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Flower structure, gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515730/analysis-of-mads-box-gene-family-reveals-conservation-in-floral-organ-abcde-model-of-moso-bamboo-phyllostachys-edulis
#1
Zhanchao Cheng, Wei Ge, Long Li, Dan Hou, Yanjun Ma, Jun Liu, Qingsong Bai, Xueping Li, Shaohua Mu, Jian Gao
Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKC(C), MIKC(∗), Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510193/characterization-of-lhsorp5cs-a-gene-catalyzing-proline-synthesis-in-oriental-hybrid-lily-sorbonne-molecular-modelling-and-expression-analysis
#2
Le Wang, Zhihong Guo, Yubao Zhang, Yajun Wang, Guo Yang, Liu Yang, Ruoyu Wang, Zhongkui Xie
BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth and flower production. In plants, P5CS proteins are key enzymes that catalyzed the rate-limiting steps of proline synthesis, and proline is a well-known osmoprotectant that is closely related to abiotic stress tolerance. However, information about the P5CS genes, their effects on proline accumulation, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance in Lilium is still lacking. RESULTS: We isolated and characterized a novel gene (LhSorP5CS) from Oriental hybrid lily cultivar Sorbonne...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503152/identification-classification-and-expression-analysis-of-gras-gene-family-in-malus-domestica
#3
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Cai Gao, Ming Zhao, Haiqin Wu, Youmei Li, Yawen Shen, Mingyu Han
GRAS genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development. However, little is known about the GRAS gene family in apple. In this study, 127 GRAS genes were identified in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome and named MdGRAS1 to MdGRAS127 according to their chromosomal locations. The chemical characteristics, gene structures and evolutionary relationships of the MdGRAS genes were investigated. The 127 MdGRAS genes could be grouped into eight subfamilies based on their structural features and phylogenetic relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487706/evolution-and-expression-patterns-of-cyc-tb1-genes-in-anacyclus-phylogenetic-insights-for-floral-symmetry-genes-in-asteraceae
#4
María A Bello, Pilar Cubas, Inés Álvarez, Guillermo Sanjuanbenito, Javier Fuertes-Aguilar
Homologs of the CYC/TB1 gene family have been independently recruited many times across the eudicots to control aspects of floral symmetry The family Asteraceae exhibits the largest known diversification in this gene paralog family accompanied by a parallel morphological floral richness in its specialized head-like inflorescence. In Asteraceae, whether or not CYC/TB1 gene floral symmetry function is preserved along organismic and gene lineages is unknown. In this study, we used phylogenetic, structural and expression analyses focused on the highly derived genus Anacyclus (tribe Anthemidae) to address this question...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464030/screening-candidate-micrornas-mirnas-in-different-lambskin-hair-follicles-in-hu-sheep
#5
Wen Gao, Wei Sun, Jinfeng Yin, Xiaoyang Lv, Jianjun Bao, Jiarui Yu, Lihong Wang, Chengyan Jin, Liang Hu
Hu sheep lambskin is a unique white lambskin from China that exhibits three types of flower patterns, including small waves, medium waves, and large waves, with small waves considered the best quality. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying flower pattern formation in Hu sheep lambskin is limited. The aim of the present study was to further explore the relevance between candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) and developmental characteristics of hair follicles and screen miRNAs for later functional validation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461402/stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase-mutations-uncover-an-impact-of-stearic-acid-in-leaf-and-nodule-structure
#6
Naoufal Lakhssassi, Vincent Colantonio, Nicholas David Flowers, Zhou Zhou, Jason Scott Henry, Shiming Liu, Khalid Meksem
Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SACPD-C) has been reported to control the accumulation of seed stearic acid; however, no study has previously reported its involvement in leaf stearic acid content and impact on leaf structure and morphology. A subset of an EMS mutagenized population of soybean c.v. 'Forrest' was screened to identify mutants within the GmSACPD-C gene. Using a forward genetics approach, one nonsense and four missense Gmsacpd-c mutants were identified to have high levels of seed, nodule, and leaf stearic acid content...
