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Flower structure, gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137608/the-pennycress-thlaspi-arvense-l-nectary-structural-and-transcriptomic-characterization
#1
Jason B Thomas, Marshall E Hampton, Kevin M Dorn, M David Marks, Clay J Carter
BACKGROUND: Pennycress [Thlaspi arvense L (Brassicaceae)] is being domesticated as a renewable biodiesel feedstock that also provides crucial ecosystems services, including as a nutritional resource for pollinators. However, its flowers produce significantly less nectar than other crop relatives in the Brassicaceae. This study was undertaken to understand the basic biology of the pennycress nectary as an initial step toward the possibility of enhancing nectar output from its flowers. RESULTS: Pennycress flowers contain four equivalent nectaries located extrastaminally at the base of the insertion sites of short and long stamens...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137155/identification-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-the-fructokinase-gene-family-in-cassava
#2
Yuan Yao, Meng-Ting Geng, Xiao-Hui Wu, Chong Sun, Yun-Lin Wang, Xia Chen, Lu Shang, Xiao-Hua Lu, Zhan Li, Rui-Mei Li, Shao-Ping Fu, Rui-Jun Duan, Jiao Liu, Xin-Wen Hu, Jian-Chun Guo
Fructokinase (FRK) proteins play important roles in catalyzing fructose phosphorylation and participate in the carbohydrate metabolism of storage organs in plants. To investigate the roles of FRKs in cassava tuber root development, seven FRK genes (MeFRK1-7) were identified, and MeFRK1-6 were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MeFRK family genes can be divided into α (MeFRK1, 2, 6, 7) and β (MeFRK3, 4, 5) groups. All the MeFRK proteins have typical conserved regions and substrate binding residues similar to those of the FRKs...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132315/comprehensive-genomic-analysis-of-the-cngc-gene-family-in-brassica-oleracea-novel-insights-into-synteny-structures-and-transcript-profiles
#3
Kaleem U Kakar, Zarqa Nawaz, Khadija Kakar, Essa Ali, Abdulwareth A Almoneafy, Raqeeb Ullah, Xue-Liang Ren, Qing-Yao Shu
BACKGROUND: The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) family affects the uptake of cations, growth, pathogen defence, and thermotolerance in plants. However, the systematic identification, origin and function of this gene family has not been performed in Brassica oleracea, an important vegetable crop and genomic model organism. RESULTS: In present study, we identified 26 CNGC genes in B. oleracea genome, which are non-randomly localized on eight chromosomes, and classified into four major (I-IV) and two sub-groups (i...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123539/the-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-drnl-modulates-gynoecium-development-and-affects-its-response-to-cytokinin
#4
Yolanda Durán-Medina, Joanna Serwatowska, J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Stefan de Folter, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez
The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121856/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-mapk-and-mapkk-gene-family-in-chinese-jujube-ziziphus-jujuba-mill
#5
Zhiguo Liu, Liman Zhang, Chaoling Xue, Hu Fang, Jin Zhao, Mengjun Liu
BACKGROUND: Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is one of the most important members in the Rhamnaceae family. The whole genome sequence and more than 30,000 proteins of Chinese jujube have been obtained in 2014. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are universal signal transduction modules in plants, which is rapidly activated under various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, there has been no comprehensive analysis of the MAPK and MAPKK gene family in Chinese jujube at the whole genome level...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119365/pectin-methylesterase-inhibitor-pmei-family-can-be-related-to-male-sterility-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#6
Chong Tan, Zhiyong Liu, Shengnan Huang, Chengyu Li, Jie Ren, Xiaoyan Tang, Wenjie Liu, Shenling Peng, Hui Feng
Pectin-related genes play significant roles in pollen development and pollen tube growth, and their allelic variations are one of the major reasons for the abnormal development of male gametophyte. Currently, little is known about the role of the PMEI family in male sterility of plants. In this study, 97 putative PMEI genes were identified in Brassica rapa genome. By a phylogenetic analysis, the PMEI family was divided into 10 clades with highly conserved structural characteristics. The publically available RNA-seq data on different tissues of B...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116064/-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-receptor-like-kinase-gene-erecta-in-mycoheterotrophic-plant-monotropa-hypopitys
#7
A V Shchennikova, E Z Kochieva, A V Beletsky, M A Filyushin, O A Shulga, N V Ravin, K G Skryabin
The precise spatial-temporal coordination of cell division and differentiation is necessary for the correct formation of tissues, organs, and the organism as a whole. This coordination has been implemented by the intercellular communication mediated by signaling molecules and receptors that selectively recognize them. Membrane receptor kinases of ERECTA family regulate inflorescence and flower structure, the formation of root epidermis and adaptation responses. The characterization of the ERECTA genes of flowering plant pinesap Monotropa hypopitys with unique development features can enrich the knowledge about the kinase ERECTA functions and conserved development processes with their participation...
