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Anthocyanin, regulation

Xiaofeng Cai, Lihao Lin, Xiaoli Wang, Chenxi Xu, Quanhua Wang
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely cultivated as an economically important green leafy vegetable crop for fresh and processing consumption. The red purple spinach shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and leaf petiole. However, the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin synthesis in this species are still undetermined. In the present study, we investigated the pigments formation and identified anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in spinach, and performed the expression analysis of anthocyanin related genes in the purple and green cultivar by quantitative PCR...
May 22, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Adrián Garrido-Bigotes, Nicolás E Figueroa, Pablo M Figueroa, Carlos R Figueroa
Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now...
2018: PloS One
Xiaobing Liu, Dangling Zhang, Yaxing Hao, Qian Liu, Yuqi Wu, Xin Liu, Jing Luo, Tao Zhou, Bishao Sun, Xing Luo, Jie Xu, Qingqing Wang, Zhenxing Yang, Longkun Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cyanidin is an anthocyanin found in many foods. Although its variable antioxidant levels are well-documented, little is known about its effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumorigenesis. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of cyanidin on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of renal cell carcinoma lines and demonstrated, for the first time, significant inhibitory effects of cyanidin on RCC tumorigenesis. METHODS: RCC cells were treated with different doses of cyanidin and the effects were tested by Cell Counting Kit-8 reagent, clone formation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Serena Di Francesco, Monica Savio, Nora Bloise, Giovanni Borroni, Lucia Anna Stivala, Riccardo G Borroni
Red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) flavonoids including flavan-3-ols (e.g., catechin and epicatechin), flavonols (e.g., quercetin) and anthocyanins (e.g., malvidin) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the skin they also have a photoprotective action, and their effects have been extensively investigated in keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. Despite their known effects also on blood vasculature, little is known on their activities on human dermal blood endothelial cells (HDBECs), which are critically involved in skin homeostasis as well as in the pathogenesis of neoplastic and inflammatory skin diseases...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
William Plumb, Alexandra J Townsend, Brwa Rasool, Sarah Alomrani, Nurhayati Razak, Barbara Karpinska, Alexander V Ruban, Christine H Foyer
The requirements of growth and photosynthesis for ascorbate were assessed under low (LL; 250 μmol m-2 s-1) or high (HL; 1600 μmol m-2 s-1) irradiance in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana and two ascorbate synthesis mutants (vtc2-1 and vtc2-4) that have 30% wild type ascorbate levels. The low ascorbate mutants had the same numbers of leaves but lower rosette area and biomass than the wild type under LL. Wild type plants experiencing HL had higher leaf ascorbate, anthocyanin and xanthophyll pigments than under LL...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Attila Hegedűs, Nóra Papp, Anna Blázovics, Éva Stefanovitsné Bányai
Health effects of fruit consumption are confirmed by many studies. Such effects are attributed to the polyphenolic compounds accumulating in fruit skin and mesocarp tissues. They contribute to the regulation on transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. Since people consume much less fruits than the recommended quantities, a new approach includes the promotion of super fruits that are extremely rich sources of specific health compounds. A comparative analysis of Hungarian stone fruit cultivars detected a huge variability in fruit in vitro antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content...
May 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Yasumasa Morita, Atsushi Hoshino
The Japanese morning glory ( Ipomoea nil ) and petunia ( Petunia hybrida ), locally called "Asagao" and "Tsukubane-asagao", respectively, are popular garden plants. They have been utilized as model plants for studying the genetic basis of floricultural traits, especially anthocyanin pigmentation in flower petals. In their long history of genetic studies, many mutations affecting flower pigmentation have been characterized, and both structural and regulatory genes for the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have been identified...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Akemi Ohmiya
Chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is one of the most important floricultural crops in the world. Although the origin of modern chrysanthemum cultivars is uncertain, several species belonging to the family Asteraceae are considered to have been integrated during the long history of breeding. The flower color of ancestral species is limited to yellow, pink, and white, and is derived from carotenoids, anthocyanins, and the absence of both pigments, respectively. A wide range of flower colors, including purplish-red, orange, red, and dark red, has been developed by increasing the range of pigment content or the combination of both pigments...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Haitao Shi, Guoyin Liu, Yunxie Wei, Zhulong Chan
The accumulation of flavonoids is activated by various abiotic stresses, and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) especially hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a general response to abiotic stress in plants. However, the direct link between flavonoids and H2 O2 and underlying mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we found that the concentrations of anthocyanin and flavonoids were significantly induced by H2 O2 treatment. Furthermore, we found that the transcript level of ZINC FINGER of ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 6 (ZAT6) was significantly activated after exogenous H2 O2 treatment, and modulation of AtZAT6 expression positively affected the concentrations of both anthocyanin and total flavonoids...
April 19, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Dong Liang, Yanqiu Shen, Zhiyou Ni, Qin Wang, Zhi Lei, Nengqin Xu, Qunxian Deng, Lijin Lin, Jin Wang, Xiulan Lv, Hui Xia
Melatonin, a multiple signal molecule, plays important roles in delaying senescence during the development of plants. Because few species have been studied for the effect of exogenous melatonin on anti-aging, the plausible mechanism of melatonin of anti-aging effects on other plant species has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of exogenous melatonin on leaf senescence in kiwifruit were examined during natural aging after melatonin (200 μM) or water (Control) pretreatment. The decreased membrane damage and lower hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) content due to the enhanced scavenging activity of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) demonstrated that melatonin effectively delayed the aging of kiwifruit leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yanzhao Zhang, Shuzhen Xu, Yanwei Cheng, Zhengfeng Peng, Jianming Han
Red leaf lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is popular due to its high anthocyanin content, but poor leaf coloring often occurs under low light intensity. In order to reveal the mechanisms of anthocyanins affected by light intensity, we compared the transcriptome of L. sativa L. var. capitata under light intensities of 40 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1 . A total of 62,111 unigenes were de novo assembled with an N50 of 1,681 bp, and 48,435 unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases. A total of 3,899 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, of which 1,377 unigenes were up-regulated and 2,552 unigenes were down-regulated in the high light samples...
