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Anthocyanin, regulation

Huifeng Luo, Cheng Dai, Yongping Li, Jia Feng, Zhongchi Liu, Chunying Kang
The red color of the foliage and fruit in strawberry comes from anthocyanins stored in the vacuole. However, how anthocyanin accumulation is regulated in strawberry is still unclear. A reduced anthocyanin in petioles (rap) mutant was identified in an ENU mutagenized population of YW5AF7, a white-fruited variety of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca. The causative mutation was identified to be a premature stop codon in a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene. In addition to the foliage coloration, RAP also mediates fruit pigmentation and acts downstream of the fruit-specific transcription factor FvMYB10...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hee Kyoung Joo, Sunga Choi, Yu Ran Lee, Eun Ok Lee, Myoung Soo Park, Kyu Been Park, Cuk-Seong Kim, Yong Pyo Lim, Jong-Tae Park, Byeong Hwa Jeon
Anthocyanins, the most prevalent flavonoids in red/purple fruits and vegetables, are known to improve immune responses and reduce chronic disease risks. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from red Chinese cabbage (ArCC) were shown based on its inhibitory effects in cultured endothelial cells and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E -deficient mice. ArCC treatment suppressed monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated endothelial cells. This was validated by ArCC's ability to downregulate the expression and transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules, determined by immunoblot and luciferase promoter assays, respectively...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhenhua Xu, Steven J Rothstein
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with antioxidant activities. In plants, multiple factors can trigger the accumulation of anthocyanins, including chemicals and environmental factors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common by-products produced under different biotic and abiotic conditions and cause oxidative stress when accumulated at a high level in plant cells. This in turn leads to the production of anthocyanins. However, the mechanisms of ROS-induced anthocyanin accumulation and the role of anthocyanins in the response of plants to different stresses are largely unknown...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jiaxuan Guo, Shufang Wang, XiaoYang Yu, Rui Dong, Yuzhong Li, Xurong Mei, Yuanyue Shen
Polyamines (PAs) participate in many plant growth and developmental processes, including fruit ripening. However, it is not clear whether PAs play a role in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), a model non-climacteric plant. Here, we found that the content of the PA spermine (Spm) increased more sharply after the onset of fruit coloration than did that of the PAs putrescine (Put) or spermidine (Spd). Spm dominance in ripe fruit resulted from abundant transcripts of a strawberry S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (FaSAMDC), which encodes an enzyme that generates a residue needed for PA biosynthesis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Fang Wang, Yu Xiu Dong, Xiao Zhen Tang, Tian Li Tu, Bin Zhao, Na Sui, Daolin Fu, Xian Sheng Zhang
To study mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation, we examined light-regulated gene expression involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple grain of wheat. Ten kinds of anthocyanins were identified from a purple-grain wheat cultivar by HPLC ESI-MS/MS analysis. The libraries constructed from total RNA of purple grain under light (L) or dark (D) conditions for 15 and 20 days were sequenced. In total, 1,874 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in L20 vs. L15, 1,432 DEGs in D20 vs. D15, 862 DEGs in D15 vs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dorota Różańska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Anthocyanins are food compounds which belong to polyphenols and can mainly be found in dark fruits (e.g., blueberries, black currants, cranberries) and vegetables (e.g., red cabbage, radish, eggplant). The results of large research have shown that these compounds play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In rodent studies and in studies with isolated omental adipocytes, it was observed that anthocyanins regulated the carbohydrate metabolism in the body due to the upregulation of GLUT4 (insulinregulated glucose transporter) translocation, increased activation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles as well as increased secretion of adiponectin and leptin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Huong Mai Nguyen, Kaori Sako, Akihiro Matsui, Minoru Ueda, Maho Tanaka, Akihiro Ito, Norikazu Nishino, Minoru Yoshida, Motoaki Seki
Histone acetylation plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, and is regulated by the antagonistic relationship between histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). We previously revealed that some HDAC inhibitors confer high-salinity stress tolerance in plants. In this study, we identified two HDAC inhibitors, namely Ky-9 and Ky-72, which enhanced the high-salinity stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ky-9 and Ky-72 are structurally similar chlamydocin analogs. However, the in vitro inhibitory activity of Ky-9 against mammalian HDAC is greater than that of Ky-72...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Shang Jye Leong, Wen-Chien Lu, Tzyy-Jen Chiou
Despite the essential role of phosphate (Pi) in plant growth and development, how plants sense and signal the change of Pi supply to adjust its uptake and utilization is not yet well understood. Pi itself has been proposed to be a signaling molecule that regulates Pi starvation responses (PSRs) because phosphite (Phi), a non-metabolized Pi analog, suppresses several PSRs. In this study, we identified a phosphite-insensitive1 (phi1) mutant which retained anthocyanin, a visible PSR, in Phi-containing but Pi-deficient medium...
March 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mohammad Rashed Hossain, Hoy-Taek Kim, Ashokraj Shanmugam, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Gayatri Goswami, Jae-Young Song, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Anthocyanins are the resultant end-point metabolites of phenylapropanoid/flavonoid (F/P) pathway which is regulated at transcriptional level via a series of structural genes. Identifying the key genes and their potential interactions can provide us with the clue for novel points of intervention for improvement of the trait in strawberry. We profiled the expressions of putative regulatory and biosynthetic genes of cultivated strawberry in three developmental and characteristically colored stages of fruits of contrastingly anthocyanin rich cultivars: Tokun, Maehyang and Soelhyang...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cuicui Wang, Daqi Fu
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruits accumulate flavonoids in their cuticle and epidermal cells during ripening. Although many mutants available in model plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula are enabling the intricacies of flavonoid-related physiology to be deduced, the mechanisms whereby flavonoids influence eggplant fruit physiology are unknown. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a reliable tool for the study of flavonoids function in fruit, and in this study, we successfully applied this technique to down-regulate S...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chan Young Jeong, Jun Hyeok Kim, Won Je Lee, Joo Yeon Jin, Jongyun Kim, Suk-Whan Hong, Hojoung Lee
Sucrose is a crucial compound for the growth and development of plants, and the regulation of multiple genes depends on the amount of soluble sugars present. Sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates a proton-sucrose symporter, with its sensor being the sucrose transporter. Flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis are regulated by sucrose, and sucrose signaling can affect flavonoid and anthocyanin accumulation. In the present study, we found a Myb transcription factor affecting accumulation of anthocyanin...
