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Hardik Ghelani, Maunik Chapala, Pinakin Jadav
Acorus calamus is a plant commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine and possesses the wide range of pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of an ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus L. (Family: Araceae) rhizome (EEAC). For diuretic activity, three doses of EEAC (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) were studied, and measurement of the urinary volume and electrolytes (Na(+) and K(+)) concentration were taken as evaluation parameters. On the other hand, ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis (0...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Yadu Nandan Dey, Garima Sharma, Manish M Wanjari, Dharmendra Kumar, Vinay Lomash, Ankush D Jadhav
CONTEXT: The tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Araceae), commonly called Suran or Jimmikand, has high medicinal value and is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of different gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the effects of extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tubers on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were orally administered methanol extract (APME) or aqueous extract (APAE) (250 and 500 mg/kg) or standard drug, prednisolone (PRDS) (4 mg/kg) for 7 days...
September 7, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
I Robène, S Bolot, O Pruvost, M Arlat, L D Noël, S Carrère, M-A Jacques, R Koebnik, L Gagnevin
We present here the draft genome sequences of bacterial pathogens of the Araceae family, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae LMG 695 and Xanthomonas campestris pv. syngonii LMG 9055, differing in host range. A comparison between genome sequences will help understand the mechanisms involved in tissue specificity and adaptation to host plants.
2016: Genome Announcements
Rajesh K Joshi
Acorus calamus Linn. of the family Araceae (Acoraceae), commonly known as Sweet Flag and Vacha. The rhizome of this plant has medicinal properties against bugs, moths, lice and emetic stomach in dyspepsia. Chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of A. calamus was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A. calamus and its major compound β-asarone were tested against five Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration rang of 5...
October 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Marwa Elsbaey, Kadria F M Ahmed, Mahmoud F Elsebai, Ahmed Zaghloul, Mohamed M A Amer, Mohamed-Farid I Lahloub
An indole alkaloid, 2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxo-acetic acid (1) isolated for the first time from nature, in addition to the nine known compounds 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (2), alocasin B (3), hyrtiosin B (4), α-monopalmitin (5), 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8Z)-2-[(2(R)-hydroctadecanoyl) amido]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (6), 3-epi-betulinic acid (7), 3-epi-ursolic acid (8), β-sitosterol (9) and β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (10) were isolated from the rhizomes of Alocasia macrorrhiza (Araceae)...
August 8, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Yadu Nandan Dey, Manish M Wanjari, Dharmendra Kumar, Vinay Lomash, Ankush D Jadhav
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Family- Araceae) is a crop of south East Asian origin. In India, its tuber is widely used in ethnomedicinal practices by different tribes for the treatment of piles (hemorrhoid). AIM: The present study evaluated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on croton oil induced hemorrhoids in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanolic extract was standardized with the major phenolic compound, betulinic acid, by HPLC...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yasuko Ito-Inaba, Hiromi Masuko-Suzuki, Haruhiko Maekawa, Masao Watanabe, Takehito Inaba
Floral thermogenesis has been found in dozens of primitive seed plants and the reproductive organs in these plants produce heat during anthesis. Thus, characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying flowering is required to fully understand the role of thermogenesis, but this aspect of thermogenic plant development is largely unknown. In this study, extensive database searches and cloning experiments suggest that thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), which is a member of the family Araceae, possesses two genes encoding phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP), FLOWERING LOCUS T (SrFT) and MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (SrMFT)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chiu-Yueh Hung, Jie Qiu, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Jianjun Chen, Farooqahmed S Kittur, Richard J Henny, Gulei Jin, Longjiang Fan, Jiahua Xie
Epipremnum aureum is an extremely popular houseplant belonging to the Araceae family of angiosperms, but it does not flower either in the wild or under cultivation. We uncovered the potential causes of its shy-flowering nature by building the transcriptome using next-generation sequencing and identifying floral-related genes that are differentially expressed between vertical growth (VG, adult) and horizontal growth (HG, juvenile) plants. Transcripts of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic gene EaGA3ox1 and GA-responsive floral meristem identity gene EaLFY were absent in both VG and HG plants, suggesting that a deficiency of bioactive GAs may be responsible for its shy-flowering nature...
2016: Scientific Reports
C O Eleazu
CONTEXT: There is paucity of information in literature on the natural products in cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta Linn (Araceae)] that confer it with biological properties. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antioxidant properties of C. esculenta and also reported for the first time the natural products in C. esculenta that justify its biological properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract (50-250 μg/mL) of C...
