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Anthocyanin, regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#1
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095782/genome-scale-transcriptional-study-of-hybrid-effects-and-regulatory-divergence-in-an-f1-hybrid-ruellia-wild-petunias-acanthaceae-and-its-parents
#2
Yongbin Zhuang, Erin A Tripp
BACKGROUND: New combinations of divergent genomes can give rise to novel genetic functions in resulting hybrid progeny. Such functions may yield opportunities for ecological divergence, contributing ultimately to reproductive isolation and evolutionary longevity of nascent hybrid lineages. In plants, the degree to which transgressive genotypes contribute to floral novelty remains a question of key interest. Here, we generated an F1 hybrid plant between the red-flowered Ruellia elegans and yellow flowered R...
January 17, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086798/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-seedling-traits-in-diverse-sorghum-germplasm-under-thermal-stress
#3
Ratan Chopra, Gloria Burow, John J Burke, Nicholas Gladman, Zhanguo Xin
BACKGROUND: Climate variability due to fluctuation in temperature is a worldwide concern that imperils crop production. The need to understand how the germplasm variation in major crops can be utilized to aid in discovering and developing breeding lines that can withstand and adapt to temperature fluctuations is more necessary than ever. Here, we analyzed the genetic variation associated with responses to thermal stresses in a sorghum association panel (SAP) representing major races and working groups to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with resilience to temperature stress in a major cereal crop...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081181/aronia-melanocarpa-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-ppar%C3%AE-2-downregulation
#4
Chung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hee Kim, Eun Byul Lee, Wonhee Hur, Oh-Joo Kwon, Hyoung-Jin Park, Seung Kew Yoon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich foods may improve hyperlipidemia and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. Here, effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AM), known to be rich of anthocyanins, on hepatic lipid metabolism and adipogenic genes were determined. AM was treated to C57BL/6N mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or to FL83B cells treated with free fatty acid (FFA). Changes in levels of lipids, enzymes and hormones were observed, and expressions of adipogenic genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were detected by PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073698/ectopic-expression-of-an-apple-cytochrome-p450-gene-mdcypm1-negatively-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#5
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cytochrome P450s play an important role in plant growth and are involved in multiple stresses response. However, little is known about the functions of cytochrome P450s in apple. Here, a Malus × domestica cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1 gene, MdCYPM1, was identified and subsequently cloned from apple 'Gala' (Malus × domestica). To verify the functions of MdCYPM1, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the apple MdCYPM1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter...
January 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051907/novel-r2r3-myb-transcription-factors-from-prunus-americana-regulate-differential-patterns-of-anthocyanin-accumulation-in-tobacco-and-citrus
#6
Kasturi Dasgupta, Roger Thilmony, Ed Stover, Maria Luiza Oliveira, James Thomson
The level of anthocyanins in plants vary widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the expression of various MYBs regulate anthocyanin pigmentation during growth and development. Here we examine the activity of three novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) genes, PamMybA.1, PamMybA.3 and PamMybA.5 from Prunus americana. The anthocyanin accumulation patterns mediated by CaMV double35S promoter (db35Sp) controlled expression of the TFs in transgenic tobacco were compared to citrus-MoroMybA, Arabidopsis-AtMybA1 and grapevine-VvMybA1 transgenics during their entire growth cycles...
January 4, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040469/the-chilean-superfruit-black-berry-aristotelia-chilensis-elaeocarpaceae-maqui-as-mediator-in-inflammation-associated-disorders
#7
Carlos L Cespedes, Natalia Pavon, Mariana Dominguez, Julio Alarcon, Cristian Balbontin, Isao Kubo, Mohammed El-Hafidi, Jose G Avila
The effects of phytochemicals occurred in fractions and extracts of fruits of "Maqui-berry" (Aristotelia chilensis), on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible-nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and the production of proinflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW-264 cells, as well as their antioxidant activities. The MeOH extract (A), acetone/methanol extract (B), fractions F3, F4, subfractions (SF4-SF6, SF7, SF8-SF10, SF11-SF15, SF16-SF20), quercetin, gallic acid, luteolin, myricetin, mixtures M1, M2 and M3 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities...