February 28, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Kirti R Saad, Giridhar Parvatam, Nandini P Shetty
In the present study, an effort has been made to optimize various culture conditions for enhanced production of anthocyanin. Nutrient content of MS medium (ammonium to potassium nitrate ratio and phosphate concentration) had a profound influence on the cell biomass and anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota . Suspension cultures were carried out in shake flasks for 18 days and examined for cell growth, anthocyanin synthesis, anthocyanin yield and development of pigmented cells in relation to the uptake of total sugar, extracellular phosphate, nitrate and ammonia...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Ara Kirakosyan, Enrique Gutierrez, Beatriz Ramos Solano, E Mitchell Seymour, Steven F Bolling
The inhibitory potential of Montmorency tart cherry on glycemia regulation and other enzymes relevant to inflammation were evaluated. Tart cherry has superior inhibitory potential against key enzymes associated with carbohydrate digestion linked to hypertension. In particular, α-amylase activity was significantly inhibited (IC50 = 3.46 ± 0.06 mg/ml), whereas we observed mild inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 11.64 ± 0.65 mg/ml). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition was also strong by about 89%...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Tuo Yang, Keting Li, Suxiao Hao, Jie Zhang, Tingting Song, Ji Tian, Yuncong Yao
Anthocyanins are plant pigments that contribute to the color of leaves, flowers and fruits, and that beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. The study of a transformable crabapple cultivar, 'India magic', which has red buds and green mature leaves, using mRNA profiling of four leaf developmental stages, allowed us to characterize molecular mechanisms regulating red color formation in early leaf development and the subsequent rapid down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This analysis of differential gene expression during leaf development, revealed that ethylene signaling responsive genes are upregulated during leaf pigmentation...
February 20, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Nikhil Job, Premachandran Yadukrishnan, Katharina Bursch, Sourav Datta, Henrik Johansson
The Arabidopsis BBX family comprises several positive and negative regulators of photomorphogenesis. BBX24, a member of BBX structural group IV, acts as a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis while another member from the same group, BBX21, is a positive regulator. The molecular basis for the functional diversity shown by these related BBX family members is unknown. Using domain-swap lines, we show that BBX24 can functionally act like BBX21 and vice versa, when their C-terminal regions are interchanged...
February 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jae-Hyeon Oh, Ye-Ji Lee, Eun-Ju Byeon, Byeong-Chul Kang, Dong-Soo Kyeoung, Chang-Kug Kim
Anthocyanins are involved in many diverse functions in rice, but their benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated. Our objective in this study was to identify anthocyanin-related genes in black rice plants. We identified anthocyanin-related genes in black rice plants using a combination of whole-genome resequencing, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), microarray experiments, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using multi-layer screening from 30 rice accessions, we identified 172,922 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1276 differentially expressed genes that appear to be related to anthocyanin biosynthesis...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Yuhan Tang, Daqiu Zhao, Jun Tao
Daminozide is a plant growth retardant that inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway, but few studies have focused on its effect on the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway involved in flower color. In the present study, the effect of daminozide on the regulation of flower color was investigated. An herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) cultivar 'Fenzhu Pan' was used as the material and treated with daminozide. Color parameters of petals were measured; flavonoid composition and content as well as flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression were monitored...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Majid Hajifaraji, Mohammad Matlabi, Farihe Ahmadzadeh-Sani, Yadollah Mehrabi, Mohammad Salem Rezaee, Homa Hajimehdipour, Abbas Hasanzadeh, Katayoun Roghani
Objective: Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old) with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Nan Li, Han Wu, Qiangqiang Ding, Huihui Li, Zhifei Li, Jing Ding, Yi Li
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring secondary metabolites, responsible for the color of many plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana MYB90/PAP2 (production of anthocyanin pigment 2) was introduced into tomato to study its effect on anthocyanin accumulation. The transgenic tomato displayed much greater anthocyanin accumulation than wild type in all plant organs, but the organs were not fully purple in color except for the stamen. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and an anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene SlAN1 was significantly increased in the transgenic line, suggesting that ectopic expression of AtPAP2 increases the expression of anthocyanin-related structural and regulatory genes to enhance anthocyanin content...
January 26, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Nick W Albert, Amali H Thrimawithana, Tony K McGhie, William A Clayton, Simon C Deroles, Kathy E Schwinn, John L Bowman, Brian R Jordan, Kevin M Davies
The flavonoid pathway is hypothesized to have evolved during land colonization by plants c. 450 Myr ago for protection against abiotic stresses. In angiosperms, R2R3MYB transcription factors are key for environmental regulation of flavonoid production. However, angiosperm R2R3MYB gene families are larger than those of basal plants, and it is not known whether the regulatory system is conserved across land plants. We examined whether R2R3MYBs regulate the flavonoid pathway in liverworts, one of the earliest diverging land plant lineages...
January 24, 2018: New Phytologist
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