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Flower structure, gene expression

Minta Chaiprasongsuk, Chi Zhang, Ping Qian, Xinlu Chen, Guanglin Li, Robert N Trigiano, Hong Guo, Feng Chen
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) exist in methyl ester forms in plants in addition to their free acid forms. The enzymes that catalyze methylation of these carboxylic acid phytohormones belong to a same protein family, the SABATH methyltransferases. While the genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated from a small number of flowering plants, little is known about their occurrence and evolution in non-flowering plants. Here, we report the systematic characterization of the SABATH family from Norway spruce (Picea abies), a gymnosperm...
March 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
Liming Miao, Yanxia Lv, Lijun Kong, Qizhen Chen, Chaoquan Chen, Jia Li, Fanhuan Zeng, Shenyun Wang, Jianbin Li, Li Huang, Jiashu Cao, Xiaolin Yu
BACKGROUND: Members of the MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family are present in various organisms and are highly conserved. Their precise biochemical functions remain unclear, especially in Chinese cabbage. Based on the whole genome sequence, this study aims to identify the MtN3/saliva/SWEETs family members in Chinese cabbage and to analyze their classification, gene structure, chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationship, expression pattern, and biological functions. RESULTS: We identified 34 SWEET genes in Chinese cabbage and analyzed their localization on chromosomes and transmembrane regions of their corresponding proteins...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ai Kanemura, Yuko Yoshikawa, Wakao Fukuda, Kanta Tsumoto, Takahiro Kenmotsu, Kenichi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Polyamines have various biological functions including marked effects on the structure and function of genomic DNA molecules. Changes in the higher-order structure of DNA caused by polyamines are expected to be closely related to genetic activity. To clarify this issue, we examined the relationship between gene expression and the higher-order structure of DNA under different polyamine concentrations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the effects of polyamines, spermidine SPD(3+) and spermine SP(4+), on gene expression by a luciferase assay...
2018: PloS One
Leandro H Estornell, Katarina Landberg, Izabela Cierlik, Eva Sundberg
In flowering plants, mature sperm cells are enclosed in pollen grains formed in structures called anthers. Several cell layers surrounding the central sporogenous cells of the anther are essential for directing the developmental processes that lead to meiosis, pollen formation, and the subsequent pollen release. The specification and function of these tissues are regulated by a large number of genetic factors. Additionally, the plant hormone auxin has previously been shown to play important roles in the later phases of anther development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dan Wang, Jietang Zhao, Bing Hu, Jiaqi Li, Yaqi Qin, Linhuan Chen, Yonghua Qin, Guibing Hu
Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC is a key enzyme that regulates sucrose biosynthesis in plants. SPS is encoded by different gene families which display differential expression patterns and functional divergence. Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of SPS gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis, rice, and sugarcane, but a comprehensive analysis of the SPS gene family in Litchi chinensis Sonn. has not yet been reported. In the current study, four SPS gene ( LcSPS1 , LcSPS2 , LcSPS3 , and LcSPS4 ) were isolated from litchi...
2018: PeerJ
Kayo Hashimoto, Shunsuke Miyashima, Kumi Sato-Nara, Toshihiro Yamada, Keiji Nakajima
The ovules of flowering plants consist of a central embryo sac and surrounding layers of the inner and outer integument. As these structural units eventually give rise to the embryo/endosperm and seed coat, respectively, a precisely organized ovule structure is essential for successful fertilization and seed production. In Arabidopsis thaliana, correct ovule patterning depends on the restricted expression of the CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIP III) gene PHABULOSA (PHB) in the apical region of the incipient inner integument, which in turn is regulated via post-transcriptional suppression by miR165 and miR166 (miR165/6) derived from multiple MIR165/6 genes...