June 1, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Olga Olkhovych, Mykola Volkogon, Nataliya Taran, Lyudmyla Batsmanova, Inna Kravchenko
The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Olufunke Ola-Davies, O S Ajani
BACKGROUND: Sodium arsenite has been proven to be abundant in nature and released into the environment through human activities, including agricultural and industrial processes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sperm protective potential of Pistia stratiotes Linn. in arsenic-treated rats. METHODS: The sperm protective potential of P. stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) was carried out in arsenic-exposed rats using 24 male albino rats (225 to 228 g) aged between 14 and 16 weeks old...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Florian Etl, Andreas Berger, Anton Weber, Jürg Schönenberger, Stefan Dötterl
Inflorescences of Araceae pollinated by cyclocephaline scarab beetles are visited frequently by a wide array of other arthropods that exploit floral resources without taking part in pollination, including earwigs, flies, and true bugs. To date, nothing is known about the cues these insect visitors use to locate the inflorescences and whether or to what extent floral scents play a role. An aroid visited by large numbers of plant bugs (Miridae) in addition to cyclocephaline scarab beetle pollinators is the Neotropical species Dieffenbachia aurantiaca...
April 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Yadu Nandan Dey, Shivani Mahor, Dharmendra Kumar, Manish Wanjari, Sudesh Gaidhani, Ankush Jadhav
AIM: The tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Family-Araceae), commonly called suran or jimikand, has medicinal and food value. It is used in ethnomedicinal practices for correction of gastrointestinal disturbances such as constipation and hemorrhoids. The present study evaluated the effect of A. paeoniifolius tuber on gastrointestinal motor functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tuber was collected in December 2011, and its methanolic extract was standardized with the major phenolic compound, betulinic acid, by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Leticia Loss-Oliveira, Cassia Sakuragui, Maria de Lourdes Soares, Carlos G Schrago
Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America...
2016: PeerJ
Yang Luo, Peng-Fei Ma, Hong-Tao Li, Jun-Bo Yang, Hong Wang, De-Zhu Li
The predominantly aquatic order Alismatales, which includes approximately 4,500 species within Araceae, Tofieldiaceae, and the core alismatid families, is a key group in investigating the origin and early diversification of monocots. Despite their importance, phylogenetic ambiguity regarding the root of the Alismatales tree precludes answering questions about the early evolution of the order. Here, we sequenced the first complete plastid genomes from three key families in this order:Potamogeton perfoliatus(Potamogetonaceae),Sagittaria lichuanensis(Alismataceae), andTofieldia thibetica(Tofieldiaceae)...
March 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yong-Hoon Lee, Duyeol Kim, Mi Ju Lee, Myoung Jun Kim, Ho-Song Jang, Sun Hee Park, Jung-Min Lee, Hye-Yeong Lee, Cheol-Beom Park, Beom Seok Han, Woo-Chan Son, Jin Seok Kang, Jong-Koo Kang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acorus gramineus rhizoma (AGR) is the dry rhizome of Acorus gramineus Solander from the family Araceae that has been used as sedative, analgesic, diuretic, digestive and antifungal agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and the toxicity of AGR, following repeated oral administration to rats for 13 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AGR was administered by oral gavage to groups of rats (10 per group, each sex) at doses of 0 (control), 25, 74, 222, 667, or 2,000mg/kg/day, 5 times per week for 13 weeks...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Desika Moodley, Şerban Procheş, John R U Wilson
Significant progress has been made in understanding biological invasions recently, and one of the key findings is that the determinants of naturalization and invasion success vary from group to group. Here, we explore this variation for one of the largest plant families in the world, the Araceae. This group provides an excellent opportunity for identifying determinants of invasiveness in herbaceous plants, since it is one of the families most popular with horticulturalists, with species occupying various habitats and comprising many different life forms...
2016: AoB Plants
Y C Hoe, M Gibernau, A C D Maia, S Y Wong
In this study, the flowering mechanisms and pollination strategies of seven species of the highly diverse genus Homalomena (Araceae) were investigated in native populations of West Sarawak, Borneo. The floral scent compositions were also recorded for six of these species. The selected taxa belong to three out of four complexes of the section Cyrtocladon (Hanneae, Giamensis and Borneensis). The species belonging to the Hanneae complex exhibited longer anthesis (53-62 h) than those of the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes (ca...
July 2016: Plant Biology
D A N Lemos, B G A Ferreira, J D P Siqueira, M M Oliveira, A M Ferreira
The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43...
August 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Marion Chartier, Suzanne Liagre, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss, Bozena Kolano, Jean-Marie Bessière, Jürg Schönenberger, Marc Gibernau
Hybridisation is common in plants and can affect the genetic diversity and ecology of sympatric parental populations. Hybrids may resemble the parental species in their ecology, leading to competition and/or gene introgression; alternatively, they may diverge from the parental phenotypes, possibly leading to the colonisation of new ecological niches and to speciation. Here, we describe inflorescence morphology, ploidy levels, pollinator attractive scents, and pollinator guilds of natural hybrids of Arum italicum and A...
February 2016: Oecologia
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