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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433658/molecular-cloning-of-esr2-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-esr1-and-esr2-in-the-pituitary-gland-of-the-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis-during-female-reproductive-cycle
#1
Ruidong Zhang, Yanan Yin, Long Sun, Peng Yan, Yongkang Zhou, Rong Wu, Xiaobing Wu
Estrogens play critical roles in reproductive physiology via estrogen receptors (ESRs) in vertebrates, including reptiles. Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an endemic and endangered reptile species in China. In the present study, we cloned ESR2 gene from the ovary using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), investigated the spatial expression of ESRs in various tissues and temporal expression of ESRs in the pituitary glands during the reproductive cycle in Chinese alligators by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433593/tissue-distribution-and-metabolism-of-triadimefon-and-triadimenol-enantiomers-in-chinese-lizards-eremias-argus
#2
Jitong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Triadimefon (TF, S-(+)-TF, R-(-)-TF) and its metabolite triadimenol (TN, TN-A1, A2 and TN-B1, B2) are two systemic fungicides and both of them are chiral pharmaceuticals which are widely used in agricultural industry. Many researches focused on the toxicity effects of triadimefon on mammals, while the ecotoxicological data of tiradimefon on reptiles is limited. In order to understand the toxicity mechanism of triadimefon in reptiles, the current study administrated S-(+)-TF or R-(-)-TF traidimefon (50mg/kg(bw)) to Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) respectively, the absorption, distribution of triadimefon and the formation of triadimenol were analysed at different sampling times...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431132/revealing-the-biochemical-and-genetic-basis-of-colour-variation-in-a-polymorphic-lizard
#3
Claire A McLean, Adrian Lutz, Katrina J Rankin, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adnan Moussalli
Determining the mechanistic and genetic basis of animal coloration is essential to understand the costs and constraints on colour production, and the evolution and maintenance of phenotypic variation. However, genes underlying structural colour and widespread pigment classes apart from melanin remain largely uncharacterised, in part due to restricted taxonomic focus. We combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq gene expression analyses to characterise the pigments and genes associated with skin colour in the polymorphic lizard, Ctenophorus decresii...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426409/a-new-species-of-oochoristica-cyclophyllidea-linstowiidae-from-non-native-mediterranean-geckos-hemidactylus-turcicus-sauria-gekkonidae-from-texas-usa
#4
Chris T McAllister, Charles R Bursey
A new species of cyclophyllidean tapeworm, Oochoristica harschi sp. nov. is described from 2 of 18 (11%) non-native Mediterranean geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) collected in June 2016 from Tom Green County, Texas, USA The new species has few characteristics in common with 17 species of Oochoristica previously described from Nearctic reptiles. Of this group, O. harschi is most similar to O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana from Arizona and California, USA, in number of testes, 14-20 vs...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425474/invasion-of-ancestral-mammals-into-dim-light-environments-inferred-from-adaptive-evolution-of-the-phototransduction-genes
#5
Yonghua Wu, Haifeng Wang, Elizabeth A Hadly
Nocturnality is a key evolutionary innovation of mammals that enables mammals to occupy relatively empty nocturnal niches. Invasion of ancestral mammals into nocturnality has long been inferred from the phylogenetic relationships of crown Mammalia, which is primarily nocturnal, and crown Reptilia, which is primarily diurnal, although molecular evidence for this is lacking. Here we used phylogenetic analyses of the vision genes involved in the phototransduction pathway to predict the diel activity patterns of ancestral mammals and reptiles...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424837/arsenic-cadmium-chromium-lead-mercury-and-selenium-concentrations-in-pine-snakes-pituophis-melanoleucus-from-the-new-jersey-pine-barrens
#6
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Christian Jeitner, Robert Zappalorti, Taryn Pittfield, Emile DeVito