February 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Zongda Xu, Yushu Li, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume , PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6 . The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yanli Chen, Zhaoen Yang, Yanqing Xiao, Peng Wang, Ye Wang, Xiaoyang Ge, Chaojun Zhang, Xianlong Zhang, Fuguang Li
Members of the NF-YB transcription factor gene family play important roles in diverse processes related to plant growth and development, such as seed development, drought tolerance, and flowering time. However, the function of NF-YB genes in cotton remains unclear. A total of 23, 24, and 50 NF-YB genes were identified in Gossypium arboreum (G. arboreum), Gossypium raimondii (G. raimondii), and G. hirsutum, respectively. A systematic phylogenetic analysis was carried out in G. arboretum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum, Arabidopsis thaliana, cacao, rice and, sorghum, where the 150 NF-YB genes were divided into five groups (α-ε)...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Justin Kirke, Noah Kaplan, Stephanie Velez, Xiao-Lu Jin, Paveena Vichyavichien, Xing-Hai Zhang
A promoter is an essential structural component of a gene that controls its transcription activity in different development stages and in response to various environmental stimuli. Knowledge of promoter functionality in heterologous systems is important in the study of gene regulation and biotechnological application. In order to explore the activity of the pepper capsaicin synthase gene (PUN1) promoter, gene constructs of pPUN1::GUS (for β-glucuronidase) and pPUN1::NtKED (for a tobacco wound-responsive protein) were introduced into tobacco and tomato, respectively, and their activities were examined...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Da-Hye Kim, Sangkyu Park, Jong-Yeol Lee, Sun-Hwa Ha, Sun-Hyung Lim
Flower color is a main target for flower breeding. A transgenic approach for flower color modification requires a transgene and a flower-specific promoter. Here, we expressed the B-peru gene encoding a basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF) together with the mPAP1 gene encoding an R2R3 MYB TF to enhance flower color in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), using the tobacco anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) promoter (PANS) to drive flower-specific expression. The transgenic tobacco plants grew normally and produced either dark pink (PANSBP_DP) or dark red (PANSBP_DR) flowers...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M A Filyushin, M A Slugina, A V Shchennikova, E Z Kochieva
Evolution of the genes encoding YABBY transcription factors is believed to be one of the key reasons for flat leaf emergence from the radially symmetrical stem and gynoecium diversity. YABBY genes determine the identity of the abaxial surface of all aboveground lateral organs in seed plants. In the present study, complete sequences of YABBY3-orthologous genes were identified and characterized in 13 accessions of cultivated and wild tomato species with diverse morphophysiology of leaves, flowers, and fruits...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
Encarnación Rodríguez-Cazorla, Samanta Ortuño-Miquel, Héctor Candela, Lindsay J Bailey-Steinitz, Martin F Yanofsky, Antonio Martínez-Laborda, Juan-José Ripoll, Antonio Vera
Ovules are fundamental for plant reproduction and crop yield as they are the precursors of seeds. Therefore, ovule specification is a critical developmental program. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ovule identity is redundantly conferred by the homeotic D-class genes SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), SHP2 and SEEDSTICK (STK), phylogenetically related to the MADS-domain regulatory gene AGAMOUS (AG), essential in floral organ specification. Previous studies have shown that the HUA-PEP activity, comprised of a suite of RNA-binding protein (RBP) encoding genes, regulates AG pre-mRNA processing and thus flower patterning and organ identity...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Long-Bin Shen, Yuan Yao, Huang He, Yu-Ling Qin, Zi-Ji Liu, Wei-Xia Liu, Zhi-Qiang Qi, Li-Jia Yang, Zhen-Mu Cao, Yan Yang
Alkaline/neutral invertase (NINV) proteins irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose, and play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and plant development. To investigate the role of NINVs in the development of pepper fruits, seven NINV genes (CaNINV1-7) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CaNINV family could be divided into α and β groups. CaNINV1-6 had typical conserved regions and similar protein structures to the NINVs of other plants, while CaNINV7 lacked amino acid sequences at the C-terminus and N-terminus ends...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhiyi Nie, Yihang Wang, Chuntai Wu, Yu Li, Guijuan Kang, Huaide Qin, Rizhong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are mainly involved in acyl-CoA ester binding and trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and their various functions have been characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana), Oryza sativa (rice), and other plant species. In the present study, genome-wide mining and expression analysis of ACBP genes was performed on Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree), the most important latex-producing crop in the world. RESULTS: Six members of the H...
