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Flower structure, gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900472/tissue-specific-expression-of-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-gene-variants-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#1
Jana Fišerová Jurečková, Eva Sýkorová, Said Hafidh, David Honys, Jiří Fajkus, Miloslava Fojtová
In tobacco, three sequence variants of the TERT gene have been described. We revealed unbalanced levels of TERT variant transcripts in vegetative tobacco tissues and enhanced TERT transcription and telomerase activity in reproductive tissues. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the maintenance of telomeres, structures delimiting ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. In the Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) allotetraploid plant, three sequence variants (paralogs) of the gene coding for the telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (TERT) have been described, two of them derived from the maternal N...
November 29, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898817/genome-wide-identification-of-the-ap2-erf-gene-family-involved-in-active-constituent-biosynthesis-in
#2
A J Ji, H M Luo, Z C Xu, X Zhang, Y J Zhu, B S Liao, H Yao, J Y Song, S L Chen
Tanshinones and phenolic acids are the major bioactive constituents in the traditional medicinal crop ; however, transcription factors (TFs) are seldom investigated with regard to their regulation of the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here a complete overview of the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor family in is provided, including phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs, and gene expression profiles of different organs (root, stem, leaf, flower) and root tissues (periderm, phloem, xylem)...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869146/an-ortholog-of-leafy-in-jatropha-curcas-regulates-flowering-time-and-floral-organ-development
#3
Mingyong Tang, Yan-Bin Tao, Qiantang Fu, Yaling Song, Longjian Niu, Zeng-Fu Xu
Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862469/araport11-a-complete-reannotation-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-reference-genome
#4
Chia-Yi Cheng, Vivek Krishnakumar, Agnes Chan, Françoise Thibaud-Nissen, Seth Schobel, Christopher D Town
The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is a dicot model organism for research in many aspects of plant biology. A comprehensive annotation of its genome paves the way for understanding the functions and activities of all types of transcripts, including mRNA, the various classes of non-coding RNA, and small RNA. The TAIR10 annotation update had a profound impact on Arabidopsis research but was released more than five years ago. Maintaining the accuracy of the annotation continues to be a prerequisite for future progress...
November 8, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829377/range-wide-phenotypic-and-genetic-differentiation-in-wild-sunflower
#5
Edward V McAssey, Jonathan Corbi, John M Burke
BACKGROUND: Divergent phenotypes and genotypes are key signals for identifying the targets of natural selection in locally adapted populations. Here, we used a combination of common garden phenotyping for a variety of growth, plant architecture, and seed traits, along with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to characterize range-wide patterns of diversity in 15 populations of wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) sampled along a latitudinal gradient in central North America...
November 10, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821409/the-evolution-of-inflorescence-diversity-in-the-nightshades-and-heterochrony-during-meristem-maturation
#6
Zachary H Lemmon, Soon Ju Park, Ke Jiang, Joyce Van Eck, Michael C Schatz, Zachary B Lippman
One of the most remarkable manifestations of plant evolution is the diversity for floral branching systems. These "inflorescences" arise from stem cell populations in shoot meristems that mature gradually to reproductive states in response to environmental and endogenous signals. The morphology of the shoot meristem maturation process is conserved across distantly related plants, raising the question of how diverse inflorescence architectures arise from seemingly common maturation programs. In tomato and related nightshades (Solanaceae), inflorescences range from solitary flowers to highly branched structures bearing hundreds of flowers...
November 7, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815966/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-flower-development-in-grasses
#7
Aleksandra Smoczynska, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots...
November 4, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760179/genome-wide-analysis-classification-evolution-and-expression-analysis-of-the-cytochrome-p450-93-family-in-land-plants
#8
Hai Du, Feng Ran, Hong-Li Dong, Jing Wen, Jia-Na Li, Zhe Liang
Cytochrome P450 93 family (CYP93) belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily plays important roles in diverse plant processes. However, no previous studies have investigated the evolution and expression of the members of this family. In this study, we performed comprehensive genome-wide analysis to identify CYP93 genes in 60 green plants. In all, 214 CYP93 proteins were identified; they were specifically found in flowering plants and could be classified into ten subfamilies-CYP93A-K, with the last two being identified first...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739588/carbon-dioxide-and-water-transport-through-plant-aquaporins
#9
Michael Groszmann, Hannah L Osborn, John R Evans
Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins are of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702901/allelic-barley-mla-immune-receptors-recognize-sequence-unrelated-avirulence-effectors-of-the-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#10
Xunli Lu, Barbara Kracher, Isabel M L Saur, Saskia Bauer, Simon R Ellwood, Roger Wise, Takashi Yaeno, Takaki Maekawa, Paul Schulze-Lefert
Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVRa gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696560/functional-characterization-of-udp-rhamnose-dependent-rhamnosyltransferase-involved-in-anthocyanin-modification-a-key-enzyme-determining-blue-coloration-in-lobelia-erinus
#11
Yang-Hsin Hsu, Takayoshi Tagami, Kana Matsunaga, Masayuki Okuyama, Takashi Suzuki, Naonobu Noda, Masahiko Suzuki, Hanako Shimura
Because structural modifications of flavonoids are closely related to their properties such as stability, solubility, flavor and coloration, characterizing the enzymes that catalyze the modification reactions can be useful for engineering agriculturally beneficial traits of flavonoids. In this work, we examined the enzymes involved in the modification pathway of highly glycosylated and acylated anthocyanins that accumulate in Lobelia erinus. Cultivar Aqua Blue (AB) of L. erinus is blue-flowered and accumulates delphinidin 3-O-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-O-malonylglucoside-3'5'-O-dihydroxycinnamoylglucoside (lobelinins) in its petals...
