial communities composed of up to eight soil bacterial species...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812313/current-and-potential-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-anxiety-symptoms-and-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-structured-review
#8
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
August 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812247/towards-robot-assisted-echocardiographic-monitoring-in-catheterization-laboratories-usability-centered-manipulator-for-transesophageal-echocardiography
#9
Christina Pahl, Henning Ebelt, Mostafa Sayahkaraji, Eko Supriyanto, Amiliana Soesanto
This paper proposes a robotic Transesophageal Echocardiography (TOE) system concept for Catheterization Laboratories. Cardiovascular disease causes one third of all global mortality. TOE is utilized to assess cardiovascular structures and monitor cardiac function during diagnostic procedures and catheter-based structural interventions. However, the operation of TOE underlies various conditions that may cause a negative impact on performance, the health of the cardiac sonographer and patient safety. These factors have been conflated and evince the potential of robot-assisted TOE...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812123/-promoting-a%C3%A2-balanced-diet-and-physical-activity-among-children-conditions-for-the-successful-implementation-and-maintenance-of-multi-level-interventions-and-policies-results-of-two-qualitative-case-studies
#10
Berit Steenbock, Saskia Muellmann, Hajo Zeeb, Claudia R Pischke
BACKGROUND: To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis...
August 15, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811919/trainee-experiences-of-intellectual-disability-psychiatry-and-an-innovative-leaderless-support-group-a-qualitative-study
#11
Ross Spackman, Hannah Toogood, Jayne Kerridge, Jon Nash, Elizabeth Anderson, Dheeraj Rai
Aims and method There is very little research into the challenges of training in intellectual disability psychiatry or into interventions which may address these challenges. Using focus groups, we explored the experiences of intellectual disability psychiatry trainees, and evaluated a leaderless trainee support group developed in Bristol. Results Five distinct themes were identified via framework analysis: that trainees felt unprepared for the difference from previous posts; the need for support; the value of the group; that trainees were concerned about judgement in supervision; that the group structure was valued...
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811835/mental-health-care-providers-perceptions-of-the-barriers-to-suicide-prevention-amongst-people-with-substance-use-disorders-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#12
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a well-established, and potentially modifiable, risk factor for suicide. Suicide prevention interventions are typically framed within the biomedical paradigm and focus on addressing individual risk factors, improving access to psychiatric care, and improving the skills of medical personnel to recognise at-risk individuals. Few studies have focused on contextual factors that hinder suicide prevention in people with substance use disorders, particularly in low-resource settings...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811774/effects-of-supervised-structured-aerobic-exercise-training-program-on-fasting-blood-glucose-level-plasma-insulin-level-glycemic-control-and-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Syed Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Hossein Karimi, Syed Amir Gillani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training (SSAET) program on fasting blood glucose level (FBGL), plasma insulin level (PIL), glycemic control (GC), and insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Riphah Rehabilitation and Research Centre (RRRC) was the clinical setting for this randomized controlled trial, located at Pakistan Railways General Hospital (PRGH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Study duration was 18 months from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811633/rapid-replacement-by-non-vaccine-pneumococcal-serotypes-may-mitigate-the-impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-ecology
#14
Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Blake Hanson, Archibald Worwui, Schadrac Agbla, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Fatima Ceesay, Chinelo Ebruke, Uzochukwu Egere, Yanjiao Zhou, Maze Ndukum, Erica Sodergren, Michael Barer, Richard Adegbola, George Weinstock, Martin Antonio
There is growing concern that interventions that alter microbial ecology can adversely affect health. We characterised the impact of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal carriage and the bacterial component of the nasopharyngeal microbiome during infancy. Newborns were recruited into three groups as follows: Group1 (n = 33) was the control group and comprised infants who received PCV7 after 6 months and came from unvaccinated communities. Group 2 (n = 30) came from unvaccinated communities and Group 3 (n = 39) came from vaccinated communities...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#15
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811322/analysis-of-sphingolipids-sterols-and-phospholipids-in-human-pathogenic-cryptococcus-strains
#16
Ashutosh Singh, Andrew MacKenzie, Geoffrey Girnun, Maurizio Del Poeta
Cryptococcus species cause invasive infections in humans. Lipids play an important role in the progression of these infections. Independent studies done by our group and others provide some detail about the functions of these lipids in Cryptococcus infections. However, pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism of these lipids are not completely understood. To thoroughly understand the physiological role of these Cryptococcus lipids, a proper structure and composition analyses of Cryptococcus lipids is demanded...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811267/app-a%C3%AE-structural-diversity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Alex E Roher, Tyler A Kokjohn, Steven G Clarke, Michael R Sierks, Chera L Maarouf, Geidy E Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810993/prevalence-and-trends-of-cigarette-smoking-among-military-personnel-in-taiwan-results-of-10-year-anti-smoking-health-promotion-programs-in-military
#18
Nain-Feng Chu, Fu-Huang Lin, Yi-Chang Wu
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and trends of cigarette smoking among young military conscripts, military officers, and military university students during recently 10 years in Taiwan. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted annually among young military conscripts and military university students from 2006 to 2014. All the young conscripts were reviewed within 1 month at the military training center and before retiring after 1 year of military services...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810990/gait-and-functional-outcomes-for-young-active-males-with-traumatic-unilateral-transfemoral-limb-loss
#19
Caitlin E Mahon, Alison L Pruziner, Brad D Hendershot, Erik J Wolf, Benjamin J Darter, K Bo Foreman, Joseph B Webster
OBJECTIVE: Altered body structures that occur with the loss of a lower limb can impact mobility and quality of life. Specifically, biomechanical changes that result from wearing a prosthesis have been associated with an increased risk of falls or joint degeneration, as well as increased energy demands. While previous studies describing these outcomes are typically limited by number of outcome measures and/or small, diverse patient groups, recent military conflicts present a unique opportunity to collect outcomes from a relatively homogenous, active patient population with limb loss...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810806/evaluating-structural-change-approaches-to-health-promotion-an-exploratory-scoping-review-of-a-decade-of-u-s-progress
#20
Yuka Asada, Lisa D Lieberman, Leah C Neubauer, Rosie Hanneke, Michael C Fagen
Structural change approaches-also known as policy and environmental changes-are becoming increasingly common in health promotion, yet our understanding of how to evaluate them is still limited. An exploratory scoping review of the literature was conducted to understand approaches and methods used to evaluate structural change interventions in health promotion and public health literature. Two analysts-along with health sciences librarian consultation-searched PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed U...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
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