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Anthocyanin, regulation

Lillian Oglesby, Anthony Ananga, James Obuya, Joel Ochieng, Ernst Cebert, Violeta Tsolova
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Borja Sánchez, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Abelardo Margolles, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia González
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formation by intestinal bacteria is regulated by many different factors, among which dietary fibre is currently receiving most attention. However, since fibre-rich foods are usually good dietary sources of phenolic compounds, which are also known to affect the microbiota, authors hypothesize that the regular intake of these bioactive compounds could be associated with a modulation of faecal SCFA production by the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: In this work, food intake was recorded by means of a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Nicole Regier, Rebecca Beauvais-Flück, Vera I Slaveykova, Claudia Cosio
The hypothesis that increased UV radiation result in co-tolerance to Hg toxicity in aquatic plants was studied at the physiological and transcriptomic level in Elodea nuttallii. At the transcriptomic level, combined exposure to UV+Hg enhanced the stress response in comparison with single treatments, affecting the expression level of transcripts involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, nutrition, and redox homeostasis. Single and combined UV and Hg treatments dysregulated different genes but with similar functions, suggesting a fine regulation of the plant to stresses triggered by Hg, UV and their combination but lack of co-tolerance...
October 6, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Chaoyang Hu, Quanlin Li, Xuefang Shen, Sheng Quan, Hong Lin, Lei Duan, Yifa Wang, Qian Luo, Guorun Qu, Qing Han, Yuan Lu, Dabing Zhang, Zheng Yuan, Jianxin Shi
Elucidation of the metabolic pathways determining pigmentation and their underlying regulatory mechanisms in maize kernels is of high importance in attempts to improve the nutritional composition of our food. In this study, we compared dynamics in the transcriptome and metabolome between colored SW93 and white SW48 by integrating RNA-Seq and non-targeted metabolomics. Our data revealed that expression of enzyme coding genes and levels of primary metabolites decreased gradually from 11 to 21 DAP, corresponding well with the physiological change of developing maize kernels from differentiation through reserve accumulation to maturation, which was cultivar independent...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xin-Yu Yuan, Rui-Heng Wang, Xiao-Dan Zhao, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins...
2016: PloS One
Tahir Ali, Min Ju Kim, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ashfaq Ahmad, Myeong Ok Kim
Nanomedicine is an emerging research area. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of anthocyanin-loaded polyethylene glycol-gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) for enhancing the neuroprotective efficacy of anthocyanins in an amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. We observed that both anthocyanin-loaded PEG-AuNPs and anthocyanins treatment (12 μg/g/day for 14 days) ameliorated memory impairments in the Aβ1-42-injected mice. However, the anthocyanin-loaded PEG-AuNPs were more effective than free anthocyanins...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Lingli Li, Hehua Zhang, Zhongshuai Liu, Xiaoyue Cui, Tong Zhang, Yanfang Li, Lingyun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Blueberry is an economically important fruit crop in Ericaceae family. The substantial quantities of flavonoids in blueberry have been implicated in a broad range of health benefits. However, the information regarding fruit development and flavonoid metabolites based on the transcriptome level is still limited. In the present study, the transcriptome and gene expression profiling over berry development, especially during color development were initiated. RESULTS: A total of approximately 13...
October 12, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Runze Yu, Michael G Cook, Ralph S Yacco, Aude Annie Watrelot, Gregory Gambetta, James A Kennedy, S Kaan Kurtural
The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) fruit zone light exposure and water deficits and the resulting berry flavonoid composition were investigated in a hot climate. The experimental design involved application of mechanical leaf removal (control, pre-bloom, post-fruit set) and differing water deficits (sustained deficit irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation). Flavonol and anthocyanin concentration was measured by C18 reversed-phased HPLC and increased with pre-bloom leaf removal in 2013, but with post-fruit set leaf removal in 2014...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sylvia Bolt, Ellen Zuther, Stefanie Zintl, Dirk K Hincha, Thomas Schmülling
Tolerance of and acclimation to low temperatures are important for plant performance. Transcriptional regulation is part of the plant´s response to low temperatures but only a portion of the relevant transcription factors are known. In this work, we report the characterization of a transcription factor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR105 (ERF105), which has a particularly relevant function in the cold stress response. Expression analyses revealed that ERF105 is early and transiently upregulated by cold. In electrolyte leakage and plant survival tests, loss-of-function and gain-of-function (overexpressing) plants of ERF105 showed reduced and enhanced freezing tolerance, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Qingbo Chen, Cong Man, Danning Li, Huijuan Tan, Ye Xie, Jirong Huang
Anthocyanins, a group of L-phenylalanine (Phe)-derived flavonoids, have been demonstrated to play important roles in plant resistance to stress and interactions between plants and animals. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory mechanisms have been extensively studied, it remains unclear whether the level of Phe supply affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the roles of arogenate dehydratase (ADT), which is the key enzyme that turns arogenate into Phe, in sucrose-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Plant
Olesya Yu Shoeva, Hans-Peter Mock, Tatjana V Kukoeva, Andreas Börner, Elena K Khlestkina
Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare 'Bowman' near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains...
