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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327956/the-incidence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-macrorhabdus-ornithogaster-infection-in-budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus-in-a-veterinary-clinic
#1
Ronja Püstow, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, avian gastric yeast, is a common cause of gastrointestinal disease in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus). To better understand the clinical disease in budgerigars presented in a practice population, we reviewed the occurrence, clinical signs, and treatment success of M ornithogaster disease in budgerigars during a 2.5-year period at the Clinic for Birds and Reptiles, University of Leipzig (Leipzig, Germany). The yeast was diagnosed by microscopic examination of fresh fecal samples...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318754/coordination-of-bilateral-tooth-replacement-in-the-juvenile-gecko-is-continuous-with-in-ovo-patterning
#2
Theresa M Grieco, Joy M Richman
We performed a test of how function impacts a genetically programmed process that continues into postnatal life. Using the dentition of the polyphyodont gecko as our model, tooth shedding was recorded longitudinally across the jaw. We compared two time periods: one in which teeth were patterned symmetrically in ovo and a later period when teeth were initiated post-hatching. By pairing shedding events on the right and left sides, we found the patterns of tooth loss are symmetrical and stable between periods, with only subtle deviations...
January 10, 2018: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316515/the-body-burden-and-thyroid-disruption-in-lizards-eremias-argus-living-in-benzoylurea-pesticides-contaminated-soil
#3
Jing Chang, Jitong Li, Weiyu Hao, Huili Wang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Peng Xu
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg-1) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315571/salmonella-serotypes-isolated-in-geckos-kept-in-seven-collections-in-southern-italy
#4
T P Russo, L Varriale, L Borrelli, A Pace, M Latronico, L F Menna, A Fioretti, L Dipineto
OBJECTIVES: Reptiles are considered an important reservoir of Salmonella species. This study evaluated the prevalence of Salmonella species in different species of gecko kept as pets in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faecal swab samples were collected from 70 clinically healthy geckos and examined for Salmonella species by culture that were then serotyped. RESULTS: Salmonella species were isolated from 24 of 70 (34·3%) samples. Eighteen isolates expressed resistance to ceftazidime and four isolates to ampicillin...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313469/reptiles-and-amphibians-as-potential-reservoir-hosts-of-chikungunya-virus
#5
Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Airn E Hartwig, Richard A Bowen
Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312825/amphibian-and-reptile-biodiversity-in-the-semi-arid-region-of-the-municipality-of-nopala-de-villagr%C3%A3-n-hidalgo-mexico
#6
Andrea J Roth-Monzón, Andrés Alberto Mendoza-Hernández, Oscar Flores-Villela
Current global changes are putting both biodiversity and the processes that depend on it at risk. This is especially true for semi-arid regions and the flagship groups that inhabit them, such as amphibians and reptiles. Semi-arid regions are often thought to have lower biodiversity and thus have been overlooked, resulting in the underestimation of their biological richness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the semi-arid municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Mexico, and analyze its biodiversity in relation to the seasons, vegetation and microhabitat...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310650/parasitaemia-data-and-molecular-characterization-of-haemoproteus-catharti-from-new-world-vultures-cathartidae-reveals-a-novel-clade-of-haemosporida
#7
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Ellen S Martinsen, Alexandra G Wickson, Amanda E Holland, Sonia M Hernandez, Alec T Thompson, Susan L Perkins, Christopher J West, A Lawrence Bryan, Christopher A Cleveland, Emily Jolly, Justin D Brown, Dave McRuer, Shannon Behmke, James C Beasley
BACKGROUND: New World vultures (Cathartiformes: Cathartidae) are obligate scavengers comprised of seven species in five genera throughout the Americas. Of these, turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) and black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are the most widespread and, although ecologically similar, have evolved differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour. Three species of haemosporidians have been reported in New World vultures to date: Haemoproteus catharti, Leucocytozoon toddi and Plasmodium elongatum, although few studies have investigated haemosporidian parasites in this important group of species...
