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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206607/evolution-of-dosage-compensation-in-anolis-carolinensis-a-reptile-with-xx-xy-chromosomal-sex-determination
#1
Shawn M Rupp, Timothy H Webster, Kimberly C Olney, Elizabeth D Hutchins, Kenro Kusumi, Melissa A Wilson Sayres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202936/new-evidence-from-china-for-the-nature-of-the-pterosaur-evolutionary-transition
#2
Xiaoli Wang, Shunxing Jiang, Junqiang Zhang, Xin Cheng, Xuefeng Yu, Yameng Li, Guangjin Wei, Xiaolin Wang
Pterosaurs are extinct flying reptiles, the first vertebrates to achieve powered flight. Our understanding of the evolutionary transition between basal, predominantly long-tailed forms to derived short-tailed pterodactyloids remained poor until the discovery of Wukongopterus and Darwinopterus in western Liaoning, China. In this paper we report on a new genus and species, Douzhanopterus zhengi, that has a reduced tail, 173% the length of the humerus, and a reduced fifth pedal digit, whose first phalange is ca...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202808/a-broad-scale-comparison-of-aerobic-activity-levels-in-vertebrates-endotherms-versus-ectotherms
#3
James F Gillooly, Juan Pablo Gomez, Evgeny V Mavrodiev
Differences in the limits and range of aerobic activity levels between endotherms and ectotherms remain poorly understood, though such differences help explain basic differences in species' lifestyles (e.g. movement patterns, feeding modes, and interaction rates). We compare the limits and range of aerobic activity in endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, reptiles, and amphibians) by evaluating the body mass-dependence of VO2 max, aerobic scope, and heart mass in a phylogenetic context based on a newly constructed vertebrate supertree...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198921/premaxillary-crest-variation-within-the-wukongopteridae-reptilia-pterosauria-and-comments-on-cranial-structures-in-pterosaurs
#4
Xin Cheng, Shunxing Jiang, Xiaolin Wang, Alexander W A Kellner
Cranial crests show considerable variation within the Pterosauria, a group of flying reptiles that developed powered flight. This includes the Wukongopteridae, a clade of non-pterodactyloids, where the presence or absence of such head structures, allied with variation in the pelvic canal, have been regarded as evidence for sexual dimorphism. Here we discuss the cranial crest variation within wukongopterids and briefly report on a new specimen (IVPP V 17957). We also show that there is no significant variation in the anatomy of the pelvis of crested and crestless specimens...
February 9, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197415/pharmacoinformatics-adaptive-evolution-and-elucidation-of-six-novel-compounds-for-schizophrenia-treatment-by-targeting-daoa-g72-isoforms
#5
Sheikh Arslan Sehgal
Studies on Schizophrenia so far reveal a complex picture of neurological malfunctioning reported to be strongly associated with DAOA. Detailed sequence analyses proved DAOA as a primate specific gene having conserved gene desert region on both upstream and downstream region. The analyses of 10 MB chromosomal region of primates, birds, rodents, and reptiles having DAOA evidenced the conserved part in primates and in the rest of species, while DAOA is only present in primates. DAOA has four isoforms having one interaction partner DAO...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195584/live-birth-in-an-archosauromorph-reptile
#6
Jun Liu, Chris L Organ, Michael J Benton, Matthew C Brandley, Jonathan C Aitchison
Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193886/improved-regulatory-element-prediction-based-on-tissue-specific-local-epigenomic-signatures
#7
Yupeng He, David U Gorkin, Diane E Dickel, Joseph R Nery, Rosa G Castanon, Ah Young Lee, Yin Shen, Axel Visel, Len A Pennacchio, Bing Ren, Joseph R Ecker
Accurate enhancer identification is critical for understanding the spatiotemporal transcriptional regulation during development as well as the functional impact of disease-related noncoding genetic variants. Computational methods have been developed to predict the genomic locations of active enhancers based on histone modifications, but the accuracy and resolution of these methods remain limited. Here, we present an algorithm, regulatory element prediction based on tissue-specific local epigenetic marks (REPTILE), which integrates histone modification and whole-genome cytosine DNA methylation profiles to identify the precise location of enhancers...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192243/the-influence-of-mechanical-ventilation-on-physiological-parameters-in-ball-pythons-python-regius
#8
Sashia L Jakobsen, Catherine J A Williams, Tobias Wang, Mads F Bertelsen
Mechanical ventilation is widely recommended for reptiles during anesthesia, and while it is well-known that their low ectothermic metabolism requires much lower ventilation than in mammals, very little is known about the influence of ventilation protocol on the recovery from anesthesia. Here, 15 ball pythons (Python regius) were induced and maintained with isoflurane for 60min at one of three ventilation protocols (30, 125, or 250ml min(-1)kg(-1) body mass) while an arterial catheter was inserted, and ventilation was then continued on 100% oxygen at the specified rate until voluntary extubation...
