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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454061/evaluation-of-a-pilot-innovative-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-based-psychoeducation-group-treatment-for-functional-non-epileptic-attacks
#1
Sarah R Cope, Jared G Smith, Tara King, Niruj Agrawal
A high proportion of patients presenting at epilepsy clinics experience functional non-epileptic attacks (FNEA), and while psychological treatment is generally thought to be the required intervention, evidence regarding psychological treatment of FNEA is limited. A small number of psychoeducation treatments have been evaluated, with promising results. As part of routine care within a neuropsychiatry service, a 3-session cognitive-behavior therapy- (CBT-) informed psychoeducation group was developed. Patients with comorbid epilepsy were included...
April 25, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453969/reducing-intrusive-traumatic-memories-after-emergency-caesarean-section-a-proof-of-principle-randomized-controlled-study
#2
Antje Horsch, Yvan Vial, Céline Favrod, Mathilde Morisod Harari, Simon E Blackwell, Peter Watson, Lalitha Iyadurai, Michael B Bonsall, Emily A Holmes
Preventative psychological interventions to aid women after traumatic childbirth are needed. This proof-of-principle randomized controlled study evaluated whether the number of intrusive traumatic memories mothers experience after emergency caesarean section (ECS) could be reduced by a brief cognitive intervention. 56 women after ECS were randomized to one of two parallel groups in a 1:1 ratio: intervention (usual care plus cognitive task procedure) or control (usual care). The intervention group engaged in a visuospatial task (computer-game 'Tetris' via a handheld gaming device) for 15 min within six hours following their ECS...
April 6, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453871/elevated-cerebrospinal-fluid-tumor-necrosis-factor-is-associated-with-acute-and-long-term-neurocognitive-impairment-in-cerebral-malaria
#3
Estela Shabani, Benson J Ouma, Richard Idro, Paul Bangirana, Robert O Opoka, Gregory S Park, Andrea L Conroy, Chandy C John
Systemic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) by promoting endothelial activation and parasite sequestration. However less is known about the role of central nervous system (CNS) TNF-α in CM. We assessed plasma (n=249) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=167) TNF-α levels in Ugandan children with CM, plasma TNF-α in Ugandan community control children (n=198), and CSF TNF-α in North American control children who had recovered from leukemia (n=13). Plasma and CSF TNF-α were measured by magnetic bead assay...
April 28, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453717/reaching-the-global-target-to-reduce-stunting-an-investment-framework
#4
Meera Shekar, Jakub Kakietek, Mary R D'Alimonte, Hilary E Rogers, Julia Dayton Eberwein, Jon Kweku Akuoku, Audrey Pereira, Shan Soe-Lin, Robert Hecht
Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453477/diagnostic-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-as-identified-in-saliva-using-1h-nmr-based-metabolomics
#5
Ali Yilmaz, Tim Geddes, BeomSoo Han, Ray O Bahado-Singh, George Wilson, Khaled Imam, Michael Maddens, Stewart F Graham
Using 1H NMR metabolomics, we biochemically profiled saliva samples collected from healthy-controls (n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) sufferers (n = 8), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n = 9). We accurately identified significant concentration changes in 22 metabolites in the saliva of MCI and AD patients compared to controls. This pilot study demonstrates the potential for using metabolomics and saliva for the early diagnosis of AD. Given the ease and convenience of collecting saliva, the development of accurate and sensitive salivary biomarkers would be ideal for screening those at greatest risk of developing AD...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453471/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-study-of-oral-elnd005-scyllo-inositol-in-young-adults-with-down-syndrome-without-dementia
#6
Michael S Rafii, Brian G Skotko, Mary Ellen McDonough, Margaret Pulsifer, Casey Evans, Eric Doran, Gabriela Muranevici, Patrick Kesslak, Susan Abushakra, Ira T Lott
BACKGROUND: ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol; cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol) has been evaluated as a potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk for developing AD dementia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELND005 and to determine its pharmacokinetics (PK) and relationship between PK parameters, safety outcome measures, and exploratory efficacy outcome measures in young adults with DS without dementia...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449355/father-child-interactions-at-3-months-and-24-months-contributions-to-children-s-cognitive-development-at-24-months
#7
Vaheshta Sethna, Emily Perry, Jill Domoney, Jane Iles, Lamprini Psychogiou, Natasha E L Rowbotham, Alan Stein, Lynne Murray, Paul G Ramchandani
The quality of father-child interactions has become a focus of increasing research in the field of child development. We examined the potential contribution of father-child interactions at both 3 months and 24 months to children's cognitive development at 24 months. Observational measures of father-child interactions at 3 and 24 months were used to assess the quality of fathers' parenting (n = 192). At 24 months, the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (N...