Top trophic level predators are at risk from bioaccumulation of heavy metals from their prey. Using nondestructively collected tissues as a method of assessing metal concentrations in snakes is useful for populations that are threatened or declining. This paper reports concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in tissues of Northern pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens, a relatively pristine, undisturbed habitat. We also determined if skin is an appropriate indicator of internal concentrations and identified the factors (tissue, year of collection, length, sex) that might explain variations in metal concentrations...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424629/molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-apoptosis-during-dissociated-spermatogenesis
#7
Tengfei Liu, Lingling Wang, Hong Chen, Yufei Huang, Ping Yang, Nisar Ahmed, Taozhi Wang, Yi Liu, Qiusheng Chen
Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process by which tissues eliminate unwanted cells. Spontaneous germ cell apoptosis in testis has been broadly investigated in mammals that have an associated spermatogenesis pattern. However, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in seasonally breeding reptiles following a dissociated spermatogenesis has remained enigmatic. In the present study, morphological evidence has clearly confirmed the dissociated spermatogenesis pattern in Pelodiscus sinensis. TUNEL and TEM analyses presented dynamic changes and ultrastructural characteristics of apoptotic germ cells during seasonal spermatogenesis, implying that apoptosis might be one of the key mechanisms to clear degraded germ cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417603/squamate-conserved-loci-sqcl-a-unified-set-of-conserved-loci-for-phylogenomics-and-population-genetics-of-squamate-reptiles
#8
Sonal Singhal, Maggie Grundler, Guarino Colli, Daniel L Rabosky
The identification of conserved loci across genomes, along with advances in target capture methods and high-throughput sequencing, has helped spur a phylogenomics revolution by enabling researchers to gather large numbers of homologous loci across clades of interest with minimal upfront investment in locus design. Target capture for vertebrate animals is currently dominated by two approaches - anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) and ultraconserved elements (UCE) - and both approaches have proven useful for addressing questions in phylogenomics, phylogeography, and population genomics...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414083/functional-characterization-of-neotropical-snakes-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-subsets-linking-flow-cytometry-cell-features-microscopy-images-and-serum-corticosterone-levels
#9
Marcelo Pires Nogueira de Carvalho, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Cristina de Oliveira Massoco, Sávio Stefanini Sant'Anna, Mariana Mathias Lourenço, Gabriel Levin, Mari Cleide Sogayar, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images...
April 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405026/the-earliest-bird-line-archosaurs-and-the-assembly-of-the-dinosaur-body-plan
#10
Sterling J Nesbitt, Richard J Butler, Martín D Ezcurra, Paul M Barrett, Michelle R Stocker, Kenneth D Angielczyk, Roger M H Smith, Christian A Sidor, Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki, Andrey G Sennikov, Alan J Charig
The relationship between dinosaurs and other reptiles is well established, but the sequence of acquisition of dinosaurian features has been obscured by the scarcity of fossils with transitional morphologies. The closest extinct relatives of dinosaurs either have highly derived morphologies or are known from poorly preserved or incomplete material. Here we describe one of the stratigraphically lowest and phylogenetically earliest members of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), Teleocrater rhadinus gen. et sp...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404818/quantitative-abilities-in-a-reptile-podarcis-sicula
#11
Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Isabel Fraccaroli, Francesco Gariboldi, Christian Agrillo, Angelo Bisazza, Cristiano Bertolucci, Augusto Foà
The ability to identify the largest amount of prey available is fundamental for optimizing foraging behaviour in several species. To date, this cognitive skill has been observed in all vertebrate groups except reptiles. In this study we investigated the spontaneous ability of ruin lizards to select the larger amount of food items. In Experiment 1, lizards proved able to select the larger food item when presented with two alternatives differing in size (0.25, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.75 ratio). In Experiment 2 lizards presented with two groups of food items (1 versus 4, 2 versus 4, 2 versus 3 and 3 versus 4 items) were unable to select the larger group in any contrast...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403767/tick-borne-infectious-diseases-in-australia
#12
REVIEW
Stephen R Graves, John Stenos
Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R...
