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Adediwura Fred-Jaiyesimi, Jolaade Taiwo
AIM/BACKGROUND: Plants and plants extracts are employed in cultures for religious purposes, as beauty therapies, in the detection and management/treatment of diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: In this study, an ethnobotanical studies of plants used in detecting pregnancy in Ijebu and Remo areas of Ogun State were carried out using semi-structured to obtain demographic data, local names of plants, the morphological parts used. Furthermore, a phytochemical analysis of two of the identified plants was performed...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Letícia P Poli, Lívia G Temponi, Alessandra I Coan
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Anthurium is the largest genus of Araceae, with 950 species distributed in the neotropics. Despite the great diversity of the genus, the knowledge of its floral vasculature is based on observations in only two species, viz. A. denudatum and A. lhotzkyanum, with remarkable variation in vascular carpellary supply: carpels are either vascularized by ventral bundles alone or by reduced dorsal bundles in addition to the ventral ones. Our main objective is to test this peculiar variation through a detailed anatomical study of the floral vasculature in taxa belonging to some sections of Anthurium designated as monophyletic groups in recent phylogenies...
2017: PeerJ
Zhe Cao, Shunzhao Sui, Qian Yang, Zhanao Deng
Modern cultivated caladiums (Caladium×hortulanum) are grown for their long-lasting and colorful leaves. Understanding the mode of inheritance for caladium leaf characteristics is critical for plant breeders to select appropriate parents, predict progeny performance, estimate breeding population sizes needed, and increase breeding efficiencies. This study was conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of two leaf background colors (lemon and green) in caladium and to understand their relationships with four other important leaf characteristics including leaf shape, main vein color, spotting, and rugosity...
2017: Horticulture Research
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Beatriz de Sousa E Lima, Anthônio Nunes Moreira Netto, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
We identified AOX2 genes in monocot species from Lemnoideae (Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata), Pothoideae (Anthurium andraeanum and Anthurium amnicola) and Monsteroideae (Epipremnum aureum) subfamilies within the Araceae, an early-diverging monocot family. These findings highlight the presence of AOX2 in the most ancient monocot ancestor and also that at least partial loss of this gene occurred during speciation events within several monocot orders. The presence of AOX2 in monocot species challenges (1) new understanding of the evolutionary history of the AOX gene family in angiosperms and (2) drives experimental and bioinformatics efforts to explore functional relevance of the two AOX gene family members for plant growth and development...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Patrícia Gonçalves-Souza, Clemens Schlindwein, Stefan Dötterl, Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva
Background and Aims: Araceae species pollinated by nocturnal Cyclocephalini beetles attract their pollinators by inflorescence scents. In Philodendron , despite the intense odour, the osmophores exhibit no definite morphological identity, making them difficult to locate. This may explain why structural studies of the scent-releasing tissue are not available so far. Methods: Several approaches were employed for locating and understanding the osmophores of Philodendron adamantinum ...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
Katarzyna Bandurska, Agnieszka Berdowska, Małgorzata Król
For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions...
December 20, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Elena Martinez-Klimova, Karol Rodríguez-Peña, Sergio Sánchez
Until a viable alternative can be accessible, the emergence of resistance to antimicrobials requires the constant development of new antibiotics. Recent scientific efforts have been aimed at the bioprospecting of microorganisms' secondary metabolites, with special emphasis on the search for antimicrobial natural products derived from endophytes. Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of plants without causing apparent harm to the plant. The present review article compiles recent (2006-2016) literature to provide an update on endophyte research aimed at finding metabolites with antibiotic activities...
October 27, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Michal Korinek, Kuan-Ming Chen, Yu-Han Jiang, Mohamed El-Shazly, Joel Stocker, Chon-Kit Chou, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yang-Chang Wu, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang
BACKGROUND: Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan (Araceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb possessing detumescent, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory activities. It is used in Taiwan as a folk medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Typhonium blumei is usually not distinguished from Typhonium roxburghii Schott and they are commonly used interchangeably. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of T...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Hardik Ghelani, Maunik Chapala, Pinakin Jadav
Acorus calamus is a plant commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine and possesses the wide range of pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of an ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus L. (Family: Araceae) rhizome (EEAC). For diuretic activity, three doses of EEAC (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) were studied, and measurement of the urinary volume and electrolytes (Na(+) and K(+)) concentration were taken as evaluation parameters. On the other hand, ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis (0...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Yadu Nandan Dey, Garima Sharma, Manish M Wanjari, Dharmendra Kumar, Vinay Lomash, Ankush D Jadhav
CONTEXT: The tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Araceae), commonly called Suran or Jimmikand, has high medicinal value and is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of different gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the effects of extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tubers on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were orally administered methanol extract (APME) or aqueous extract (APAE) (250 and 500 mg/kg) or standard drug, prednisolone (PRDS) (4 mg/kg) for 7 days...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
I Robène, S Bolot, O Pruvost, M Arlat, L D Noël, S Carrère, M-A Jacques, R Koebnik, L Gagnevin
We present here the draft genome sequences of bacterial pathogens of the Araceae family, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae LMG 695 and Xanthomonas campestris pv. syngonii LMG 9055, differing in host range. A comparison between genome sequences will help understand the mechanisms involved in tissue specificity and adaptation to host plants.