April 27, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#8
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448946/oral-administration-of-methysticin-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Athanassios Fragoulis, Stephanie Siegl, Markus Fendt, Sandra Jansen, Ulf Soppa, Lars-Ove Brandenburg, Thomas Pufe, Joachim Weis, Christoph Jan Wruck
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence for the involvement of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an anti-inflammatory transcription factor that regulates the oxidative stress defense. Our previous experiments demonstrated that kavalactones protect neuronal cells against Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress in vitro by Nrf2 pathway activation. Here, we tested an in vivo kavalactone treatment in a mouse model of AD...
April 19, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448820/is-there-a-link-between-biological-parents-insight-into-their-offspring-s-schizophrenia-and-their-cognitive-functioning-expressed-emotion-and-knowledge-about-disorder
#10
Alexandra Macgregor, Joanna Norton, Stéphane Raffard, Delphine Capdevielle
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that parents' awareness of their offspring's schizophrenia could influence their offspring's insight. Low patient insight is linked to impairment of specific cognitive abilities, and biological parents of schizophrenia patients have impaired capacities in these same domains. However, little is known about what specific socio-demographic, affective or cognitive factors may influence biological parents' awareness of their offspring's disease. METHOD: Data were drawn from 41 patient-parent dyads...
April 13, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448685/adult-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-male-and-female-mice-following-developmental-exposure-to-paracetamol-acetaminophen-characterization-of-a-critical-period
#11
Gaëtan Philippot, Torsten Gordh, Anders Fredriksson, Henrik Viberg
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448579/il-33-receptor-st2-regulates-the-cognitive-impairments-associated-with-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#12
Flora Reverchon, Stéphane Mortaud, Maëliss Sivoyon, Isabelle Maillet, Anthony Laugeray, Jennifer Palomo, Céline Montécot, Améziane Herzine, Sandra Meme, William Meme, François Erard, Bernhard Ryffel, Arnaud Menuet, Valérie F J Quesniaux
Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with a high mortality rate and long-term neurocognitive impairment in survivors. The murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infection reproduces several of these features. We reported recently increased levels of IL-33 protein in brain undergoing ECM and the involvement of IL-33/ST2 pathway in ECM development. Here we show that PbA-infection induced early short term and spatial memory defects, prior to blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, in wild-type mice, while ST2-deficient mice did not develop cognitive defects...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448366/project-tendr
#13
Laura Anderko
: Chemicals are ubiquitous in the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the products we use at work and in our personal lives. Toxic chemicals increase the risk of cognitive, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental disorders throughout the life span. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 was intended to allow for the collection of data on and regulation of these chemicals but has been criticized for its significant limitations in protecting the public's health. In recognition of the scientific evidence demonstrating the connection between toxic environmental chemicals and neurodevelopmental disorders, Project TENDR (Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks)-a collaborative initiative of scientists, health professionals, and children's health advocates-produced a call to action last July with the aim of reducing exposure to chemicals and pollutants that contribute to the development of these disorders...
May 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448205/practicing-maternal-virtues-prematurely-the-phenomenology-of-maternal-identity-in-medically-high-risk-pregnancy
#14
Laura Curran, Judith McCoyd, Shari Munch, Bonnie Wilkenfeld
In this study, we examine the phenomenology of maternal identity development among U.S. women hospitalized with medically high risk pregnancies (MHRP). We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with women and find that they drew on culturally normative notions of maternal nurture, worry, and sacrifice to construct maternal identity in the context of MHRP. Based on our findings, we suggest that MHRP shapes women's sense of a unique connection to and distinctive cognitive representations of their fetus that are facilitated by the use of technology...