December 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036083/isolation-of-chs-gene-from-brunfelsia-acuminata-flowers-and-its-regulation-in-anthocyanin-biosysthesis
#8
Min Li, Yu-Ting Cao, Si-Rui Ye, Muhammad Irshad, Teng-Fei Pan, Dong-Liang Qiu
Chalcone synthase gene (BaCHS) from Brunfelsia acuminata flowers was isolated using RT-PCR and RACE. The coding region of the gene is 1425-bp with an open reading frame of 1170-bp, 73-bp 5'UTR, and 172-bp 3'UTR. Its deduced protein does not have a signal peptide but does contain a cond_enzyme superfamily domain, and consists of 389 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 42,699 Da and a pI of 6.57. The deduced amino acid sequence of BaCHS shares 90%, 88%, 85%, 84% and 79% identity with CHS from Petunia hybrida, Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum and Camellia sinensis, respectively...
December 29, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018414/mads-box-genes-and-gibberellins-regulate-bolting-in-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#9
Yingyan Han, Zijing Chen, Shanshan Lv, Kang Ning, Xueliang Ji, Xueying Liu, Qian Wang, Renyi Liu, Shuangxi Fan, Xiaolan Zhang
Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018399/the-onion-allium-cepa-l-r2r3-myb-gene-myb1-regulates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis
#10
Kathy E Schwinn, Hanh Ngo, Fernand Kenel, David A Brummell, Nick W Albert, John A McCallum, Meeghan Pither-Joyce, Ross N Crowhurst, Colin Eady, Kevin M Davies
Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011403/cyanidin-3-o-glucoside-ameliorates-palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-irs-1-phosphorylation-and-release-of-endothelial-derived-vasoactive-factors
#11
Deborah Fratantonio, Francesco Cimino, Maria Sofia Molonia, Daniela Ferrari, Antonella Saija, Fabio Virgili, Antonio Speciale
Increased plasma levels of free fatty acids, including palmitic acid (PA), cause insulin resistance in endothelium characterized by a decreased synthesis of insulin-mediated vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), and by an increased production of the vasoconstrictor protein, endothelin-1. Several in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that anthocyanins, natural phenols commonly present in food and vegetables from Mediterranean Diet, exert significant cardiovascular health-promoting activities. These effects are possibly mediated by a positive regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and activation of cellular antioxidant and cytoprotective genes...
December 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999588/divergent-regulation-of-cbf-regulon-on-cold-tolerance-and-plant-phenotype-in-cassava-overexpressing-arabidopsis-cbf3-gene
#12
Dong An, Qiuxiang Ma, Wei Yan, Wenzhi Zhou, Guanghua Liu, Peng Zhang
Cassava is a tropical origin plant that is sensitive to chilling stress. In order to understand the CBF cold response pathway, a well-recognized regulatory mechanism in temperate plants, in cassava, overexpression of an Arabidopsis CBF3 gene is studied. This gene renders cassava increasingly tolerant to cold and drought stresses but is associated with retarded plant growth, leaf curling, reduced storage root yield, and reduced anthocyanin accumulation in a transcript abundance-dependent manner. Physiological analysis revealed that the transgenic cassava increased proline accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde production, and electrolyte leakage under cold stress...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998613/aba-and-ga3-regulate-the-synthesis-of-primary-and-secondary-metabolites-related-to-alleviation-from-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses-in-grapevine
#13
Germán Murcia, Ariel Fontana, Mariela Pontin, Rita Baraldi, Gianpaolo Bertazza, Patricia N Piccoli
Plants are able to synthesize a large number of organic compounds. Among them, primary metabolites are known to participate in plant growth and development, whereas secondary metabolites are mostly involved in defense and other facultative processes. In grapevine, one of the major fruit crops in the world, secondary metabolites, mainly polyphenols, are of great interest for the wine industry. Even though there is an extensive literature on the content and profile of those compounds in berries, scarce or no information is available regarding polyphenols in other organs...
