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Flower structure, gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424713/comprehensive-genomic-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-phosphate-transporter-pht-gene-family-in-apple
#1
Tingting Sun, Mingjun Li, Yun Shao, Lingyan Yu, Fengwang Ma
Elemental phosphorus (Pi) is essential to plant growth and development. The family of phosphate transporters (PHTs) mediates the uptake and translocation of Pi inside the plants. Members include five sub-cellular phosphate transporters that play different roles in Pi uptake and transport. We searched the Genome Database for Rosaceae and identified five clusters of phosphate transporters in apple (Malus domestica), including 37 putative genes. The MdPHT1 family contains 14 genes while MdPHT2 has two, MdPHT3 has seven, MdPHT4 has 11, and MdPHT5 has three...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323047/biochemical-and-chemical-characterization-of-cynara-cardunculus-l-extract-and-its-potential-use-as-co-adjuvant-therapy-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#2
Antonio Russo, Mariarita Perri, Erika Cione, Maria Luisa Di Gioia, Monica Nardi, Maria Cristina Caroleo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ancient mediterranean diet was characterized by consuming the spontaneous forms of Cynara Cardunculus L. (CCL), commonly called artichoke. Cultivated and/or spontaneous forms of CC studies have demonstrated that methanol extract of CCL flower and/or cynaropicrin showed remarkable anti-proliferative activity in vitro models of leukocyte cancer cell. AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is associated with a reciprocal translocation of the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 generating the BCR/ABL fusion gene, translated in the p210(BCR/ABL) oncoprotein kinase...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320315/comparative-transcriptome-analyses-of-flower-development-in-four-species-of-achimenes-gesneriaceae
#3
Wade R Roberts, Eric H Roalson
BACKGROUND: Flowers have an amazingly diverse display of colors and shapes, and these characteristics often vary significantly among closely related species. The evolution of diverse floral form can be thought of as an adaptive response to pollination and reproduction, but it can also be seen through the lens of morphological and developmental constraints. To explore these interactions, we use RNA-seq across species and development to investigate gene expression and sequence evolution as they relate to the evolution of the diverse flowers in a group of Neotropical plants native to Mexico-magic flowers (Achimenes, Gesneriaceae)...
March 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314937/phylogenetic-analysis-of-idd-gene-family-and-characterization-of-its-expression-in-response-to-flower-induction-in-malus
#4
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Libo Xing, Siyan Qi, Lisha Du, Haiqin Wu, Hongxia Shao, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
Although INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) genes encoding specific plant transcription factors have important roles in plant growth and development, little is known about apple IDD (MdIDD) genes and their potential functions in the flower induction. In this study, we identified 20 putative IDD genes in apple and named them according to their chromosomal locations. All identified MdIDD genes shared a conserved IDD domain. A phylogenetic analysis separated MdIDDs and other plant IDD genes into four groups. Bioinformatic analysis of chemical characteristics, gene structure, and prediction of protein-protein interactions demonstrated the functional and structural diversity of MdIDD genes...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299441/the-r2r3myb-vvmybpa1-from-grape-reprograms-the-phenylpropanoid-pathway-in-tobacco-flowers
#5
Valentina Passeri, Stefan Martens, Elisabete Carvalho, Chantal Bianchet, Francesco Damiani, Francesco Paolocci
This work shows that, in tobacco, the ectopic expression of VvMYBPA1 , a grape regulator of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, up- or down-regulates different branches of the phenylproanoid pathway, in a structure-specific fashion. Proanthocyanidins are flavonoids of paramount importance for animal and human diet. Research interest increasingly tilts towards generating crops enriched with these health-promoting compounds. Flavonoids synthesis is regulated by the MBW transcriptional complex, made of R2R3MYB, bHLH and WD40 proteins, with the MYB components liable for channeling the complex towards specific branches of the pathway...
March 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299429/anther-preferential-expressing-gene-pmr-is-essential-for-the-mitosis-of-pollen-development-in-rice
#6
Yaqin Liu, Ya Xu, Sheng Ling, Shasha Liu, Jialing Yao
Phenotype identification, expression examination, and function prediction declared that the anther-preferential expressing gene PMR may participate in regulation of male gametophyte development in rice. Male germline development in flowering plants produces the pair of sperm cells for double fertilization and the pollen mitosis is a key process of it. Although the structural features of male gametophyte have been defined, the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitotic cell cycle are not well elucidated in rice...