April 27, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448159/the-centrality-of-the-response-process-in-construct-validity-an-illustration-via-the-rorschach-space-response
#15
Joni L Mihura, Nicolae Dumitrascu, Manali Roy, Gregory J Meyer
Recently, psychologists have emphasized the response process-that is, the psychological operations and behaviors that lead to test scores-when designing psychological tests, interpreting their results, and refining their validity. To illustrate the centrality of the response process in construct validity and test interpretation, we provide a historical, conceptual, and empirical review of the main uses of the background white space of the Rorschach cards, called space reversal (SR) and space integration (SI) in the Rorschach Performance Assessment System...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448085/obesity-and-cognitive-decline-in-adults-effect-of-methodological-choices-and-confounding-by-age-in-a-longitudinal-study
#16
K Deckers, M P J Van Boxtel, F R J Verhey, S Köhler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity has been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia, but recent findings are contradictory, possibly due to methodological differences. The present study tries to clarify these inconsistencies by following the cognitive trajectories of individuals with obesity over 12 years and studying the effect of obesity status (obesity at baseline versus incident obesity at follow-up), chronicity, definition, potential confounding (e.g. age, cardiovascular factors), and non-linear associations...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447813/using-response-time-data-to-reduce-testing-time-in-cognitive-tests
#17
Maria Bertling, Jonathan P Weeks
Achievement estimates are often based on either number correct scores or IRT-based ability parameters. Van der Linden (2007) and other researchers (e.g., Fox, Klein Entink, & van der Linden, 2007; Ranger, 2013) have developed psychometric models that allow for joint estimation of speed and item parameters using both response times and response data. This paper presents an application of this type of approach to a battery of 4 types of fluid reasoning measures, administered to a large sample of a highly educated examinees...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447245/neuroanatomical-variations-as-a-function-of-experience-in-a-complex-daily-task-a-vbm-and-dti-study-on-driving-experience
#18
Alberto Megías, D Petrova, J F Navas, A Cándido, A Maldonado, A Catena
Complex tasks require the learning and integration of multiple cognitive, sensory, and psychomotor skills for correct execution. Driving-related skills are developed step by step through the increase of mileage driven and the accumulation of practice in different traffic situations. The acquisition of these skills should be reflected in the brain structure. However, no previous studies have explored brain structural variations associated with driving experience. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether driving frequency, defined as average annual driving mileage, is related to neuroanatomical variations in gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) integrity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA), respectively...
April 26, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447214/eeg-abnormalities-and-long-term-seizure-outcome-in-high-functioning-autism
#19
Özdem Ertürk Çetin, Barış Korkmaz, Gülce Alev, Veysi Demirbilek
Electroencephalographic abnormalities may occur in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) even in the absence of clinical seizures. These abnormalities may vary from nonspecific changes to epileptiform abnormalities and are more common compared to the overall population. The level of intelligence is a significant risk factor for epilepsy in ASD. However, the relation between the functionality of the individuals with autism and the electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities, and the clinical significance of these abnormalities still remain relatively unclear...
April 26, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446518/glutaminyl-cyclase-inhibitor-pq912-improves-cognition-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-studies-on-relation-to-effective-target-occupancy
#20
Torsten Hoffmann, Antje Meyer, Ulrich Heiser, Stephan Kurat, Livia Bohme, Martin Kleinschmidt, Karl-Ulrich Buhring, Birgit Hutter-Paier, Martina Farcher, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Inge Lues, Stephan Schilling
Numerous studies suggest that the majority of Aβ peptides deposited in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is truncated and post-translationally modified at the N-terminus. Among these modified species, pyroglutamyl-Aβ (pE-Aβ including N3pE-Aβ42) has been identified as particularly neurotoxic. The N-terminal modification renders the peptide hydrophobic, accelerates formation of oligomers and reduces degradation by peptidases leading ultimately to the accumulation of the peptide and progression of AD. It has been shown, that the formation of pyroglutamyl residues is catalysed by glutaminyl cyclase (QC)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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