October 3, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651997/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-wrky-gene-family-in-salix-suchowensis
#12
Changwei Bi, Yiqing Xu, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
WRKY proteins are the zinc finger transcription factors that were first identified in plants. They can specifically interact with the W-box, which can be found in the promoter region of a large number of plant target genes, to regulate the expressions of downstream target genes. They also participate in diverse physiological and growing processes in plants. Prior to this study, a plenty of WRKY genes have been identified and characterized in herbaceous species, but there is no large-scale study of WRKY genes in willow...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638467/structural-studies-on-mrg701-chromodomain-reveal-a-novel-dimerization-interface-of-mrg-proteins-in-green-plants
#13
Yanchao Liu, Hong Wu, Yu Yu, Ying Huang
MRG proteins are conserved during evolution in fungi, flies, mammals and plants, and they can exhibit diversified functions. The animal MRGs were found to form various complexes to activate gene expression. Plant MRG1/2 and MRG702 were reported to be involved in the regulation of flowering time via binding to H3K36me3-marked flowering genes. Herein, we determined the crystal structure of MRG701 chromodomain (MRG701(CD)). MRG701(CD) forms a novel dimerization fold both in crystal and in solution. Moreover, we found that the dimerization of MRG chromodomains is conserved in green plants...
November 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635336/identification-of-a-r2r3-myb-gene-regulating-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-and-relationships-between-its-variation-and-flower-color-difference-in-lotus-nelumbo-adans
#14
Shan-Shan Sun, Paul F Gugger, Qing-Feng Wang, Jin-Ming Chen
The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630648/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-the-tcp-gene-family-in-prunus-mume
#15
Yuzhen Zhou, Zongda Xu, Kai Zhao, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605933/rice-ribosomal-protein-large-subunit-genes-and-their-spatio-temporal-and-stress-regulation
#16
Mazahar Moin, Achala Bakshi, Anusree Saha, Mouboni Dutta, Sheshu M Madhav, P B Kirti
Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are well-known for their role in mediating protein synthesis and maintaining the stability of the ribosomal complex, which includes small and large subunits. In the present investigation, in a genome-wide survey, we predicted that the large subunit of rice ribosomes is encoded by at least 123 genes including individual gene copies, distributed throughout the 12 chromosomes. We selected 34 candidate genes, each having 2-3 identical copies, for a detailed characterization of their gene structures, protein properties, cis-regulatory elements and comprehensive expression analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586643/overexpression-of-pdh45-or-suv3-helicases-in-rice-leads-to-delayed-leaf-senescence-associated-events
#17
Anca Macovei, Ranjan K Sahoo, Matteo Faè, Alma Balestrazzi, Daniela Carbonera, Narendra Tuteja
Senescence is a very complex process characterized by a highly regulated series of degenerative events which include changes in cell structure, metabolism and gene expression. In animals, one of the indicators of senescence is telomere shortening. In plants, this aspect is more puzzling because telomere shortening is not always correlated with senescence. In some cases, there were no differences in telomere length during plant developmental stages while in other cases both shortening and lengthening have been observed...
September 1, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582749/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-profiling-of-tomato-hsp20-gene-family-in-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#18
Jiahong Yu, Yuan Cheng, Kun Feng, Meiying Ruan, Qingjing Ye, Rongqing Wang, Zhimiao Li, Guozhi Zhou, Zhuping Yao, Yuejian Yang, Hongjian Wan
The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553669/de-novo-assembly-and-characterization-of-the-floral-transcriptome-of-an-economically-important-tree-species-lindera-glauca-lauraceae-including-the-development-of-est-ssr-markers-for-population-genetics
#19
Shanshan Zhu, Yanqian Ding, Zhaoyan Yap, Yingxiong Qiu
Lindera glauca (Lauraceae) is an economically important East Asian forest tree characterized by a dioecy in China and apomixis in Japan. However, patterns of population genetic diversity and structure of this species remain unknown for this species due to a lack of efficient molecular markers. In this study, we employed Illumina sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of the female and male flower buds of L. glauca. We retrieved 59,753 and 75,075 unigenes for the female and male buds, respectively. Based on sequence similarity, 44,379 (74...
November 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551866/gene-cloning-expression-and-enzyme-activity-of-vitis-vinifera-vacuolar-processing-enzymes-vvvpes
#20
Yujin Tang, Ruipu Wang, Peijie Gong, Shuxiu Li, Yuejin Wang, Chaohong Zhang
Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv...
2016: PloS One
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