January 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310550/a-review-on-chlamydial-diseases-in-animals-still-a-challenge-for-pathologists
#8
Nicole Borel, Adam Polkinghorne, Andreas Pospischil
Chlamydiae have a worldwide distribution causing a wide range of diseases in human hosts, livestock, and companion animals as well as in wildlife and exotic species. Moreover, they can persist in their hosts as asymptomatic infections for extended periods of time. The introduction of molecular techniques has revolutionized the Chlamydia field by expanding the host range of known chlamydial species but also by discovering new species and even new families of bacteria in the broader order Chlamydiales. The wide range of hosts, diseases, and tissues affected by chlamydiae complicate the diagnosis such that standard diagnostic approaches for these bacteria are rare...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#9
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301695/do-ring-necked-snakes-choose-retreat-sites-based-upon-thermal-preferences
#10
Christian L Cox, Michael L Logan, Olivia Bryan, Darshdeep Kaur, Evan Leung, John McCormack, John McGinn, Lauren Miller, Caroline Robinson, Jena Salem, Jessica Scheid, Tatiana Warzinski, Albert K Chung
Biochemical reaction rates are highly sensitive to temperature, and the body temperatures of ectotherms covary with their immediate environment. Therefore, ectotherms should choose microhabitats that permit the maintenance of physiological function. While some previous studies have found that squamate reptiles choose retreat sites that allow them to maintain physiologically optimal body temperatures, this research has been limited in context and taxonomic scope. We sought to test these empirical patterns by studying the properties of retreat sites in the context of physiological preferences and tolerances in a population of semifossorial ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus)...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298747/gifttiere-und-tiermedizin-in-antike-und-gegenwart
#11
W Sackmann
The veterinary manuals by Vegetius, Pelagonius and Chiron Kentauros, all three dating from the 4th century, contain remarks about livestock being poisoned by animal venoms. It is suggested, that livestock bitten by contaminated shrews, reptiles, scorpions, beetles and spiders shows signs of poisoning. The authors present various possible therapies for the sick livestock.
January 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297816/effects-of-a-light-emitting-diode-on-the-production-of-cholecalciferol-and-associated-blood-parameters-in-the-bearded-dragon-pogona-vitticeps
#12
Lara Cusack, Sam Rivera, Brad Lock, Daniel Benboe, David Brothers, Stephen Divers
The importance of vitamin D3 has been documented in multiple reptile species, with deficiencies resulting in alterations in calcium homeostasis, including nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Though vitamin D3 can be obtained directly from dietary sources or from photobiosynthetic production, species variability in diet and behavior makes exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation an essential requirement for some diurnal species. The effect of different bulbs to promote synthesis of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps) was evaluated...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291066/incubation-environment-impacts-the-social-cognition-of-adult-lizards
#13
Harry Siviter, D Charles Deeming, M F T van Giezen, Anna Wilkinson
Recent work exploring the relationship between early environmental conditions and cognition has shown that incubation environment can influence both brain anatomy and performance in simple operant tasks in young lizards. It is currently unknown how it impacts other, potentially more sophisticated, cognitive processes. Social-cognitive abilities, such as gaze following and social learning, are thought to be highly adaptive as they provide a short-cut to acquiring new information. Here, we investigated whether egg incubation temperature influenced two aspects of social cognition, gaze following and social learning in adult reptiles (Pogona vitticeps)...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284187/sex-antagonistic-genes-xy-recombination-and-feminized-y-chromosomes
#14
Elisa Cavoto, Samuel Neuenschwander, Jérôme Goudet, Nicolas Perrin
The canonical model of sex-chromosome evolution predicts that sex-antagonistic (SA) genes play an instrumental role in the arrest of XY recombination and ensuing Y-chromosome degeneration. Although this model might account for the highly differentiated sex chromosomes of birds and mammals, it does not fit the situation of many lineages of fish, amphibians or non-avian reptiles, where sex chromosomes are maintained homomorphic through occasional XY recombination and/or high turnover rates. Such situations call for alternative explanatory frameworks...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283388/evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-w-chromosome-in-caenophidian-snakes
#15
Barbora Augstenová, Sofia Mazzoleni, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Michail Rovatsos
The caenophidian (assigned also as "advanced") snakes are traditionally viewed as a group of reptiles with a limited karyotypic variation and stable ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. The W chromosomes of the caenophidian snakes are heterochromatic, and pioneering studies demonstrated that they are rich in repetitive elements. However, a comparative study of the evolutionary dynamics of the repetitive content of the W chromosome across the whole lineage is missing. Using molecular-cytogenetic techniques, we explored the distribution of four repetitive motifs (microsatellites GATA, GACA, AG and telomeric-like sequences), which are frequently accumulated in differentiated sex chromosomes in vertebrates, in the genomes of 13 species of the caenophidian snakes covering a wide phylogenetic spectrum of the lineage...
