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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727845/emergent-multisystemic-enterococcus-infection-threatens-endangered-christmas-island-reptile-populations
#1
Karrie Rose, Jessica Agius, Jane Hall, Paul Thompson, John-Sebastian Eden, Mukesh Srivastava, Brendan Tiernan, Cheryl Jenkins, David Phalen
Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727769/small-subunit-ribosomal-metabarcoding-reveals-extraordinary-trypanosomatid-diversity-in-brazilian-bats
#2
Maria Augusta Dario, Ricardo Moratelli Mendonça da Rocha, Philipp Schwabl, Ana Maria Jansen, Martin S Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Bats are a highly successful, globally dispersed order of mammals that occupy a wide array of ecological niches. They are also intensely parasitized and implicated in multiple viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonosis. Trypanosomes are thought to be especially abundant and diverse in bats. In this study, we used 18S ribosomal RNA metabarcoding to probe bat trypanosome diversity in unprecedented detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total DNA was extracted from the blood of 90 bat individuals (17 species) captured along Atlantic Forest fragments of Espírito Santo state, southeast Brazil...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719647/morbidity-outcomes-and-cost-benefit-analysis-of-wildlife-rehabilitation-in-catalonia-spain
#3
Rafael Angel Molina-López, Santi Mañosa, Alex Torres-Riera, Manel Pomarol, Laila Darwich
BACKGROUND: There are few studies of careful examination of wildlife casualties in Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers. These studies are essential for detecting menaces to wild species and providing objective criteria about cost-benefit of treatments in those centers. The release rate is considered the main outcome indicator, but other parameters such as length of stay at the center and a cost-benefit index expressed as number of released animals per euro and day, could be used as reliable estimators of the rehabilitation costs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717152/effects-of-population-bottleneck-and-balancing-selection-on-the-chinese-alligator-are-revealed-by-locus-specific-characterization-of-mhc-genes
#4
Teng Zhai, Hai-Qiong Yang, Rui-Can Zhang, Li-Ming Fang, Guo-Heng Zhong, Sheng-Guo Fang
Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an endangered freshwater crocodilian endemic to China, which experienced a severe bottleneck about 30 years ago. In this study, we developed locus-specific primers to investigate the polymorphism of 3 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci in 3 Chinese alligator populations, in combination with 6 neutral microsatellite markers as a contrast. We found the genetic trace for the bottleneck effect on the endangered Chinese alligator: the low allelic diversity (2 alleles at each locus), the low nucleotide substitution rate (no more than 0...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712146/a-reversal-of-the-shift-towards-earlier-spring-phenology-in-several-mediterranean-reptiles-and-amphibians-during-the-1998-2013-warming-slowdown
#5
Roger Prodon, Philippe Geniez, Marc Cheylan, Florence Devers, Isabelle Chuine, Aurelien Besnard
Herps, especially amphibians, are particularly susceptible to climate change, since temperature tightly controls many parameters of their biological cycle - above all, their phenology. The timing of herps' activity or migration period - in particular the dates of their first appearance in spring and first breeding - and the shift to earlier dates in response to warming since the last quarter of the 20(th) century has often been described up to now as a nearly monotonic trend towards earlier phenological events...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699999/detection-of-zoonotic-and-livestock-specific-assemblages-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-free-living-wild-lizards
#6
Aurora Reboredo-Fernández, Elvira Ares-Mazás, Pedro Galán, Simone Mario Cacciò, Hipólito Gómez-Couso
Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasite that infects the gut of a wide range of vertebrates, including numerous wildlife species. However, little is known about this protozoan parasite in reptiles. Fecal samples from 31 wild lizards were collected in Galicia (northwest Spain) and screened for the presence of Giardia by PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region in the ribosomal unit. This allowed detection of the parasite in 5 samples (16.1%), and enabled identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A2 in two samples of Iberian rock lizard (Iberolacerta monticola), G...
