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Anthocyanin, regulation

Weiqiang Li, Kien Huu Nguyen, Ha Duc Chu, Chien Van Ha, Yasuko Watanabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Marco Antonio Leyva-González, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Laura Voges, Maho Tanaka, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Motoaki Seki, Mitsunori Seo, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, David C Nelson, Chunjie Tian, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Drought causes substantial reductions in crop yields worldwide. Therefore, we set out to identify new chemical and genetic factors that regulate drought resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Karrikins (KARs) are a class of butenolide compounds found in smoke that promote seed germination, and have been reported to improve seedling vigor under stressful growth conditions. Here, we discovered that mutations in KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), encoding the proposed karrikin receptor, result in hypersensitivity to water deprivation...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Sun-Il Choi, Jong Seok Lee, Sarah Lee, Jin-Ha Lee, Hee-Sun Yang, Joohong Yeo, Jong-Yea Kim, Boo-Yong Lee, Il-Jun Kang, Ok-Hwan Lee
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effect of extracts from Alnus firma (A. firma), which is an edible plant that grows in mountainous areas. The total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content as well as the antioxidant activity of a 70% ethanolic extract of A. firma (AFE) was assessed. Furthermore, the effects of AFE on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. The results revealed that the total phenolic, flavonoid and pro-anthocyanidin content of AFE as 436...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Jian-Ping An, Feng-Jia Qu, Ji-Fang Yao, Xiao-Na Wang, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/hortres.2017.23.].
2017: Horticulture Research
Tianyu Sun, Lili Xu, Hong Sun, Qianyu Yue, Heng Zhai, Yuxin Yao
In this work, four vacuolar H(+)-PPase (VHP) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated berry pigmentation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sara Kim, Geonhee Hwang, Seulgi Lee, Jia-Ying Zhu, Inyup Paik, Thom Thi Nguyen, Jungmook Kim, Eunkyoo Oh
Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds that protect plant tissues from many environmental stresses including high light irradiance, freezing temperatures, and pathogen infection. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is intimately associated with environmental changes to enhance plant survival under stressful environmental conditions. Various factors, such as UV, visible light, cold, osmotic stress, and pathogen infection, can induce anthocyanin biosynthesis. In contrast, high temperatures are known to reduce anthocyanin accumulation in many plant species, even drastically in the skin of fruits such as grape berries and apples...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Guy Polturak, Asaph Aharoni
Betalains are tyrosine-derived red-violet and yellow pigments found exclusively in plants of the Caryophyllales order, which have drawn both scientific and economic interest. Nevertheless, research into betalain chemistry, biochemistry, and function has been limited in comparison to other major classes of plant pigments such as anthocyanins and carotenoids. The core biosynthetic pathway of this pigment class has only been fully elucidated in the past few years, opening up the possibility for betalain pigments engineering in plants and microbes...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Plant
Daqiu Zhao, Xing Xia, Mengran Wei, Jing Sun, Jiasong Meng, Jun Tao
microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, the function of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) miR156e-3p in the regulation of color formation has been investigated. Firstly, P. lactiflora miR156e-3p precursor sequence (pre-miR156e-3p) was isolated. Subsequently, the overexpression vector of pre-miR156e-3p was constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, the medium screening, GUS staining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the GUS region and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) of miR156e-3p all confirmed that the purpose gene had been successfully transferred into Arabidopsis plants and expressed, which resulted in apparent purple lateral branches...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Tamara Pecenková, Vedrana Markovic, Peter Sabol, Ivan Kulich, Viktor Žárský, Daphne Goring
Endomembrane traffic in eukaryotic cells functions partially as a means of communication; delivery of membrane in one direction has to be balanced with a reduction at the other end. This effect is typically the case during the defence against pathogens. To combat pathogens, cellular growth and differentiation are suppressed, while endomembrane traffic is poised towards limiting the pathogen attack. The octameric exocyst vesicle-tethering complex was originally discovered as a factor facilitating vesicle-targeting and vesicle-plasma membrane (PM) fusion during exocytosis prior to and possibly during SNARE complex formation...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Orie Nakamura, Satoru Moritoh, Kota Sato, Shigeto Maekawa, Namie Murayama, Noriko Himori, Kazuko Omodaka, Tetsuya Sogon, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of bilberry extract anthocyanins on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after optic nerve crush. Additionally, to determine details of the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of bilberry extract anthocyanins and the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress suppression in the mouse retina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anthocyanins in bilberry extract (100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day) were administrated orally to C57BL/6J mice. The expression levels of various molecular chaperones were assessed with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Yingwei Qi, Cuihua Liu, Zhande Liu, Xiaolin Ren
Much of the diversity of anthocyanin pigmentation in plant tissues is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which attach sugar moieties to the anthocyanin aglycone. This step can increase both their solubility and stability. We investigated the pigmentation of the outer and inner pericarps of developing fruit of the red-fleshed kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis cv. 'Hongyang'. The results show that the red color of the inner pericarp is due to anthocyanin. Based on expression analyses of structural genes, AcUFGT was shown to be the key gene involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway...
October 23, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Luona Wen, Xinwei Jiang, Jianxia Sun, Xia Li, Xusheng Li, Lingmin Tian, Ye Li, Weibin Bai
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is an anthocyanin that has been reported to reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. In the present study, the protection effects of C3G on the biosynthesis of progesterone, the precursor of testosterone, against lead (Pb) in R2C rat Leydig cells were examined. Treatment of R2C cells with 100 μM Pb resulted in a significant decrease in progesterone production. After being cultured in a medium containing C3G and Pb, R2C cells exhibited an increase in progesterone concentration compared with the Pb treatment, as a result of up-regulation of the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and cytochrome P450 enzyme cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1)...