September 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114014/arabidopsis-pollen-fertility-requires-the-transcription-factors-cit1-and-spl7-that-regulate-copper-delivery-to-anthers-and-jasmonic-acid-synthesis
#8
Jiapei Yan, Ju-Chen Chia, Huajin Sheng, Ha-Il Jung, Tetiana-Olena Zavodna, Zhang Lu, Rong Huang, Chen Jiao, Eric Craft, Zhangjun Fei, Leon Vincent Kochian, Olena K Vatamaniuk
A deficiency of the micronutrient copper (Cu) leads to infertility and grain/seed yield reduction in plants. How Cu affects fertility, which reproductive structures require Cu, and which transcriptional networks coordinate Cu delivery to reproductive organs is poorly understood. Using RNA-seq analysis, we showed that the expression of a gene encoding a novel transcription factor, CITF1 (Cu-deficiency Induced Transcription Factor 1), was strongly upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers subjected to Cu deficiency...
November 7, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104869/genomic-survey-characterization-and-expression-profile-analysis-of-the-sbp-genes-in-pineapple-ananas-comosus-l
#9
Hina Ali, Yanhui Liu, Syed Muhammad Azam, Zia Ur Rahman, S V G N Priyadarshani, Weimin Li, Xinyu Huang, Bingyan Hu, Junjie Xiong, Umair Ali, Yuan Qin
Gene expression is regulated by transcription factors, which play many significant developmental processes. SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins (SBP) perform a variety of regulatory functions in leaf, flower, and fruit development, plant architecture, and sporogenesis. 16 SBP genes were identified in pineapple and were divided into four groups on basis of phylogenetic analysis. Five paralogs in pineapple for SBP genes were identified with Ka/Ks ratio varied from 0.20 for AcSBP14 and AcSBP15 to 0.36 for AcSBP6 and AcSBP16, respectively...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096605/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-calmodulin-like-cml-genes-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l-ssp-pekinensis
#10
Shanshan Nie, Minjuan Zhang, Lugang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are a primary family of plant-specific Ca(2+) sensors that specifically bind to Ca(2+) and deliver a Ca(2+) signal. CML proteins have been identified and characterized in many plant species, such as the model plant Arabidopsis and rice. Based on considerable evidence, the roles of CML proteins are crucial in plant growth and development and in the response to various external stimuli. Nevertheless, the characterization and expression profiling of CML genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L...
November 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078754/comprehensive-analysis-of-gasa-family-members-in-the-malus-domestica-genome-identification-characterization-and-their-expressions-in-response-to-apple-flower-induction
#11
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Lizhi Zhang, Cai Gao, Mingzhi Xin, Muhammad Mobeen Tahir, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
BACKGROUND: The plant-specific gibberellic acid stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) gene family is critical for plant development. However, little is known about these genes, particularly in fruit tree species. RESULTS: We identified 15 putative Arabidopsis thaliana GASA (AtGASA) and 26 apple GASA (MdGASA) genes. The identified genes were then characterized (e.g., chromosomal location, structure, and evolutionary relationships). All of the identified A. thaliana and apple GASA proteins included a conserved GASA domain and exhibited similar characteristics...
October 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075872/cloning-and-characterization-of-a-monoterpene-synthase-gene-from-flowers-of-camelina-sativa
#12
Monica Borghi, De-Yu Xie
CsTPS1 encodes for a monoterpene synthase that contributes to the emission of a blend of volatile compounds emitted from flowers of Camelina sativa. The work describes the in vitro characterization of a monoterpene synthase and its regulatory region that we cloned from Camelina sativa (Camelina). Here, we named this gene as C. sativa terpene synthase 1 (CsTPS1). In vitro experiments performed with the CsTPS1 protein after expression and purification from Escherichia coli (E. coli) showed production of a blend of monoterpene volatile organic compounds, of which the emission was also detected in the floral bouquet of wild-type Camelina plants...
October 26, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066667/two-sumo-proteases-sumo-protease-related-to-fertility-1-and-2-are-required-for-fertility
#13
Linpo Liu, Ying Jiang, Xiaomei Zhang, Xu Wang, Yanbing Wang, Yuzhen Han, George Coupland, Jing Bo Jin, Iain R Searle, Yongfu Fu, Fulu Chen
In plants, the post-translational modification small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is involved in regulating several important developmental and cellular processes, including flowering-time control and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report two proteases, SUMO PROTEASE RELATED TO FERTILITY (SPF) 1 and SPF2, that regulate male and female gamete and embryo development and remove SUMO from proteins in vitro and in vivo. spf1 mutants exhibit abnormal floral structures and embryo development, while spf2 mutants exhibit largely a wild type phenotype...
October 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058037/epigenetic-regulation-of-agronomical-traits-in-brassicaceae
#14
REVIEW
Etsuko Itabashi, Kenji Osabe, Ryo Fujimoto, Tomohiro Kakizaki
Epigenetic regulation, covalent modification of DNA and changes in histone proteins are closely linked to plant development and stress response through flexibly altering the chromatin structure to regulate gene expression. In this review, we will illustrate the importance of epigenetic influences by discussing three agriculturally important traits of Brassicaceae. (1) Vernalization, an acceleration of flowering by prolonged cold exposure regulated through epigenetic silencing of a central floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C...