July 10, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695272/cardiovascular-effects-of-histamine-in-three-widely-diverse-species-of-reptiles
#7
Nini Skovgaard, Augusto S Abe, Edwin W Taylor, Tobias Wang
The cardiovascular system of vertebrates is regulated by a vast number of regulatory factors, including histamine. In pythons, histamine induces a strong tachycardia and dilates the systemic vasculature, which resembles the cardiovascular response to the elevated metabolic rate during digestion. In fact, there is an important role of increased histaminergic tone on the heart during the initial 24 h of digestion in pythons. Whilst the cardiovascular effects of histamine are well studied in pythons, little is known about the effects in other groups of reptiles...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690787/the-effects-of-historical-fragmentation-on-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii-%C3%AE-and-microsatellite-variation-in-the-aegean-island-reptile-podarcis-erhardii
#8
Trent Santonastaso, Jackie Lighten, Cock van Oosterhout, Kenneth L Jones, Johannes Foufopoulos, Nicola M Anthony
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in disease resistance and is the most polymorphic gene region in vertebrates. Although habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to a loss in MHC variation through drift, the impact of other evolutionary forces may counter this effect. Here we assess the impact of selection, drift, migration, and recombination on MHC class II and microsatellite variability in 14 island populations of the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii. Lizards were sampled from islands within the Cyclades (Greece) formed by rising sea levels as the last glacial maximum approximately 20,000 before present...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690147/novel-anaplasma-and-ehrlichia-organisms-infecting-the-wildlife-of-two-regions-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#9
Herbert S Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R M Barbieri, Antonio H H Minervino, Antonio F Malheiros, Solange M Gennari, Marcelo B Labruna
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene...
July 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689725/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-allometry-of-metabolic-rate-and-mitochondrial-basal-proton-leak
#10
Elias T Polymeropoulos, R Oelkrug, C R White, M Jastroch
The mitochondrial basal proton leak (MBPL) significantly contributes to high body temperatures (Tb) and basal metabolic rates (BMR) in endotherms. In endotherms at a given body mass (M), liver MBPL is higher than in ectotherms, supporting the notion that MBPL may partly explain the evolutionary increase in metabolic rate (MR), fostering endothermy. Here, we re-addressed this assumption by performing a phylogenetic analysis comparing all available liver MBPL data for ecto- and endotherms. While MBPL within endotherms negatively scales with M and BMR as shown previously, MBPL of ectotherms does not scale allometrically with M...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689724/thermal-biology-in-two-syntopic-lizards-phymaturus-extrilidus-and-liolaemus-parvus-in-the-puna-region-of-argentina
#11
Rodrigo Gómez Alés, Juan Carlos Acosta, Alejandro Laspiur
Body temperature is the most important ecophysiological variable affecting reptiles' life history. Moreover, thermoregulation in ectotherms implies a struggle to reach preferred temperatures in natural conditions due to the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the thermal biology of two syntopic species, Phymaturus extrilidus and Liolaemus parvus, in the Puna region of San Juan, Argentina. We determined body temperature (Tb), micro-environmental temperatures (Ta and Ts) and operative temperatures (Te) in the field...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686550/reptiles-and-amphibians-self-assessment-color-reviewreptiles-and-amphibians-self-assessment-color-review-2nd-ed-by-fredric-l-frye-crc-press-taylor-and-francis-group-boca-raton-florida-2015-252-pp-isbn-9781482257601-us-43-95-hardback-35-16-paperback
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679723/the-evolution-of-climatic-niches-in-squamate-reptiles
#13
Marcio R Pie, Leonardo L F Campos, Andreas L S Meyer, Andressa Duran
Despite the remarkable diversity found in squamate reptiles, most of their species tend to be found in warm/dry environments, suggesting that climatic requirements played a crucial role in their diversification, yet little is known about the evolution of their climatic niches. In this study, we integrate climatic information associated with the geographical distribution of 1882 squamate species and their phylogenetic relationships to investigate the tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution in squamates, both over time and among lineages...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675687/disruptive-physiology-olfaction-and-the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis
#14
John Bienenstock, Wolfgang A Kunze, Paul Forsythe
This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems...