May 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443107/virus-based-microrna-silencing-and-overexpressing-in-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#7
Chao Jian, Ran Han, Qing Chi, Shijuan Wang, Meng Ma, Xiangli Liu, Huixian Zhao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that arise from large RNA precursors with a stem-loop structure and play important roles in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Although a hundred and nineteen wheat miRNAs have been identified and registered in the miRBase (Release 21.0, June, 2014; http://www.mirbase.org), the functional characterization of these miRNAs in wheat growth and development is lagging due to lack of effective techniques to investigate endogenous miRNA functions in wheat...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424713/comprehensive-genomic-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-phosphate-transporter-pht-gene-family-in-apple
#8
Tingting Sun, Mingjun Li, Yun Shao, Lingyan Yu, Fengwang Ma
Elemental phosphorus (Pi) is essential to plant growth and development. The family of phosphate transporters (PHTs) mediates the uptake and translocation of Pi inside the plants. Members include five sub-cellular phosphate transporters that play different roles in Pi uptake and transport. We searched the Genome Database for Rosaceae and identified five clusters of phosphate transporters in apple (Malus domestica), including 37 putative genes. The MdPHT1 family contains 14 genes while MdPHT2 has two, MdPHT3 has seven, MdPHT4 has 11, and MdPHT5 has three...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323047/biochemical-and-chemical-characterization-of-cynara-cardunculus-l-extract-and-its-potential-use-as-co-adjuvant-therapy-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Antonio Russo, Mariarita Perri, Erika Cione, Maria Luisa Di Gioia, Monica Nardi, Maria Cristina Caroleo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ancient mediterranean diet was characterized by consuming the spontaneous forms of Cynara Cardunculus L. (CCL), commonly called artichoke. Cultivated and/or spontaneous forms of CC studies have demonstrated that methanol extract of CCL flower and/or cynaropicrin showed remarkable anti-proliferative activity in vitro models of leukocyte cancer cell. AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is associated with a reciprocal translocation of the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 generating the BCR/ABL fusion gene, translated in the p210(BCR/ABL) oncoprotein kinase...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320315/comparative-transcriptome-analyses-of-flower-development-in-four-species-of-achimenes-gesneriaceae
#10
Wade R Roberts, Eric H Roalson
BACKGROUND: Flowers have an amazingly diverse display of colors and shapes, and these characteristics often vary significantly among closely related species. The evolution of diverse floral form can be thought of as an adaptive response to pollination and reproduction, but it can also be seen through the lens of morphological and developmental constraints. To explore these interactions, we use RNA-seq across species and development to investigate gene expression and sequence evolution as they relate to the evolution of the diverse flowers in a group of Neotropical plants native to Mexico-magic flowers (Achimenes, Gesneriaceae)...
March 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314937/phylogenetic-analysis-of-idd-gene-family-and-characterization-of-its-expression-in-response-to-flower-induction-in-malus
#11
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Libo Xing, Siyan Qi, Lisha Du, Haiqin Wu, Hongxia Shao, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
Although INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) genes encoding specific plant transcription factors have important roles in plant growth and development, little is known about apple IDD (MdIDD) genes and their potential functions in the flower induction. In this study, we identified 20 putative IDD genes in apple and named them according to their chromosomal locations. All identified MdIDD genes shared a conserved IDD domain. A phylogenetic analysis separated MdIDDs and other plant IDD genes into four groups. Bioinformatic analysis of chemical characteristics, gene structure, and prediction of protein-protein interactions demonstrated the functional and structural diversity of MdIDD genes...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299441/the-r2r3myb-vvmybpa1-from-grape-reprograms-the-phenylpropanoid-pathway-in-tobacco-flowers
#12
Valentina Passeri, Stefan Martens, Elisabete Carvalho, Chantal Bianchet, Francesco Damiani, Francesco Paolocci
This work shows that, in tobacco, the ectopic expression of VvMYBPA1 , a grape regulator of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, up- or down-regulates different branches of the phenylproanoid pathway, in a structure-specific fashion. Proanthocyanidins are flavonoids of paramount importance for animal and human diet. Research interest increasingly tilts towards generating crops enriched with these health-promoting compounds. Flavonoids synthesis is regulated by the MBW transcriptional complex, made of R2R3MYB, bHLH and WD40 proteins, with the MYB components liable for channeling the complex towards specific branches of the pathway...
March 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299429/anther-preferential-expressing-gene-pmr-is-essential-for-the-mitosis-of-pollen-development-in-rice
#13
Yaqin Liu, Ya Xu, Sheng Ling, Shasha Liu, Jialing Yao
Phenotype identification, expression examination, and function prediction declared that the anther-preferential expressing gene PMR may participate in regulation of male gametophyte development in rice. Male germline development in flowering plants produces the pair of sperm cells for double fertilization and the pollen mitosis is a key process of it. Although the structural features of male gametophyte have been defined, the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitotic cell cycle are not well elucidated in rice...
