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Flower structure, gene expression

Hai Du, Feng Ran, Hong-Li Dong, Jing Wen, Jia-Na Li, Zhe Liang
Cytochrome P450 93 family (CYP93) belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily plays important roles in diverse plant processes. However, no previous studies have investigated the evolution and expression of the members of this family. In this study, we performed comprehensive genome-wide analysis to identify CYP93 genes in 60 green plants. In all, 214 CYP93 proteins were identified; they were specifically found in flowering plants and could be classified into ten subfamilies-CYP93A-K, with the last two being identified first...
2016: PloS One
Michael Groszmann, Hannah L Osborn, John R Evans
Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins are of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Xunli Lu, Barbara Kracher, Isabel M L Saur, Saskia Bauer, Simon R Ellwood, Roger Wise, Takashi Yaeno, Takaki Maekawa, Paul Schulze-Lefert
Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVRa gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yang-Hsin Hsu, Takayoshi Tagami, Kana Matsunaga, Masayuki Okuyama, Takashi Suzuki, Naonobu Noda, Masahiko Suzuki, Hanako Shimura
Because structural modifications of flavonoids are closely related to their properties such as stability, solubility, flavor and coloration, characterizing the enzymes that catalyze the modification reactions can be useful for engineering agriculturally beneficial traits of flavonoids. In this work, we examined the enzymes involved in the modification pathway of highly glycosylated and acylated anthocyanins that accumulate in Lobelia erinus. Cultivar Aqua Blue (AB) of L. erinus is blue-flowered and accumulates delphinidin 3-O-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-O-malonylglucoside-3'5'-O-dihydroxycinnamoylglucoside (lobelinins) in its petals...
October 3, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Changwei Bi, Yiqing Xu, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
WRKY proteins are the zinc finger transcription factors that were first identified in plants. They can specifically interact with the W-box, which can be found in the promoter region of a large number of plant target genes, to regulate the expressions of downstream target genes. They also participate in diverse physiological and growing processes in plants. Prior to this study, a plenty of WRKY genes have been identified and characterized in herbaceous species, but there is no large-scale study of WRKY genes in willow...
2016: PeerJ
Yanchao Liu, Hong Wu, Yu Yu, Ying Huang
MRG proteins are conserved during evolution in fungi, flies, mammals and plants, and they can exhibit diversified functions. The animal MRGs were found to form various complexes to activate gene expression. Plant MRG1/2 and MRG702 were reported to be involved in the regulation of flowering time via binding to H3K36me3-marked flowering genes. Herein, we determined the crystal structure of MRG701 chromodomain (MRG701(CD)). MRG701(CD) forms a novel dimerization fold both in crystal and in solution. Moreover, we found that the dimerization of MRG chromodomains is conserved in green plants...
September 8, 2016: Protein & Cell
Shan-Shan Sun, Paul F Gugger, Qing-Feng Wang, Jin-Ming Chen
The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers...
2016: PeerJ
Yuzhen Zhou, Zongda Xu, Kai Zhao, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mazahar Moin, Achala Bakshi, Anusree Saha, Mouboni Dutta, Sheshu M Madhav, P B Kirti
Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are well-known for their role in mediating protein synthesis and maintaining the stability of the ribosomal complex, which includes small and large subunits. In the present investigation, in a genome-wide survey, we predicted that the large subunit of rice ribosomes is encoded by at least 123 genes including individual gene copies, distributed throughout the 12 chromosomes. We selected 34 candidate genes, each having 2-3 identical copies, for a detailed characterization of their gene structures, protein properties, cis-regulatory elements and comprehensive expression analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anca Macovei, Ranjan K Sahoo, Matteo Faè, Alma Balestrazzi, Daniela Carbonera, Narendra Tuteja
Senescence is a very complex process characterized by a highly regulated series of degenerative events which include changes in cell structure, metabolism and gene expression. In animals, one of the indicators of senescence is telomere shortening. In plants, this aspect is more puzzling because telomere shortening is not always correlated with senescence. In some cases, there were no differences in telomere length during plant developmental stages while in other cases both shortening and lengthening have been observed...
September 1, 2016: Protoplasma
Jiahong Yu, Yuan Cheng, Kun Feng, Meiying Ruan, Qingjing Ye, Rongqing Wang, Zhimiao Li, Guozhi Zhou, Zhuping Yao, Yuejian Yang, Hongjian Wan
The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shanshan Zhu, Yanqian Ding, Zhaoyan Yap, Yingxiong Qiu
Lindera glauca (Lauraceae) is an economically important East Asian forest tree characterized by a dioecy in China and apomixis in Japan. However, patterns of population genetic diversity and structure of this species remain unknown for this species due to a lack of efficient molecular markers. In this study, we employed Illumina sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of the female and male flower buds of L. glauca. We retrieved 59,753 and 75,075 unigenes for the female and male buds, respectively. Based on sequence similarity, 44,379 (74...