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403170/are-fundamental-niches-larger-than-the-realized-testing-a-50-year-old-prediction-by-hutchinson
#13
J Soberón, B Arroyo-Peña
For more than 50 years ecological niches have been defined as combinations of multidimensional environmental conditions permitting a species to survive and reproduce. A fundamental niche (NF) is defined as the set of conditions within which a species can live in the absence of competitors, and a realized niche (NR) is a NF hypothetically reduced by competitive interactions (and some other limiting factors). This definition implies that NF is "larger" than NR, something that has been nearly universally accepted by ecologists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397398/proteomic-profile-of-mabuya-sp-squamata-scincidae-ovary-and-placenta-during-gestation
#14
Nathaly Hernández-Díaz, Rodrigo Torres, Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla
Reptiles are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, providing an integrated system for comparative studies on metabolic, animal physiology, and developmental biology. However, the molecular data available are limited and only recently have started to call attention in the "omics" sciences. Mabuya sp. is a viviparous placentrotrophic skink with particular reproductive features, including microlecithal eggs, early luteolysis, prolonged gestation, and development of a highly specialized placenta. This placenta is responsible for respiratory exchange and the transference of all nutrients necessary for embryonic development...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396626/pattern-of-neurogenesis-and-identification-of-neuronal-progenitor-subtypes-during-pallial-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#15
Nerea Moreno, Agustín González
The complexity of the pallium during evolution has increased dramatically in many different respects. The highest level of complexity is found in mammals, where most of the pallium (cortex) shows a layered organization and neurons are generated during development following an inside-out order, a sequence not observed in other amniotes (birds and reptiles). Species-differences may be related to major neurogenetic events, from the neural progenitors that divide and produce all pallial cells. In mammals, two main types of precursors have been described, primary precursor cells in the ventricular zone (vz; also called radial glial cells or apical progenitors) and secondary precursor cells (called basal or intermediate progenitors) separated from the ventricle surface...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393843/a-short-snouted-middle-triassic-phytosaur-and-its-implications-for-the-morphological-evolution-and-biogeography-of-phytosauria
#16
Michelle R Stocker, Li-Jun Zhao, Sterling J Nesbitt, Xiao-Chun Wu, Chun Li
Following the end-Permian extinction, terrestrial vertebrate diversity recovered by the Middle Triassic, and that diversity was now dominated by reptiles. However, those reptilian clades, including archosaurs and their closest relatives, are not commonly found until ~30 million years post-extinction in Late Triassic deposits despite time-calibrated phylogenetic analyses predicting an Early Triassic divergence for those clades. One of these groups from the Late Triassic, Phytosauria, is well known from a near-Pangean distribution, and this easily recognized clade bears an elongated rostrum with posteriorly retracted nares and numerous postcranial synapomorphies that are unique compared with all other contemporary reptiles...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390664/vascular-distensibilities-have-minor-effects-on-intracardiac-shunt-patterns-in-reptiles
#17
Renato Filogonio, Cléo Alcantara Costa Leite, Tobias Wang
The different vascular distensibilities of systemic and pulmonary circuits were recently proposed as an important mechanism defining the direction of cardiac shunt and the distribution of cardiac output in vertebrates with undivided cardiac ventricles. In short, the more distensible pulmonary vascular bed was proposed to accommodate a larger portion of the blood ejected from the heart when cardiac output increases. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed a meta-analysis based on fourteen previously published studies in two species of reptiles (the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta, and the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus) to describe how cardiac shunt patterns change when cardiac output increases...
February 20, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386425/earliest-filter-feeding-pterosaur-from-the-jurassic-of-china-and-ecological-evolution-of-pterodactyloidea
#18
Chang-Fu Zhou, Ke-Qin Gao, Hongyu Yi, Jinzhuang Xue, Quanguo Li, Richard C Fox
Pterosaurs were a unique clade of flying reptiles that were contemporaries of dinosaurs in Mesozoic ecosystems. The Pterodactyloidea as the most species-diverse group of pterosaurs dominated the sky during Cretaceous time, but earlier phases of their evolution remain poorly known. Here, we describe a 160 Ma filter-feeding pterosaur from western Liaoning, China, representing the geologically oldest record of the Ctenochasmatidae, a group of exclusive filter feeders characterized by an elongated snout and numerous fine teeth...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384422/physiological-correlates-of-multiple-parasitic-infections-in-side-blotched-lizards
#19
Austin R Spence, Andrew M Durso, Geoffrey D Smith, Heather M Skinner, Susannah S French
We investigated the presence of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) across a large part of their range and measured how parasitic infection related to several key physiological indicators of health. Blood samples were collected from 132 lizards from central Arizona, southern Utah, and eastern Oregon. Hemoparasites were found in 22 individuals (3.2% prevalence in Arizona, 19.1% in Utah, and 6.3% in Oregon), and ectoparasites were found on 51 individuals (56.3% prevalence in Arizona, 56...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382637/pharmacokinetics-of-nebulized-and-subcutaneously-implanted-terbinafine-in-cottonmouths-agkistrodon-piscivorus
#20
L P Kane, M C Allender, G Archer, K Leister, M Rzadkowska, K Boers, M Souza, S Cox
Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is proposed as a serious threat to the conservation of several snake populations. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of terbinafine administered through nebulization and a sustained subcutaneous implant as potential treatments of Ophidiomyces in reptiles. Seven adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) were used in single-dose trials. Each snake was nebulized with terbinafine (2 mg/ml) for 30 min and had blood collected before nebulization and up to 12 hr after nebulization...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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