March 15, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261921/divergence-of-annual-and-perennial-species-in-the-brassicaceae-and-the-contribution-of-cis-acting-variation-at-flc-orthologues
#14
C Kiefer, E Severing, R Karl, S Bergonzi, M Koch, A Tresch, G Coupland
Variation in life history contributes to reproductive success in different environments. Divergence of annual and perennial angiosperm species is an extreme example that has occurred frequently. Perennials survive for several years and restrict the duration of reproduction by cycling between vegetative growth and flowering, whereas annuals live for one year and flower once. We used the tribe Arabideae (Brassicaceae) to study the divergence of seasonal flowering behavior among annual and perennial species. In perennial Brassicaceae, orthologues of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a floral inhibitor in Arabidopsis thaliana, are repressed by winter cold and reactivated in spring conferring seasonal flowering patterns, whereas in annuals they are stably repressed by cold...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244155/evolutionary-trajectories-of-duplicated-ft-homologs-and-their-roles-in-soybean-domestication
#15
Faqiang Wu, Eric J Sedivy, William Brian Price, Waseem Haider, Yoshie Hanzawa
To clarify the molecular bases of flowering time evolution in crop domestication, here we investigate the evolutionary fates of a set of four recently duplicated genes in soybean: FT2a, FT2b, FT2c and FT2d that are homologs of the floral inducer FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). While FT2a maintained the flowering inducer function, other genes went through contrasting evolutionary paths. FT2b evolved attenuated expression potentially associated with a transposon insertion in the upstream intergenic region, while FT2c and FT2d obtained a transposon insertion and structural rearrangement, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198676/global-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-extensive-gene-remodeling-alternative-splicing-and-differential-transcription-profiles-in-non-seed-vascular-plant-selaginella-moellendorffii
#16
Yan Zhu, Longxian Chen, Chengjun Zhang, Pei Hao, Xinyun Jing, Xuan Li
BACKGROUND: Selaginella moellendorffii, a lycophyte, is a model plant to study the early evolution and development of vascular plants. As the first and only sequenced lycophyte to date, the genome of S. moellendorffii revealed many conserved genes and pathways, as well as specialized genes different from flowering plants. Despite the progress made, little is known about long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) and the alternative splicing (AS) of coding genes in S. moellendorffii. Its coding gene models have not been fully validated with transcriptome data...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197167/vviaprt3-and-vvifsex-two-genes-involved-in-sex-specification-able-to-distinguish-different-flower-types-in-vitis
#17
João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Jorge Cunha, Helena G Silva, Sara Amâncio, Maria M R Costa, Margarida Rocheta
Vitis vinifera vinifera is a hermaphrodite subspecies, while its ancestor, Vitis vinifera sylvestris, is dioecious. We have identified two genes that together allow the discrimination between male, female and hermaphrodite Vitis plants. The sex locus region on chromosome 2 was screened resulting in the discovery of a new gene, VviFSEX. The same screening revealed another gene, VviAPRT3, located in the sex region, that be used as a sex marker. Both genes are good candidates to be involved in flower sex differentiation in grapevine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174623/expression-patterns-of-passiflora-edulis-apetala1-fruitfull-homologues-shed-light-onto-tendril-and-corona-identities
#18
Livia C T Scorza, Jose Hernandes-Lopes, Gladys F A Melo-de-Pinna, Marcelo C Dornelas
BACKGROUND: Passiflora (passionflowers) makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174248/mpwip-regulates-air-pore-complex-development-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#19
Victor A S Jones, Liam Dolan
The colonisation of the land by plants was accompanied by the evolution of complex tissues and multicellular structures comprising different cell types as morphological adaptations to the terrestrial environment. Here, we show that the single WIP protein in the early-diverging land plant Marchantia polymorpha L. is required for the development of the multicellular gas exchange structure: the air pore complex. This 16-cell barrel-shaped structure surrounds an opening between epidermal cells that facilitates the exchange of gases between the chamber containing the photosynthetic cells inside the plant and the air outside...
April 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120453/change-of-fate-and-staminodial-laminarity-as-potential-agents-of-floral-diversification-in-the-zingiberales
#20
Alma PIñeyro-Nelson, Ana Maria Rocha De Almeida, Chodon Sass, William James Donaldson Iles, Chelsea Dvorak Specht
The evolution of floral morphology in the monocot order Zingiberales shows a trend in which androecial whorl organs are progressively modified into variously conspicuous "petaloid" structures with differing degrees of fertility. Petaloidy of androecial members results from extensive laminarization of an otherwise radially symmetric structure. The genetic basis of the laminarization of androecial members has been addressed through recent candidate gene studies focused on understanding the spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes known to be necessary to floral organ formation...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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