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Flower structure, gene expression

Xiaowei Lin, Dandan Gu, Hongtao Zhao, Yue Peng, Guofang Zhang, Mengge Li, Zhijuan Wang, Xiutang Wang, Sujuan Cui
Leaves are essential organs for plants. We previously identified a functional gene possibly encoding a component of the SWI/SNF complex named LFR (Leaf and Flower Related) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutants of LFR displayed obvious defects in leaf morphogenesis, indicating its vital role in leaf development. Here an allelic null mutant of ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2), as2-6, was isolated as an enhancer of lfr-1 in petiole length, vasculature pattern and leaf margin development. The lfr as2 double mutants showed enhanced ectopic expression of BP than each of the single mutant, which is consistent with their synergistic genetic enhancement in multiple BP-dependent development processes...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jinyi Liu, Xiaodong Fu, Yuwei Dong, Jun Lu, Min Ren, Ningning Zhou, Changquan Wang
MIKCC -type MADS-box (MIKCC ) genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in controlling floral organogenesis and flowering time in plants. Although this gene family has been well characterized in many plant species, its evolutionary and comprehensive functional analysis in rose is lacking. In this study, 58 non-redundant MIKCC uni-transcripts were extensively identified from rose transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes into 12 clades with their Arabidopsis and strawberry counterparts, and revealed that ABCDE model (including AP1/FUL, AP3/PI, AG, and SEP clades), and SOC1 and AGL6 clade genes have remarkably expanded in Rosa chinensis , whereas genes from the FLC and AGL17 clades were undetectable...
2018: Horticulture Research
Junyan Zhu, Xuewen Wang, Lingxiao Guo, Qingshan Xu, Shiqi Zhao, Fangdong Li, Xiaomei Yan, Shengrui Liu, Chaoling Wei
Oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and volatiles, are important for signaling in plants, and these are formed by the Lipoxygenases (LOX) enzyme family. There is a large gap in understanding of the underlying molecular basis of their roles in tea plants. Here, we identified eleven CsLOX genes from tea plant (Camellia sinensis), and characterized their phylogeny, gene structure and protein features into three subclasses. We then examined their enzymatic activities, LOX expression and alternative splicing of transcripts during development and in response to abiotic or biotic stresses in tea plants...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yu Han, Aoying Tang, Huihua Wan, Tengxun Zhang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Weiru Yang, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
Rosa chinensis , which is a famous traditional flower in China, is a major ornamental plant worldwide. Long-term cultivation and breeding have resulted in considerable changes in the number of rose petals, while most wild Rosaceae plants have only one whorl consisting of five petals. The petals of double flowers reportedly originate from stamens, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully characterized. In this study, we observed that the number of petals of R. chinensis 'Old Blush' flowers increased and decreased in response to low- and high-temperature treatments, respectively, similar to previous reports...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Junjie Cui, Shaobo Luo, Yu Niu, Rukui Huang, Qingfang Wen, Jianwen Su, Nansheng Miao, Weiming He, Zhensheng Dong, Jiaowen Cheng, Kailin Hu
Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia ) is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD)-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line 'K44' and the monoecious line 'Dali-11...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qin Zhou, Sisi Zhang, Feng Chen, Baojun Liu, Lan Wu, Fei Li, Jiaqi Zhang, Manzhu Bao, Guofeng Liu
BACKGROUND: SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) that play important roles in many growth and development processes including phase transition, leaf initiation, shoot and inflorescence branching, fruit development and ripening etc. The SBP-box gene family has been identified and characterized in many species, but has not been well studied in Petunia, an important ornamental genus. RESULTS: We identified 21 putative SPL genes of Petunia axillaris and P...
March 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
Akane Totsuka, Emi Okamoto, Taira Miyahara, Takanobu Kouno, Emilio A Cano, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Aiko Watanabe, Keisuke Tasaki, Masahiro Nishihara, Yoshihiro Ozeki
In a previous study, two genes responsible for white flower phenotypes in carnation were identified. These genes encoded enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis, namely, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and showed reduced expression in the white flower phenotypes. Here, we identify another candidate gene for white phenotype in carnation flowers using an RNA-seq analysis followed by RT-PCR. This candidate gene encodes a transcriptional regulatory factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Inna Chaban, Marat Khaliluev, Ekaterina Baranova, Neonila Kononenko, Sergey Dolgov, Elena Smirnova
Parthenocarpy and fruit malformations are common among independent transgenic tomato lines, expressing genes encoding different pathogenesis-related (PR) protein and antimicrobal peptides. Abnormal phenotype developed independently of the expression and type of target genes, but distinctive features during flower and fruit development were detected in each transgenic line. We analyzed the morphology, anatomy, and cytoembryology of abnormal flowers and fruits from these transgenic tomato lines and compared them with flowers and fruits of wild tomatoes, line YaLF used for transformation, and transgenic plants with normal phenotype...
April 21, 2018: Protoplasma
Xiaoni Zhang, Qijian Wang, Shaozong Yang, Shengnan Lin, Manzhu Bao, Mohammed Bendahmane, Quanshu Wu, Caiyun Wang, Xiaopeng Fu
Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation ( DcaMADS ) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis...