February 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187551/systematics-of-a-small-i-gehyra-i-squamata-gekkonidae-from-the-einasleigh-uplands-queensland-description-of-a-new-range-restricted-species
#9
Gayleen Bourke, Renae C Pratt, Eric Vanderduys, Craig Moritz
The tropical savannah landscapes of Australia's north, though previously overshadowed by the biodiverse rainforests of the Wet Tropics, are themselves now attracting interest for their biological significance and uniqueness. The Einasleigh Uplands region of north-east Queensland is home to a diverse group of mammals and reptiles and was previously recognised for its importance in shaping speciation in birds. Here we add a small saxicoline gecko to a growing list of recently described reptiles that are endemic to this region...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187191/empirical-and-bayesian-approaches-to-fossil-only-divergence-times-a-study-across-three-reptile-clades
#10
Alan H Turner, Adam C Pritchard, Nicholas J Matzke
Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS) at a constant rate through time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187160/the-effects-of-dopamine-receptor-1-and-2-agonists-and-antagonists-on-sexual-and-aggressive-behaviors-in-male-green-anoles
#11
Alexandra N Smith, David Kabelik
The propensity to exhibit social behaviors during interactions with same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics is modulated by various neurotransmitters, including dopamine. Dopamine is a conserved neurotransmitter among vertebrates and dopaminergic receptors are also highly conserved among taxa. Activation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes has been shown to modulate social behaviors, especially in mammalian and avian studies. However, the specific behavioral functions of these receptors vary across taxa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183769/complete-genome-sequence-of-edwardsiella-hoshinae-atcc-35051
#12
Stephen R Reichley, Geoffrey C Waldbieser, Mark L Lawrence, Matt J Griffin
Edwardsiella hoshinae is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that has primarily been isolated from avians and reptiles. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of an isolate from a monitor lizard (Varanus sp.), which contains a chromosome of 3,811,650 bp and no plasmids.
February 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183129/the-type-localities-of-i-anolis-i-i-aequatorialis-i-werner-1894-sauria-iguania-dactyloidae-and-i-pristimantis-i-i-appendiculatus-i-werner-1894-amphibia-anura-craugastoridae
#13
Diego F Cisneros-Heredia
The eminent Austrian zoologist Franz Werner described several new species of amphibians and reptiles from America, including Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 and Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894. Both species were described based on single specimens, with no more specific type localities than "Ecuador" (Werner 1894a,b). After its description, A. aequatorialis remained unreported until Peters (1967) and Fitch et al. (1976) published information on its distribution and natural history. Anolis aequatorialis is currently known to inhabit low montane and cloud forest on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to central Ecuador, between 1300 and 2300 m elevation (Ayala-Varela & Velasco 2010; Ayala-Varela et al...
January 4, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182695/two-three-loci-control-scleral-ossicle-formation-via-epistasis-in-the-cavefish-astyanax-mexicanus
#14
Anastasia Lyon, Amanda K Powers, Joshua B Gross, Kelly E O'Quin
The sclera is the protective outer layer of the eye. In fishes, birds, and reptiles, the sclera may be reinforced with additional bony elements called scleral ossicles. Teleost fish vary in the number and size of scleral ossicles; however, the genetic mechanisms responsible for this variation remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine the inheritance of scleral ossicles in the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, which exhibits both a cave morph and a surface fish morph. As these morphs and their hybrids collectively exhibit zero, one, and two scleral ossicles, they represent a microcosm of teleost scleral ossicle diversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179395/molecular-physiology-of-freeze-tolerance-in-vertebrates
#15
REVIEW
Kenneth B Storey, Janet M Storey
Freeze tolerance is an amazing winter survival strategy used by various amphibians and reptiles living in seasonally cold environments. These animals may spend weeks or months with up to ∼65% of their total body water frozen as extracellular ice and no physiological vital signs, and yet after thawing they return to normal life within a few hours. Two main principles of animal freeze tolerance have received much attention: the production of high concentrations of organic osmolytes (glucose, glycerol, urea among amphibians) that protect the intracellular environment, and the control of ice within the body (the first putative ice-binding protein in a frog was recently identified), but many other strategies of biochemical adaptation also contribute to freezing survival...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177589/the-evolution-of-amniote-gastrulation-the-blastopore-primitive-streak-transition
#16
REVIEW
Matthew J Stower, Federica Bertocchini
In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates...
February 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173602/novel-approaches-for-phylogenetic-inference-from-morphological-data-and-total-evidence-dating-in-squamate-reptiles-lizards-snakes-and-amphisbaenians
#17
R Alexander Pyron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169187/reptile-perinatology
#18
REVIEW
Krista A Keller
Reptile perinatology refers to the time period surrounding hatching, for oviparous species, and immediately after birth, for viviparous species. Veterinarians working in myriad conservation and breeding programs require knowledge in this area. This article reviews anatomy and physiology of the amniotic egg, the basics of artificial incubation, when manual pipping is indicated, and basic medicine of the reptile hatchling or neonate.
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168721/yolk-sac-development-in-lizards-lacertilia-scincidae-new-perspectives-on-the-egg-of-amniotes
#19
James R Stewart, Michael B Thompson
Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159858/transcriptomic-alterations-in-the-brain-of-painted-turtles-chrysemys-picta-developmentally-exposed-to-bisphenol-a-or-ethinyl-estradiol
#20
Lindsey K Manshack, Caroline M Conard, Sara J Bryan, Sharon L Deem, Dawn K Holliday, Nathan J Bivens, Scott A Givan, Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld
Developmental exposure of turtles and other reptiles to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), can stimulate partial to full gonadal sex-reversal in males. We have also recently shown that in ovo exposure to either EDC can induce similar sex-dependent behavioral changes typified by improved spatial learning and memory or possibly feminized brain responses. Observed behavioral changes are presumed to be due to BPA- and EE-induced brain transcriptomic alterations during development...
February 3, 2017: Physiological Genomics
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