December 17, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995376/double-stranded-rna-binding-protein-drb3-negatively-regulates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-by-modulating-pap1-expression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Hikaru Sawano, Takuma Matsuzaki, Tomoyuki Usui, Midori Tabara, Akihito Fukudome, Akihiro Kanaya, Daichi Tanoue, Akihiro Hiraguri, Gorou Horiguchi, Misato Ohtani, Taku Demura, Toshinori Kozaki, Kazuo Ishii, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Toshiyuki Fukuhara
The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has five double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (DRB1-DRB5), two of which, DRB1 and DRB4, are well characterized. In contrast, the functions of DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we tried to uncover their functions using drb mutants and DRB-over-expressed lines. In over-expressed lines of all five DRB genes, the over-expression of DRB2 or DRB3 (DRB2ox or DRB3ox) conferred a downward-curled leaf phenotype, but the expression profiles of ten small RNAs were similar to that of the wild-type (WT) plant...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990149/genistein-a-novel-anthocyanin-synthesis-promoter-that-directly-regulates-biosynthetic-genes-in-red-cabbage-in-a-light-dependent-way
#15
Na Zhang, Yan Qi, Hai-Jun Zhang, Xiaoyun Wang, Hongfei Li, Yantong Shi, Yang-Dong Guo
Genistein (GNT), an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L) as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984587/identification-of-a-novel-l-rhamnose-uptake-transporter-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-niger
#16
Jasper Sloothaak, Dorett I Odoni, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Peter J Schaap, Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos
The study of plant biomass utilization by fungi is a research field of great interest due to its many implications in ecology, agriculture and biotechnology. Most of the efforts done to increase the understanding of the use of plant cell walls by fungi have been focused on the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and transport and metabolism of their constituent monosaccharides. Pectin is another important constituent of plant cell walls, but has received less attention. In relation to the uptake of pectic building blocks, fungal transporters for the uptake of galacturonic acid recently have been reported in Aspergillus niger and Neurospora crassa...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979226/fractionation-enzyme-inhibitory-and-cellular-antioxidant-activity-of-bioactives-from-purple-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas
#17
Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Miriam Rodríguez-Werner, Anke Schlösser, Peter Winterhalter, Gerald Rimbach
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966737/myba2-gene-involved-in-anthocyanin-and-flavonol-biosynthesis-pathways-in-grapevine
#18
T Q Niu, Z D Gao, P F Zhang, X J Zhang, M Y Gao, W Ji, W X Fan, P F Wen
MYBA2 transcription factor (Myb-related gene) affects the coloring in grapevine berry and plays an important role in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. The MYBA2 gene was cloned from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and polyclonal antibodies for VvmybA2 were prepared. The VvmybA2 gene expression patterns were observed in seven tissues (the leaf, stem, flower, bud, root, berry, and tendril) and during the berry development stage at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. The results indicated that the expression of VvmybA2 was approximately 11-fold higher in the berry than that in the other six tissues, and increased rapidly from 60 days after full bloom reaching a maximum on day 80...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927994/the-acyl-activating-enzyme-phaae13-is-an-alternative-enzymatic-source-of-precursors-for-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-petunia-flowers
#19
Guoju Chen, Heping Liu, Qian Wei, Huina Zhao, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, are responsible for the orange to blue coloration of flowers and act as visual attractors to aid pollination and seed dispersal. Malonyl-CoA is the precursor for the formation of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Previous studies have suggested that malonyl-CoA is formed almost exclusively by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and bicarbonate. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Petunia hybrida acyl-activating enzyme 13 (PhAAE13), a member of clade VII of the AAE superfamily that encodes malonyl-CoA synthetase, was isolated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920784/the-arabidopsis-angustifolia3-yoda-gene-cascade-induces-anthocyanin-accumulation-by-regulating-sucrose-levels
#20
Lai-Sheng Meng, Ying-Qiu Li, Meng-Qian Liu, Ji-Hong Jiang
Anthocyanin accumulation specifically depends on sucrose (Suc) signaling/levels. However, the gene cascades specifically involved in the Suc signaling/level-mediated anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway are still unknown. Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3), a transcription coactivator, is involved in the regulation of leaf shape and drought tolerance. Recently, an AN3-CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 gene cascade has been reported to regulate the light signaling-mediated anthocyanin accumulation. Target gene analysis indicates that AN3 is associated with the YODA (YDA) promoter, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, in vivo for inducing anthocyanin accumulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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