January 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Zhi-Juan Feng, Sheng-Chun Xu, Na Liu, Gu-Wen Zhang, Qi-Zan Hu, Zhao-Shi Xu, Ya-Ming Gong
Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a highly diverse family of water channel proteins that play crucial biological functions in plant growth and development and stress physiology. In Arabidopsis, 35 AQPs are classified into four subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs and SIPs). However, knowledge about the roles of different subfamily AQPs remains limited. Here, we explored the chromosomal location, gene structure and expression patterns of all AQPs in different tissues or under different abiotic stresses based on available microarray data...
December 23, 2017: Gene
Haitao Jia, Wei Sun, Manfei Li, Zuxin Zhang
The differentiation and subsequent development of plant tissues or organs are tightly regulated at multiple levels, including the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Transcriptomes define many of the tissue-specific gene expression patterns in maize, and some key genes and their regulatory networks have been established at the transcriptional level. In this study, the sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry technique was employed as a quantitative proteome assay of four representative maize tissues, and a set of high confidence proteins were identified...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Daniel Lang, Kristian K Ullrich, Florent Murat, Jörg Fuchs, Jerry Jenkins, Fabian B Haas, Mathieu Piednoel, Heidrun Gundlach, Michiel Van Bel, Rabea Meyberg, Cristina Vives, Jordi Morata, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Manuel Hiss, Wellington Muchero, Yasuko Kamisugi, Omar Saleh, Guillaume Blanc, Eva L Decker, Nico van Gessel, Jane Grimwood, Richard D Hayes, Sean W Graham, Lee E Gunter, Stuart McDaniel, Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Anders Larsson, Fay-Wei Li, Pierre-Francois Perroud, Jeremy Phillips, Priya Ranjan, Daniel S Rokshar, Carl J Rothfels, Lucas Schneider, Shengqiang Shu, Dennis W Stevenson, Fritz Thümmler, Michael Tillich, Juan Carlos Villarreal A, Thomas Widiez, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Ann Wymore, Yong Zhang, Andreas D Zimmer, Ralph S Quatrano, Klaus F X Mayer, David Goodstein, Josep M Casacuberta, Klaas Vandepoele, Ralf Reski, Andrew C Cuming, Jerry Tuskan, Florian Maumus, Jérome Salse, Jeremy Schmutz, Stefan A Rensing
The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2,000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene- and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xinpeng Zhang, Lanyong Zhao, Zongda Xu, Xiaoyan Yu
Paeonia suffruticosa 'Shima Nishiki' is one of extremely rare double-color cultivars in the world. It usually shows the two beautiful colors of red and white in the same flower, and this trait undoubtedly makes the flowers more charming for the ornamental market. However, few studies have been done to unravel the molecular mechanisms of double-color formation in P. suffruticosa 'Shima Nishiki'. In this study, we measured the anthocyanin composition and concentration, and sequenced the transcriptomes of the red and white petals...
February 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xingwei Zheng, Xiaohua Li, Chuan Ge, Jianzhong Chang, Mengmeng Shi, Jianli Chen, Linyi Qiao, Zhijian Chang, Jun Zheng, Jiancheng Zhang
Flowering is crucial for reproductive success in flowering plant. The CCT domain-containing genes widely participate in the regulation of flowering process in various plant species. So far, the CCT family in common wheat is largely unknown. Here, we characterized the structure, organization, molecular evolution and expression of the CCT genes in Aegilops tauschii, which is the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat. Twenty-six CCT genes (AetCCT) were identified from the full genome of A. tauschii and these genes were distributed on all 7 chromosomes...
2017: PloS One
Chunmiao Jiang, Qingxi J Shen, Bo Wang, Bin He, Suqin Xiao, Ling Chen, Tengqiong Yu, Xue Ke, Qiaofang Zhong, Jian Fu, Yue Chen, Lingxian Wang, Fuyou Yin, Dunyu Zhang, Walid Ghidan, Xingqi Huang, Zaiquan Cheng
Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
2017: PloS One
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