2018: PeerJ
Chunhua Zhang, Ruchao Feng, Ruijuan Ma, Zhijun Shen, Zhixiang Cai, Zhizhong Song, Bin Peng, Mingliang Yu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family is a superfamily found in all eukaryotes that plays important roles in regulating growth and development. Over the past several decades, many bHLH superfamily genes have been identified and characterized in herbaceous and woody plants. However, the genes belonging to the bHLH superfamily in peach (Prunus persica) have not yet been comprehensively identified and characterized. Here, we identified 95 members of the bHLH superfamily in the peach genome, and these genes were classified into 19 subfamilies based on a phylogenetic comparison with bHLH proteins from Arabidopsis...
2018: PloS One
Haifeng Xu, Guanxian Yang, Jing Zhang, Yicheng Wang, Tianliang Zhang, Nan Wang, Shenghui Jiang, Zongying Zhang, Xuesen Chen
The cold-induced metabolic pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis play important roles in plant growth. In this study, we identified a bHLH binding motif in the MdMYB15L protein using protein sequence analyses. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays showed that MdMYB15L could interact with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus inhibited the expression of MdCBF2 and resulted in reduced cold tolerance but did not affect anthocyanin levels. Chip-PCR and EMSA analysis showed that MdMYB15L could bind the type II cis-acting element found in the MdCBF2 promoter...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shun-Wun Ke, Guan-Heng Chen, Chung-Tse Chen, Jason T C Tzen, Chin-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. There are many secondary metabolites can be found in tea such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and catechins. These secondary metabolites in plants are proved to act protective components for human health effect. Plant hormone ethylene is considered to have an important role in regulation of plant development and signal transduction. This study evaluated the effect of ethylene signaling regulation in phenolic compounds in tea plants...
April 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Yunting Zhang, Leiyu Jiang, Yali Li, Qing Chen, Yuntian Ye, Yong Zhang, Ya Luo, Bo Sun, Xiaorong Wang, Haoru Tang
Light conditions can cause quantitative and qualitative changes in anthocyanin. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism of light quality-regulated anthocyanin accumulation in fruits. In this study, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were applied to explore the effect of red and blue light on strawberry coloration. The results showed contents of total anthocyanins (TA), pelargonidin 3-glucoside (Pg3G) and pelargonidin 3-malonylglucoside (Pg3MG) significantly increased after blue and red light treatment...
April 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Muhammad Anwar, Guiqing Wang, Jiacheng Wu, Saquib Waheed, Andrew C Allan, Lihui Zeng
R2R3 MYB transcription factors play key functions in the regulation of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor NtMYB2 was identified from Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta L. var. Chinensis Roem) and functionally characterized. NtMYB2 belongs to subgroup 4 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family that are related to repressor MYBs involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and flavonoids. Transient expression confirmed that NtMYB2 strongly reduced the red pigmentation induced by MYB- anthocyanin activators in agro-infiltrated tobacco leaves...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ying Liu, Yury Tikunov, Rob E Schouten, Leo F M Marcelis, Richard G F Visser, Arnaud Bovy
Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments that are ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. In plants, anthocyanins play a role not only in reproduction, by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in protection against various abiotic and biotic stresses. There is accumulating evidence that anthocyanins have health-promoting properties, which makes anthocyanin metabolism an interesting target for breeders and researchers. In this review, the state of the art knowledge concerning anthocyanins in the Solanaceous vegetables, i...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Guangping Li, Yun Wang, Xiaoming Lou, Hailing Li, Changqing Zhang
miRNAs are important regulators of plant gene expression. To better characterize their functions, we applied high-throughput sequencing and degradome analyses to investigate three blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) tissues. A total of 127 known and 101 novel miRNAs were identified. Moreover, 141 targets for 42 known and 19 novel miRNAs were experimentally validated by degradome sequencing. A functional analysis of these miRNA targets revealed they were associated with diverse biological activities and several pathways, e...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaolan Jiang, Keyi Huang, Guangshun Zheng, Hua Hou, Peiqiang Wang, Han Jiang, Xuecheng Zhao, Mingzhuo Li, Shuxiang Zhang, Yajun Liu, Liping Gao, Lei Zhao, Tao Xia
Tea is one of the most widely consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide. Polyphenols are nutritional compounds present in the leaves of tea plants. Although numerous genes are functionally characterized to encode enzymes that catalyze the formation of diverse polyphenolic metabolites, transcriptional regulation of those different pathways such as late steps of the proanthcoyanidin (PA) pathway remains unclear. In this study, using different tea transcriptome databases, we screened at least 140 R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) and grouped them according to the basic function domains of the R2R3 MYB TF superfamily...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Chao-Chao Liu, Cheng Chi, Li-Juan Jin, Jianhua Zhu, Jing-Quan Yu, Yan-Hong Zhou
The production of anthocyanin is regulated by light and corresponding photoreceptors. In this study, we found that exposure to blue light and overexpression of CRY1a are associated with increased accumulation of anthocyanin in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). These responses are the result of changes in mRNA and the protein levels of SlHY5, a transcription factor. In vitro and in vivo experiments using EMSA and ChIP-qPCR assays revealed that SlHY5 could directly recognize and bind to the G-box and ACE motifs in the promoters of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, such as CHS1, CHS2 and DFR...
March 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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