2016: Genome Announcements
Rajesh K Joshi
Acorus calamus Linn. of the family Araceae (Acoraceae), commonly known as Sweet Flag and Vacha. The rhizome of this plant has medicinal properties against bugs, moths, lice and emetic stomach in dyspepsia. Chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of A. calamus was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A. calamus and its major compound β-asarone were tested against five Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration rang of 5...
October 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Marwa Elsbaey, Kadria F M Ahmed, Mahmoud F Elsebai, Ahmed Zaghloul, Mohamed M A Amer, Mohamed-Farid I Lahloub
An indole alkaloid, 2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxo-acetic acid (1) isolated for the first time from nature, in addition to the nine known compounds 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (2), alocasin B (3), hyrtiosin B (4), α-monopalmitin (5), 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8Z)-2-[(2(R)-hydroctadecanoyl) amido]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (6), 3-epi-betulinic acid (7), 3-epi-ursolic acid (8), β-sitosterol (9) and β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (10) were isolated from the rhizomes of Alocasia macrorrhiza (Araceae)...
January 1, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Yadu Nandan Dey, Manish M Wanjari, Dharmendra Kumar, Vinay Lomash, Ankush D Jadhav
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Family- Araceae) is a crop of south East Asian origin. In India, its tuber is widely used in ethnomedicinal practices by different tribes for the treatment of piles (hemorrhoids). AIM: The present study evaluated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on croton oil induced hemorrhoids in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanolic extract was standardized with the major phenolic compound, betulinic acid, by HPLC...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yasuko Ito-Inaba, Hiromi Masuko-Suzuki, Haruhiko Maekawa, Masao Watanabe, Takehito Inaba
Floral thermogenesis has been found in dozens of primitive seed plants and the reproductive organs in these plants produce heat during anthesis. Thus, characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying flowering is required to fully understand the role of thermogenesis, but this aspect of thermogenic plant development is largely unknown. In this study, extensive database searches and cloning experiments suggest that thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), which is a member of the family Araceae, possesses two genes encoding phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP), FLOWERING LOCUS T (SrFT) and MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (SrMFT)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chiu-Yueh Hung, Jie Qiu, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Jianjun Chen, Farooqahmed S Kittur, Richard J Henny, Gulei Jin, Longjiang Fan, Jiahua Xie
Epipremnum aureum is an extremely popular houseplant belonging to the Araceae family of angiosperms, but it does not flower either in the wild or under cultivation. We uncovered the potential causes of its shy-flowering nature by building the transcriptome using next-generation sequencing and identifying floral-related genes that are differentially expressed between vertical growth (VG, adult) and horizontal growth (HG, juvenile) plants. Transcripts of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic gene EaGA3ox1 and GA-responsive floral meristem identity gene EaLFY were absent in both VG and HG plants, suggesting that a deficiency of bioactive GAs may be responsible for its shy-flowering nature...
2016: Scientific Reports
C O Eleazu
CONTEXT: There is paucity of information in literature on the natural products in cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta Linn (Araceae)] that confer it with biological properties. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antioxidant properties of C. esculenta and also reported for the first time the natural products in C. esculenta that justify its biological properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract (50-250 μg/mL) of C...
December 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Olga Olkhovych, Mykola Volkogon, Nataliya Taran, Lyudmyla Batsmanova, Inna Kravchenko
The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Olufunke Ola-Davies, O Samuel Ajani
BACKGROUND: Sodium arsenite has been proven to be abundant in nature and released into the environment through human activities, including agricultural and industrial processes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sperm protective potential of Pistia stratiotes Linn. in arsenic-treated rats. METHODS: The sperm protective potential of P. stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) was carried out in arsenic-exposed rats using 24 male albino rats (225 to 228 g) aged between 14 and 16 weeks old...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Florian Etl, Andreas Berger, Anton Weber, Jürg Schönenberger, Stefan Dötterl
Inflorescences of Araceae pollinated by cyclocephaline scarab beetles are visited frequently by a wide array of other arthropods that exploit floral resources without taking part in pollination, including earwigs, flies, and true bugs. To date, nothing is known about the cues these insect visitors use to locate the inflorescences and whether or to what extent floral scents play a role. An aroid visited by large numbers of plant bugs (Miridae) in addition to cyclocephaline scarab beetle pollinators is the Neotropical species Dieffenbachia aurantiaca...
April 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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