October 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jian-Ping An, Xin Liu, Hao-Hao Li, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
MdMYB1 is an important regulator for anthocyanin accumulation in apple (Malus × domestica). Here, an apple RING E3 ligase, MdMIEL1, was screened out as a partner of MdMYB1 with a yeast two-hybrid approach. Pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays further verified the interaction between MdMIEL1 and MdMYB1 proteins. Subsequently, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdMIEL1 functioned as a ubiquitin E3 ligase to ubiquitinate MdMYB1 protein, followed by degradation through a 26S proteasome pathway...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Samuel Lopez-Nieves, Ya Yang, Alfonso Timoneda, Minmin Wang, Tao Feng, Stephen A Smith, Samuel F Brockington, Hiroshi A Maeda
Diverse natural products are synthesized in plants by specialized metabolic enzymes, which are often lineage-specific and derived from gene duplication followed by functional divergence. However, little is known about the contribution of primary metabolism to the evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. Betalain pigments, uniquely found in the plant order Caryophyllales, are synthesized from the aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine (Tyr) and replaced the otherwise ubiquitous phenylalanine-derived anthocyanins...
October 9, 2017: New Phytologist
Jin Nam Kim, Sung Nim Han, Tae Joung Ha, Hye-Kyeong Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is closely related with inflammation and development of many diseases. Black soybean seed coat contains high amount of anthocyanins, which are well-known for free radical scavenging activities. This study investigated inflammatory response and action mechanism of black soybean anthocyanins with regard to antioxidant activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: RAW 264.7 cells were treated with anthocyanins extracted from black soybean seed coats in a concentration range of 12...
October 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
Yuan Zong, Xinyuan Xi, Shiming Li, Wenjie Chen, Bo Zhang, Dengcai Liu, Baolong Liu, Daowen Wang, Huaigang Zhang
Recently the TaMYC1 gene encoding bHLH transcription factor has been isolated from the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome and shown to co-locate with the Pp3 gene conferring purple pericarp color. As a functional evidence of TaMYC1 and Pp3 being the same, higher transcriptional activity of the TaMYC1 gene in colored pericarp compared to uncolored one has been demonstrated. In the current study, we present additional strong evidences of TaMYC1 to be a synonym of Pp3. Furthermore, we have found differences between dominant and recessive Pp3(TaMyc1) alleles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fang-Hang Zhou, Xiu-Juan Deng, Yan-Qiu Chen, Fu-Li Ya, Xian-Dan Zhang, Fenglin Song, Dan Li, Yan Yang
Platelet granule release is considered an important target for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-g) is a predominant bioactive anthocyanin compound in many edible plants and has been reported to be protective against CVDs by attenuating platelet dysfunction. However, direct evidence of the action of Cy-3-g on platelet granule secretion in purified platelets from in vivo assays is still poor. In the present study, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation of purified Cy-3-g reduces serum lipid levels and facilitates down-regulation of the platelet granule release of substances such as P-selectin, CD40L, 5-HT, RANTES and TGF-β1 in gel-filtered platelets, in addition to attenuating serum PF4 and β-TG levels in mice fed high-fat diets...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yoon-Mi Lee, Young Yoon, Haelim Yoon, Hyun-Min Park, Sooji Song, Kyung-Jin Yeum
Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health problems. Recently, food-derived bioactive compounds have been spotlighted as a regulator against various chronic diseases due to their low toxicity, as opposed to drugs that induce severe side effects. Here we describe the beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on obesity-induced metabolic disorders and inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Nutrients
Md Abdur Rahim, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Sathishkumar Natarajan, Hee-Jeong Jung, Jeongyeo Lee, HyeRan Kim, Hoy-Taek Kim, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important vegetable of the Brassicaceae family. The main edible part of kohlrabi is the swollen stem. The purple cultivars make anthocyanin mainly in the peel of the swollen stem, while in the leaf, it is limited to the midrib, but green cultivars do not. Anthocyanins are advantageous for both plants as well as humans. Two anthocyanin compounds were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) only in the peel of the purple kohlrabi cultivar. Three MYBs, three bHLHs, and one WD40 TF were identified as the candidate regulatory genes in kohlrabi...
September 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Kai Feng, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Que, Jie-Xia Liu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
This study showed that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, OjMYB1, is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in Oenanthe javanica. Anthocyanins can be used as safe natural food colorants, obtained from many plants. R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in anthocyanins biosynthesis during plant development. Oenanthe javanica is a popular vegetable with high nutritional values and numerous medical functions. O. javanica has purple petioles that are mainly due to anthocyanins accumulation...
September 30, 2017: Planta
Shinichi Enoki, Tomoki Hattori, Shiho Ishiai, Sayumi Tanaka, Masachika Mikami, Kayo Arita, Shu Nagasaka, Shunji Suzuki
We investigated the effect of vanillylacetone (VA) on anthocyanin accumulation with aim of improving grape berry coloration. Spraying Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Bailey A berries with VA at veraison increased sugar/acid ratio, an indicator of maturation and total anthocyanin accumulation. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of VA on anthocyanin accumulation, in vitro VA treatment of a grapevine cell culture was carried out. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content was higher in the VA-treated cell cultures than in control at 3h after treatment...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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