December 28, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280959/pain-causing-venom-peptides-insights-into-sensory-neuron-pharmacology
#16
REVIEW
Sina Jami, Andelain Erickson, Stuart M Brierley, Irina Vetter
Venoms are produced by a wide variety of species including spiders, scorpions, reptiles, cnidarians, and fish for the purpose of harming or incapacitating predators or prey. While some venoms are of relatively simple composition, many contain hundreds to thousands of individual components with distinct pharmacological activity. Pain-inducing or "algesic" venom compounds have proven invaluable to our understanding of how physiological nociceptive neural networks operate. In this review, we present an overview of some of the diverse nociceptive pathways that can be modulated by specific venom components to evoke pain...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273793/optimising-monitoring-efforts-for-secretive-snakes-a-comparison-of-occupancy-and-n-mixture-models-for-assessment-of-population-status
#17
Robert J Ward, Richard A Griffiths, John W Wilkinson, Nina Cornish
A fifth of reptiles are Data Deficient; many due to unknown population status. Monitoring snake populations can be demanding due to crypsis and low population densities, with insufficient recaptures for abundance estimation via Capture-Mark-Recapture. Alternatively, binomial N-mixture models enable abundance estimation from count data without individual identification, but have rarely been successfully applied to snake populations. We evaluated the suitability of occupancy and N-mixture methods for monitoring an insular population of grass snakes (Natrix helvetica) and considered covariates influencing detection, occupancy and abundance within remaining habitat...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247466/disease-implications-of-animal-social-network-structure-a-synthesis-across-social-systems
#18
REVIEW
Pratha Sah, Janet Mann, Shweta Bansal
1.The disease costs of sociality have largely been understood through the link between group size and transmission. However, infectious disease spread is driven primarily by the social organization of interactions in a group and not its size. 2.We used statistical models to review the social network organization of 47 species, including mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and insects by categorizing each species into one of three social systems, relatively solitary, gregarious and socially hierarchical. Additionally, using computational experiments of infection spread, we determined the disease costs of each social system...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242826/a-triassic-plesiosaurian-skeleton-and-bone-histology-inform-on-evolution-of-a-unique-body-plan
#19
Tanja Wintrich, Shoji Hayashi, Alexandra Houssaye, Yasuhisa Nakajima, P Martin Sander
Secondary marine adaptation is a major pattern in amniote evolution, accompanied by specific bone histological adaptations. In the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction, diverse marine reptiles evolved early in the Triassic. Plesiosauria is the most diverse and one of the longest-lived clades of marine reptiles, but its bone histology is least known among the major marine amniote clades. Plesiosaurians had a unique and puzzling body plan, sporting four evenly shaped pointed flippers and (in most clades) a small head on a long, stiffened neck...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240975/macroecological-patterns-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-turtles-of-the-world
#20
Mickey Agha, Joshua R Ennen, A Justin Nowakowski, Jeffrey E Lovich, Sarah C Sweat, Brian D Todd
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a well-documented phenomenon in both plants and animals; however, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive and maintain SSD patterns across geographic space at regional and global scales are understudied, especially for reptiles. Our goal was to examine geographic variation of turtle SSD and to explore ecological and environmental correlates using phylogenetic comparative methods. We use published body size data on 135 species from nine turtle families to examine how geographic patterns and the evolution of SSD are influenced by habitat specialization, climate (annual mean temperature and annual precipitation) and climate variability, latitude, or a combination of these predictor variables...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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