November 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Yujin Tang, Ruipu Wang, Peijie Gong, Shuxiu Li, Yuejin Wang, Chaohong Zhang
Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv...
2016: PloS One
Henrik R Hallingbäck, Johan Fogelqvist, Stephen J Powers, Juan Turrion-Gomez, Rachel Rossiter, Joanna Amey, Tom Martin, Martin Weih, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Angela Karp, Ulf Lagercrantz, Steven J Hanley, Sofia Berlin, Ann-Christin Rönnberg-Wästljung
Willow species (Salix) are important as short-rotation biomass crops for bioenergy, which creates a demand for faster genetic improvement and breeding through deployment of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). To find markers associated with important adaptive traits, such as growth and phenology, for use in MAS, we genetically dissected the trait variation of a Salix viminalis (L.) population of 323 accessions. The accessions were sampled throughout northern Europe and were established at two field sites in Pustnäs, Sweden, and at Woburn, UK, offering the opportunity to assess the impact of genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E) on trait-marker associations...
May 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
Roseeta Devi Mutum, Santosh Kumar, Sonia Balyan, Shivani Kansal, Saloni Mathur, Saurabh Raghuvanshi
MicroRNAs regulate a spectrum of developmental and biochemical processes in plants and animals. Thus, knowledge of the entire miRNome is essential to understand the complete regulatory schema of any organism. The current study attempts to unravel yet undiscovered miRNA genes in rice. Analysis of small RNA libraries from various tissues of drought-tolerant 'aus' rice variety Nagina 22 (N22) identified 71 novel miRNAs. These were validated based on precursor hairpin structure, small RNA mapping pattern, 'star' sequence, conservation and identification of targets based on degradome data...
2016: Scientific Reports
Wenjun Huang, A B M Khaldun, Jianjun Chen, Chanjuan Zhang, Haiyan Lv, Ling Yuan, Ying Wang
Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vinay Kumar Baranwal, Nisha Negi, Paramjit Khurana
Mulberry is known to be sensitive to several biotic and abiotic stresses, which in turn have a direct impact on the yield of silk, because it is the sole food source for the silk worm. WRKYs are a family of transcription factors, which play an important role in combating various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 54 genes with conserved WRKY motifs in the Morus notabilis genome. Motif searches coupled with a phylogenetic analysis revealed seven sub-groups as well as the absence of members of Group Ib in mulberry...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ruimin Gao, Peng Liu, Nadia Irwanto, De Rong Loh, Sek-Man Wong
A long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC - AP2 is upregulated and negatively correlated with AP2 gene expression with Turnip crinkle virus infection in Arabidopsis. Plant vegetative growth and floral reproductive structure were severely retarded and distorted in Turnip crinkle virus (TCV)-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to mock-inoculated plants, the stamen filaments were shorter in flowers of TCV-infected plants. However, TCV-infected plants can still produce normal seeds through artificial pollination, indicating both its pollen and stigma were biologically functional...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Jana Drabešová, Lucie Černá, Helena Mašterová, Pavla Koloušková, Martin Potocký, Helena Štorchová
The FT/TFL1 gene family controls important aspects of plant development: MFT-like genes affect germination, TFL1-like genes act as floral inhibitors, and FT-like genes are floral activators. Gene duplications produced paralogs with modified functions required by the specific lifestyles of various angiosperm species. We constructed the transcriptome of the weedy annual plant Chenopodium rubrum and used it for the comprehensive search for the FT/TFL1 genes. We analyzed their phylogenetic relationships across Amaranthaceae and all angiosperms...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Takao Koeduka, Mami Kajiyama, Takumi Furuta, Hideyuki Suzuki, Tomohiko Tsuge, Kenji Matsui
Volatile benzenoids, including methyl p-methoxybenzoate, p-anisaldehyde, and p-anisalcohol, are responsible for the sweet and characteristic fragrance of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica, Rosaceae) flowers. Although the full pathway of volatile benzenoid synthesis has yet to be elucidated, their chemical structures suggest that O-methyltransferases are present in loquat and function in the methylation of the para-OH groups. In the present study, we used RNA-sequencing to identify four loquat genes (EjOMT1, EjOMT2, EjOMT3, and EjOMT4) that encode O-methyltransferases...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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