October 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038917/chromatin-associated-regulation-of-sorbitol-synthesis-in-flower-buds-of-peach
#15
Alba Lloret, Amparo Martínez-Fuentes, Manuel Agustí, María Luisa Badenes, Gabino Ríos
PpeS6PDH gene is postulated to mediate sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach concomitantly with specific chromatin modifications. Perennial plants have evolved an adaptive mechanism involving protection of meristems within specialized structures named buds in order to survive low temperatures and water deprivation during winter. A seasonal period of dormancy further improves tolerance of buds to environmental stresses through specific mechanisms poorly known at the molecular level. We have shown that peach PpeS6PDH gene is down-regulated in flower buds after dormancy release, concomitantly with changes in the methylation level at specific lysine residues of histone H3 (H3K27 and H3K4) in the chromatin around the translation start site of the gene...
October 16, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992179/overexpression-of-the-class-d-mads-box-gene-sl-agl11-impacts-fleshy-tissue-differentiation-and-structure-in-tomato-fruits
#16
Baowen Huang, Jean-Marc Routaboul, Mingchun Liu, Wei Deng, Elie Maza, Isabelle Mila, Guojian Hu, Mohamed Zouine, Pierre Frasse, Julia T Vrebalov, James J Giovannoni, Zhengguo Li, Benoît van der Rest, Mondher Bouzayen
MADS-box transcription factors are key elements of the genetic networks controlling flower and fruit development. Among these, the class D clade gathers AGAMOUS-like genes which are involved in seed, ovule, and funiculus development. The tomato genome comprises two class D genes, Sl-AGL11 and Sl-MBP3, both displaying high expression levels in seeds and in central tissues of young fruits. The potential effects of Sl-AGL11 on fruit development were addressed through RNAi silencing and ectopic expression strategies...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983304/acetolactate-synthase-inhibiting-gametocide-amidosulfuron-causes-chloroplast-destruction-tissue-autophagy-and-elevation-of-ethylene-release-in-rapeseed
#17
Xi-Qiong Liu, Cheng-Yu Yu, Jun-Gang Dong, Sheng-Wu Hu, Ai-Xia Xu
Background: Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides amidosulfuron (Hoestar) is an efficient gametocide that can induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). We conducted an integrated study of cytological, transcriptomic, and physiological analysis to decipher the gametocidal effect of amidosulfuron. Results: In the first several days after exposure to amidosulfuron at a gametocidal dose of ca. 1 μg per plant, the plants showed the earliest symptoms including short retard of raceme elongation, slight chlorosis on leaf, and decrease of photosynthesis rate...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961748/carbohydrate-metabolism-and-gene-regulation-during-anther-development-in-an-androdioecious-tree-tapiscia-sinensis
#18
Ke Yang, Xiaojun Zhou, Yueyue Wang, Hualing Feng, Xiaolong Ren, Huidong Liu, Wenzhe Liu
Background and Aims: Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae) is a functional androdioecious species with both male and hermaphroditic individuals, and fruit ripening overlaps with flowering in the hermaphroditic individuals. Pollen vitality was lower in the hermaphrodites than in the males. Anther development requires nutrients, and carbohydrates are the basic nutrients; abnormal carbohydrate metabolism will result in pollen abortion. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and the weakening of the male function of hermaphroditic flowers in T...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961511/identification-and-functional-prediction-of-stress-responsive-ap2-erf-transcription-factors-in-brassica-napus-by-genome-wide-analysis
#19
Hajar Owji, Ali Hajiebrahimi, Hassan Seradj, Shiva Hemmati
Using homology and domain authentication, 321 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in Brassica napus, called BnAP2/ERF TFs. BnAP2/ERF TFs were classified into five major subfamilies, including DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV, and BnSoloist. This classification is based on phylogenetic analysis, motif identification, gene structure analysis, and physiochemical characterization. These TFs were annotated based on phylogenetic relationship with Brassica rapa. BnAP2/ERF TFs were located on 19 chromosomes of B...
September 14, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959835/-cloning-and-expression-analysis-on-full-length-cds-of-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-gene-in-pseudostellaria-heterophylla
#20
Wei Zheng, Tao Zhou, Jun Li, Deng-Kai Long, Wei-Ke Jiang, Ling Ding
Zeaxanthin epoxidase plays an important role in indirect pathway of plant abscisic acid biosynthesis. According to the data of Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome, zeaxanthin epoxidase gene was isolated and named as PhZEP. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the coding sequence of PhZEP was 1 263 bp long and encoded 420 amino acids. The putative protein molecular weight was 47.34 kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.64. The characteristic structure domains were predicted, including binding site of lipoprotein and flavoprotein monooxyenase...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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