March 15, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261921/divergence-of-annual-and-perennial-species-in-the-brassicaceae-and-the-contribution-of-cis-acting-variation-at-flc-orthologues
#7
C Kiefer, E Severing, R Karl, S Bergonzi, M Koch, A Tresch, G Coupland
Variation in life history contributes to reproductive success in different environments. Divergence of annual and perennial angiosperm species is an extreme example that has occurred frequently. Perennials survive for several years and restrict the duration of reproduction by cycling between vegetative growth and flowering, whereas annuals live for one year and flower once. We used the tribe Arabideae (Brassicaceae) to study the divergence of seasonal flowering behavior among annual and perennial species. In perennial Brassicaceae, orthologues of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a floral inhibitor in Arabidopsis thaliana, are repressed by winter cold and reactivated in spring conferring seasonal flowering patterns, whereas in annuals they are stably repressed by cold...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244155/evolutionary-trajectories-of-duplicated-ft-homologs-and-their-roles-in-soybean-domestication
#8
Faqiang Wu, Eric J Sedivy, William Brian Price, Waseem Haider, Yoshie Hanzawa
To clarify the molecular bases of flowering time evolution in crop domestication, here we investigate the evolutionary fates of a set of four recently duplicated genes in soybean: FT2a, FT2b, FT2c and FT2d that are homologs of the floral inducer FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). While FT2a maintained the flowering inducer function, other genes went through contrasting evolutionary paths. FT2b evolved attenuated expression potentially associated with a transposon insertion in the upstream intergenic region, while FT2c and FT2d obtained a transposon insertion and structural rearrangement, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198676/global-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-extensive-gene-remodeling-alternative-splicing-and-differential-transcription-profiles-in-non-seed-vascular-plant-selaginella-moellendorffii
#9
Yan Zhu, Longxian Chen, Chengjun Zhang, Pei Hao, Xinyun Jing, Xuan Li
BACKGROUND: Selaginella moellendorffii, a lycophyte, is a model plant to study the early evolution and development of vascular plants. As the first and only sequenced lycophyte to date, the genome of S. moellendorffii revealed many conserved genes and pathways, as well as specialized genes different from flowering plants. Despite the progress made, little is known about long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) and the alternative splicing (AS) of coding genes in S. moellendorffii. Its coding gene models have not been fully validated with transcriptome data...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197167/vviaprt3-and-vvifsex-two-genes-involved-in-sex-specification-able-to-distinguish-different-flower-types-in-vitis
#10
João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Jorge Cunha, Helena G Silva, Sara Amâncio, Maria M R Costa, Margarida Rocheta
Vitis vinifera vinifera is a hermaphrodite subspecies, while its ancestor, Vitis vinifera sylvestris, is dioecious. We have identified two genes that together allow the discrimination between male, female and hermaphrodite Vitis plants. The sex locus region on chromosome 2 was screened resulting in the discovery of a new gene, VviFSEX. The same screening revealed another gene, VviAPRT3, located in the sex region, that be used as a sex marker. Both genes are good candidates to be involved in flower sex differentiation in grapevine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174623/expression-patterns-of-passiflora-edulis-apetala1-fruitfull-homologues-shed-light-onto-tendril-and-corona-identities
#11
Livia C T Scorza, Jose Hernandes-Lopes, Gladys F A Melo-de-Pinna, Marcelo C Dornelas
BACKGROUND: Passiflora (passionflowers) makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174248/mpwip-regulates-air-pore-complex-development-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#12
Victor A S Jones, Liam Dolan
The colonisation of the land by plants was accompanied by the evolution of complex tissues and multicellular structures comprising different cell types as morphological adaptations to the terrestrial environment. Here we show that the single WIP protein in the early-diverging land plant Marchantia polymorpha L. is required for the development of the multicellular gas exchange structure, the air pore complex. This 16-cell barrel-shaped structure surrounds an opening between epidermal cells that facilitates the exchange of gasses between the chamber containing the photosynthetic cells inside the plant and the air outside...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120453/change-of-fate-and-staminodial-laminarity-as-potential-agents-of-floral-diversification-in-the-zingiberales
#13
Alma PIñeyro-Nelson, Ana Maria Rocha De Almeida, Chodon Sass, William James Donaldson Iles, Chelsea Dvorak Specht