July 4, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675254/a-case-of-diprosopiasis-in-trachemys-scripta-scripta
#15
Giovanni Lanteri, Francesco Macrì, Annamaria Passantino, Vincenzo Monteverde, Fabio Marino, Giuseppe Mazzullo
This short communication describes a case of diprosopiasis in Trachemys scripta scripta imported from Florida and farmed for about 4 months by a private owner in Palermo, Sicily, Italy. The water turtle showed the morphological and radiological features characterizing such deformity. This communication aims to advance the knowledge of the reptile's congenital anomalies and suggests the need for more detailed investigations to better understand its pathogenesis.
June 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671308/biological-parameters-used-in-setting-captive-breeding-quotas-for-indonesia-s-breeding-facilities
#16
Jordi Janssen, Serene C L Chng
The commercial captive breeding of wildlife is often seen as a potential conservation tool to relieve pressure off wild populations, but laundering of wild-sourced specimens as captive-bred can seriously undermine these and provide a false sense of sustainability. Indonesia has been at the centre of such controversy, therefore we examine Indonesia's captive breeding production plan (CBPP) for 2016. A number of the quotas were found to be based on inaccurate and unrealistic biological parameters, and included species with no reported breeding stock...
July 3, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667331/a-new-exceptionally-preserved-juvenile-specimen-of-eusaurosphargis-dalsassoi-diapsida-and-implications-for-mesozoic-marine-diapsid-phylogeny
#17
Torsten M Scheyer, James M Neenan, Timea Bodogan, Heinz Furrer, Christian Obrist, Mathieu Plamondon
Recently it was suggested that the phylogenetic clustering of Mesozoic marine reptile lineages, such as thalattosaurs, the very successful fish-shaped ichthyosaurs and sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), among others, in a so-called 'superclade' is an artefact linked to convergent evolution of morphological characters associated with a shared marine lifestyle. Accordingly, partial 'un-scoring' of the problematic phylogenetic characters was proposed. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved and mostly articulated juvenile skeleton of the diapsid reptile, Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi, a species previously recovered within the marine reptile 'superclade', for which we now provide a revised diagnosis...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667307/dmrt1-is-required-for-primary-male-sexual-differentiation-in-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-pelodiscus-sinensis
#18
Wei Sun, Han Cai, Gloria Zhang, Haiyan Zhang, Haisheng Bao, Li Wang, Jian Ye, Guoying Qian, Chutian Ge
In vertebrates, the primary sex-determining signals that initiate sexual development are remarkably diverse, ranging from complete genetic to environmental cues. However, no sex determination-related genes have been functionally identified in reptiles. Here, we characterized a conserved DM domain gene, Dmrt1, in Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis (P. sinensis), which exhibits ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. Dmrt1 exhibited early male-specific embryonic expression, preceding the onset of gonadal sex differentiation...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666483/ethnozoological-study-of-animals-based-medicine-used-by-traditional-healers-and-indigenous-inhabitants-in-the-adjoining-areas-of-gibbon-wildlife-sanctuary-assam-india
#19
Manash Pratim Borah, Surya Bali Prasad
BACKGROUND: India has an immense faunal, floral, as well as cultural diversity with many ethnic communities who are primarily dependent on the traditional medicinal system for their primary health care. Documentation and evaluation of this indigenous remedial knowledge may be helpful to establish new drugs for human health. The present study is intended to look into different zootherapeutic medicinal uses in the traditional health care system among the native inhabitants adjacent to the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657652/life-histories-and-conservation-of-long-lived-reptiles-an-illustration-with-the-american-crocodile-crocodylus-acutus
#20
Venetia Briggs-Gonzalez, Christophe Bonenfant, Mathieu Basille, Michael Cherkiss, Jeff Beauchamp, Frank Mazzotti
Successful species conservation is dependent on adequate estimates of population dynamics, but age-specific demographics are generally lacking for many long-lived iteroparous species such as large reptiles. Accurate demographic information allows estimation of population growth rate, as well as projection of future population sizes and quantitative analyses of fitness trade-offs involved in evolution of life-history strategies. Here, a long-term capture-recapture study was conducted from 1978-2014 on the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in southern Florida...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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