April 4, 2018: Genes
Abid Khan, Ru-Jian Li, Jian-Tian Sun, Fang Ma, Huai-Xia Zhang, Jing-Hao Jin, Muhammad Ali, Saeed Ul Haq, Jun-E Wang, Zhen-Hui Gong
The dirigent (DIR and DIR-like) proteins involved in lignification, play a pivotal role against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, no information is available about DIR gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this study, 24 putative dirigent genes (CaDIRs) were identified, their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication and phylogenetic relationship were elucidated. Tissue-specific expression analysis displayed the highest transcription levels in flower, stem and leaf. Some CaDIRs were up-regulated by virulent (CaDIR2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 14, 16, 22 and 23) and avirulent (CaDIR3, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23 and 24) Phytophthora capsici strains, as well as by Methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, NaCl and mannitol stresses...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhe Zhou, Yi Tian, Peihua Cong, Yanmin Zhu
Apple gene, MD09G1111800, was identified as a chitin binding receptor-like kinase based on sequence similarity to AtCERK1 (chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1) from Arabidopsis. Sequence analysis on genomic structure, domain composition and transcriptional response to exogenous chitin treatment indicated that MD09G1111800 is an ortholog to AtCERK1 and was therefore named as MdCERK1. Tissue specific expression patterns indicated that MdCERK1 is primarily functional in vegetative tissues of leaf and root, rather than flower, fruit and seed of apple plant...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Na Ma, Chunxiao Liu, Hui Li, Jinyan Wang, Baolong Zhang, Jing Lin, Youhong Chang
Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) are membrane-bound receptors that are believed to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, little is known about the LecRLK family in pear. In this study, a total of 172 LecRLK genes were first identified in the entire pear genome. The 172 LecRLKs were divided into three types (111 G-, 59 L- and two C-types) based on their structure and phylogenetic relationships. LecRLK gene expressions were detected in different pear tissues including roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and the most of the 11 selected LecRLKs exhibited similar expression patterns...
March 27, 2018: Gene
Muhammad Anwar, Guiqing Wang, Jiacheng Wu, Saquib Waheed, Andrew C Allan, Lihui Zeng
R2R3 MYB transcription factors play key functions in the regulation of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor NtMYB2 was identified from Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta L. var. Chinensis Roem) and functionally characterized. NtMYB2 belongs to subgroup 4 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family that are related to repressor MYBs involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and flavonoids. Transient expression confirmed that NtMYB2 strongly reduced the red pigmentation induced by MYB- anthocyanin activators in agro-infiltrated tobacco leaves...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chen-Yu Lee, Hui-Jun Lin, Kotapati Kasi Viswanath, Chih-Peng Lin, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Pei-Hsun Chiu, Chan-Tai Chiu, Ren-Huang Wang, Shih-Wen Chin, Fure-Chyi Chen
Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs) from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, including short vegetative phase-like (CpSVPL), the chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A-like (CpCAF1AL), and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (CpSERK), which contained eight sex-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the different sex types of C...
2018: PloS One
Inuk Jung, Hyejin Kang, Jang Uk Kim, Hyeonsook Chang, Sun Kim, Woosuk Jung
BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
John P Lloyd, Zing Tsung-Yeh Tsai, Rosalie P Sowers, Nicholas L Panchy, Shin-Han Shiu
With advances in transcript profiling, the presence of transcriptional activities in intergenic regions has been well established. However, whether intergenic expression reflects transcriptional noise or activity of novel genes remains unclear. We identified intergenic transcribed regions (ITRs) in 15 diverse flowering plant species and found that the amount of intergenic expression correlates with genome size, a pattern that could be expected if intergenic expression is largely nonfunctional. To further assess the functionality of ITRs, we first built machine learning models using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model that accurately distinguish functional sequences (benchmark protein-coding and RNA genes) and likely nonfunctional ones (pseudogenes and unexpressed intergenic regions) by integrating 93 biochemical, evolutionary, and sequence-structure features...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Minta Chaiprasongsuk, Chi Zhang, Ping Qian, Xinlu Chen, Guanglin Li, Robert N Trigiano, Hong Guo, Feng Chen
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) exist in methyl ester forms in plants in addition to their free acid forms. The enzymes that catalyze methylation of these carboxylic acid phytohormones belong to a same protein family, the SABATH methyltransferases. While the genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated from a small number of flowering plants, little is known about their occurrence and evolution in non-flowering plants. Here, we report the systematic characterization of the SABATH family from Norway spruce (Picea abies), a gymnosperm...
May 2018: Phytochemistry
Liming Miao, Yanxia Lv, Lijun Kong, Qizhen Chen, Chaoquan Chen, Jia Li, Fanhuan Zeng, Shenyun Wang, Jianbin Li, Li Huang, Jiashu Cao, Xiaolin Yu
BACKGROUND: Members of the MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family are present in various organisms and are highly conserved. Their precise biochemical functions remain unclear, especially in Chinese cabbage. Based on the whole genome sequence, this study aims to identify the MtN3/saliva/SWEETs family members in Chinese cabbage and to analyze their classification, gene structure, chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationship, expression pattern, and biological functions. RESULTS: We identified 34 SWEET genes in Chinese cabbage and analyzed their localization on chromosomes and transmembrane regions of their corresponding proteins...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ai Kanemura, Yuko Yoshikawa, Wakao Fukuda, Kanta Tsumoto, Takahiro Kenmotsu, Kenichi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Polyamines have various biological functions including marked effects on the structure and function of genomic DNA molecules. Changes in the higher-order structure of DNA caused by polyamines are expected to be closely related to genetic activity. To clarify this issue, we examined the relationship between gene expression and the higher-order structure of DNA under different polyamine concentrations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the effects of polyamines, spermidine SPD(3+) and spermine SP(4+), on gene expression by a luciferase assay...
2018: PloS One
Leandro H Estornell, Katarina Landberg, Izabela Cierlik, Eva Sundberg
In flowering plants, mature sperm cells are enclosed in pollen grains formed in structures called anthers. Several cell layers surrounding the central sporogenous cells of the anther are essential for directing the developmental processes that lead to meiosis, pollen formation, and the subsequent pollen release. The specification and function of these tissues are regulated by a large number of genetic factors. Additionally, the plant hormone auxin has previously been shown to play important roles in the later phases of anther development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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