The evolution of floral morphology in the monocot order Zingiberales shows a trend in which androecial whorl organs are progressively modified into variously conspicuous "petaloid" structures with differing degrees of fertility. Petaloidy of androecial members results from extensive laminarization of an otherwise radially symmetric structure. The genetic basis of the laminarization of androecial members has been addressed through recent candidate gene studies focused on understanding the spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes known to be necessary to floral organ formation...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081282/cloning-of-three-genes-involved-in-the-flavonoid-metabolic-pathway-and-their-expression-during-insect-resistance-in-pinus-massoniana-lamb
#14
Z Q Yang, H Chen, J H Tan, H L Xu, J Jia, Y H Feng
Pinus massoniana Lamb. is an important timber and turpentine-producing tree species in China. Dendrolimus punctatus and Dasychira axutha are leaf-eating pests that have harmful effects on P. massoniana production. Few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying pest resistance in P. massoniana. Based on sequencing analysis of the transcriptomes of insect-resistant P. massoniana, three key genes involved in the flavonoid metabolic pathway were identified in the present study (PmF3H, PmF3'5'H, and PmC4H)...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081202/characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-five-mads-box-b-class-genes-related-to-floral-organ-identification-in-tagetes-erecta
#15
Ye Ai, Chunling Zhang, Yalin Sun, Weining Wang, Yanhong He, Manzhu Bao
According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076366/plum-fruit-development-occurs-via-gibberellin-sensitive-and-insensitive-della-repressors
#16
Islam El-Sharkawy, Sherif Sherif, Mahboob Abdulla, Subramanian Jayasankar
Fruit growth depends on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by triggering degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which such proteins contribute to GA-mediated fruit development remains to be clarified. Three new plum genes encoding DELLA proteins, PslGAI, PslRGL and PslRGA were isolated and functionally characterized. Analysis of expression profile during fruit development suggested that PslDELLA are transcriptionally regulated during flower and fruit ontogeny with potential positive regulation by GA and ethylene, depending on organ and developmental stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999578/genome-wide-survey-of-flavonoid-biosynthesis-genes-and-gene-expression-analysis-between-black-and-yellow-seeded-brassica-napus
#17
Cunmin Qu, Huiyan Zhao, Fuyou Fu, Zhen Wang, Kai Zhang, Yan Zhou, Xin Wang, Rui Wang, Xinfu Xu, Zhanglin Tang, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Flavonoids, the compounds that impart color to fruits, flowers, and seeds, are the most widespread secondary metabolites in plants. However, a systematic analysis of these loci has not been performed in Brassicaceae. In this study, we isolated 649 nucleotide sequences related to flavonoid biosynthesis, i.e., the Transparent Testa (TT) genes, and their associated amino acid sequences in 17 Brassicaceae species, grouped into Arabidopsis or Brassicaceae subgroups. Moreover, 36 copies of 21 genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, 53 were identified in Brassica rapa, 50 in Brassica oleracea, and 95 in B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966736/identification-and-characterization-of-the-14-3-3-gene-family-in-switchgrass
#18
S Wu, H D Yan, A L Zhang, L K Huang, G H Yin, S Lee
Members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins are conserved regulatory proteins that are widely found in eukaryotes and play crucial roles in diverse physiological processes, including responses to different stresses. Although genome-wide analysis of 14-3-3 proteins has been performed in a few plant species, it has not been performed in switchgrass. In this study, we identified 21 switchgrass 14-3-3 proteins (designated PvGF14a to PvGF14u) and examined genes for improved stress tolerance in this species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to demonstrate that PvGF14 proteins can be divided into six groups, and that PvGF14 proteins belonging to each class exhibit similar gene structure...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933080/identification-of-a-dolabellane-type-diterpene-synthase-and-other-root-expressed-diterpene-synthases-in-arabidopsis
#19
Qiang Wang, Meirong Jia, Jung-Hyun Huh, Andrew Muchlinski, Reuben J Peters, Dorothea Tholl
Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913905/proteins-immunologically-related-to-map65-1-accumulate-and-localize-differentially-during-bud-development-in-vitis-vinifera-l
#20
Luigi Parrotta, Claudia Faleri, Mauro Cresti, Giampiero Cai
Various arrays of microtubules are present throughout the plant cell cycle and are involved in distinct functions. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate microtubule dynamics by acting as stabilizers, destabilizers, and promoters of microtubule dynamics. The MAP65 family is a specific group of cross-linkers required for structural maintenance of microtubules. In plants, different isoforms of MAP65 are differentially expressed according to their developmental program. In this work, we analyzed the differential distribution of proteins immunologically related to MAP65-1 during bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L...
December 2, 2016: Protoplasma
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