2016: PloS One
Yue Wang, Xia-Nan Zhang, Wen-Hua Xie, Yi-Xiong Zheng, Jin-Ping Cao, Pei-Rang Cao, Qing-Jun Chen, Xian Li, Chong-de Sun
To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers...
2016: Nutrients
Rodrigo Alonso, Federico J Berli, Ariel Fontana, Patricia Piccoli, Rubén Bottini
High-altitude vineyards receive elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) levels so producing high quality berries for winemaking because of induction in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Water deficit (D) after veraison, is a commonly used tool to regulate berry polyphenols concentration in red wine cultivars. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the acclimation to environmental factors/signals (including UV-B and D). The aim of the present study was to evaluate independent and interactive effects of high-altitude solar UV-B, moderate water deficit and ABA applications on Vitis vinifera cv...
September 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shan-Shan Sun, Paul F Gugger, Qing-Feng Wang, Jin-Ming Chen
The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers...
2016: PeerJ
Jian Du, Jiyan Leng, Li Zhang, Guangxin Bai, Di Yang, Huan Lin, Junjie Qin
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry anthocyanin (BBA) on Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and its regulation mechanisms involving Bax and Caspase 3. MATERIAL AND METHODS HUVECs were first treated by different concentrations of Ang II (10-9, 10-8, 10-7, 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/L) and BBA (80, 40, 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 μg/ml). After 24 h and 48 h of treatment, MTT was performed to detect the viability of HUVECs...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Hui Peng, Tianbao Yang, Bruce D Whitaker, Lingfei Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
BACKGROUND: UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) is a key enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, which by catalyzing glycosylation of anthocyanidins increases their solubility and accumulation in plants. Previously we showed that pre-harvest spray of CaCl2 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in strawberry fruit by stimulating the expression of anthocyanin structural genes including a fruit specific FvUGT1. RESULTS: To further understand the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, we conducted kinetic analysis of recombinant FvUGT1 on glycosylation of pelargonidin, the major anthocyanidin in strawberry fruit...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Mária Šmehilová, Jana Dobrůšková, Ondřej Novák, Tomáš Takáč, Petr Galuszka
Plant hormones cytokinins (CKs) are one of the major mediators of physiological responses throughout plant life span. Therefore, a proper homeostasis is maintained by regulation of their active levels. Besides degradation, CKs are deactivated by uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Physiologically, CKs active levels decline in senescing organs, providing a signal to nutrients that a shift to reproductive tissues has begun. In this work, we show CK glucosides distribution in Arabidopsis leaves during major developmental transition phases...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pan Li, Yan-Jie Li, Feng-Ju Zhang, Gui-Zhi Zhang, Xiao-Yi Jiang, Hui-Min Yu, Bing-Kai Hou
The plant family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the biggest GT family in plants, which are responsible for transferring sugar moieties onto a variety of small molecules, and control many metabolic processes. However, their physiological significance in planta is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that two Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase genes, UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, could be strongly induced by various abiotic stresses, including cold, salt and drought stresses. Overexpression of UGT79B2/B3 significantly enhanced plant tolerance to low temperatures as well as drought and salt stresses, while the ugt79b2/b3 double mutants generated by RNAi (RNA interference) and CRISPR-Cas9 strategies were more susceptible to adverse conditions...
September 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lulu Xie, Fei Li, Shifan Zhang, Hui Zhang, Wei Qian, Peirong Li, Shujiang Zhang, Rifei Sun
Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei Tang, Yi Zheng, Jing Dong, Jia Yu, Junyang Yue, Fangfang Liu, Xiuhong Guo, Shengxiong Huang, Michael Wisniewski, Jiaqi Sun, Xiangli Niu, Jian Ding, Jia Liu, Zhangjun Fei, Yongsheng Liu
Genomic and transcriptomic data on kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) in public databases are very limited despite its nutritional and economic value. Previously, we have constructed and sequenced nine fruit RNA-Seq libraries of A. chinensis "Hongyang" at immature, mature, and postharvest ripening stages of fruit development, and generated over 66.2 million paired-end and 24.4 million single-end reads. From this dataset, here we have identified 7051 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), 29,327 alternative splicing (AS) events and 2980 novel protein-coding genes that were not annotated in the draft genome of "Hongyang...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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