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Amy O'Donnell, Latifa Abidi, Jamie Brown, Nadine Karlsson, Per Nilsen, Kerstin Roback, Janna Skagerström, Kristin Thomas
BACKGROUND: Despite robust evidence for their effectiveness, it has proven difficult to translate alcohol prevention activities into routine health care practice. Previous research has identified numerous provider-level barriers affecting implementation, but these have been less extensively investigated in the wider population. We sought to: (1) investigate patients' beliefs and attitudes to being asked about alcohol consumption in health care; and (2) identify the characteristics of those who are supportive of addressing alcohol consumption in health care...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rajiv Gandhi Govindaraj, Misagh Naderi, Manali Singha, Jeffrey Lemoine, Michal Brylinski
Rare, or orphan, diseases are conditions afflicting a small subset of people in a population. Although these disorders collectively pose significant health care problems, drug companies require government incentives to develop drugs for rare diseases due to extremely limited individual markets. Computer-aided drug repositioning, i.e., finding new indications for existing drugs, is a cheaper and faster alternative to traditional drug discovery offering a promising venue for orphan drug research. Structure-based matching of drug-binding pockets is among the most promising computational techniques to inform drug repositioning...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
John Repass, Elizabeth Iorns, Alexandria Denis, Stephen R Williams, Nicole Perfito, Timothy M Errington
As part of the <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="">Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology</ext-link>, we published a Registered Report (Repass et al., 2016), that described how we intended to replicate an experiment from the paper ' Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma' (Castellarin et al., 2012). Here we report the results. When measuring Fusobacterium nucleatum DNA by qPCR in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), adjacent normal tissue, and separate matched control tissue, we did not detect a signal for F...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Yue Hu, Yunmei Qian, Lu Lin, Wenxin Chen, Liudi Yang, Xin Hu, Ke Tian, Kun Xia, Tong Su
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) in patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF)-associated buccal squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and to explore its clinical significance. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 56 tissue specimens were collected from patients, among which there were 13 specimens with normal buccal mucosa (NBM), 13 with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), 10 with OSF-associated BSCC (BSCC-OSF), 10 with well-differentiated BSCC (BSCC-I), and 10 with poorly to moderately differentiated BSCC (BSCC-II+III), based on pathologic examination...
March 6, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Rajiv Gandhi Govindaraj, Michal Brylinski
BACKGROUND: Detecting similar ligand-binding sites in globally unrelated proteins has a wide range of applications in modern drug discovery, including drug repurposing, the prediction of side effects, and drug-target interactions. Although a number of techniques to compare binding pockets have been developed, this problem still poses significant challenges. RESULTS: We evaluate the performance of three algorithms to calculate similarities between ligand-binding sites, APoc, SiteEngine, and G-LoSA...
March 9, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Gerald S Manning
The physical principles underlying expansion of a single-chain polyelectrolyte coil caused by Coulomb repulsions among its ionized groups, and the expansion of a cross-linked polyelectrolyte gel, are probably the same. In this paper, we analyze a "one-dimensional" version of a gel, namely, a linear chain of charged beads connected by Hooke's law springs. In the Debye-Hückel range of relatively weak Coulomb strength, where counterion condensation does not occur, the springs are realistically stretched on a nanolength scale by the repulsive interactions among the beads, if we use a spring constant normalized by the inverse square of the solvent Bjerrum length...
February 28, 2018: Soft Matter
Weiming Wang, Haofeng Xiong, Zhengmao Hu, Rongjuan Zhao, Yue Hu, Wenxin Chen, Ying Han, Liudi Yang, Xin Hu, Can Wang, Ting Mao, Kun Xia, Tong Su
OBJECTIVE: Although previous evidence indicates that CD147 is closely involved in the progression of organ fibrosis and various signaling pathways have been proven to regulate its expression, the role of CD147 in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) remain largely unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the expression of CD147 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in human samples of an OSF tissue array by immunohistopathology. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between CD147 and TGF-β1...
February 19, 2018: Oral Diseases
Florian Naudet, Charlotte Sakarovitch, Perrine Janiaud, Ioana Cristea, Daniele Fanelli, David Moher, John P A Ioannidis
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effectiveness of data sharing by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in journals with a full data sharing policy and to describe potential difficulties encountered in the process of performing reanalyses of the primary outcomes. DESIGN: Survey of published RCTs. SETTING: PubMed/Medline. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: RCTs that had been submitted and published by The BMJ and PLOS Medicine subsequent to the adoption of data sharing policies by these journals...
February 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Andrea C Tricco, Wasifa Zarin, Patricia Rios, Vera Nincic, Paul A Khan, Marco Ghassemi, Sanober Diaz, Ba' Pham, Sharon E Straus, Etienne V Langlois
BACKGROUND: It is unclear how to engage a wide range of knowledge users in research. We aimed to map the evidence on engaging knowledge users with an emphasis on policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process through a scoping review. METHODS: We used the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance for scoping reviews. Nine electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE), two grey literature sources (e.g., OpenSIGLE), and reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were searched from 1996 to August 2016...
February 12, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Tung-Yuan Wang, Yu-Wei Chiu, Yi-Tzu Chen, Yu-Hsun Wang, Hui-Chieh Yu, Chuan-Hang Yu, Yu-Chao Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is one of the clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) with an increased risk of oral cancer development. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OL in Taiwanese population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OL cohort according to age, sex, and index year...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Sheetal S Choudhari, Deepak G Kulkarni, Sangeeta Patankar, Supriya M Kheur, Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is characterized by excessive fibrosis of submucosa. The degree of vascularity in OSF has always been a matter of debate. Angiogenesis is the key mechanism involved in regeneration and repair. It also plays an important role in various pathologic conditions. Angiogenesis may contribute to the progression of fibrosis in fibrotic disorders. Inhibition of pathological angiogenesis is considered to be a new strategy for the treatment of various fibrotic disorders. In OSF, angiogenesis can be related to progression fibrosis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Amy Johnston, Sabrina Natarajan, Meghan Hayes, Erika MacDonald, Risa Shorr
INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors are commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In patients with IBD who are unresponsive to their first induction dose, the implementation of an 'accelerated' induction dose schedule (doses more frequent than recommended in product monographs) is becoming increasingly common. It is unclear whether this practice results in favourable patient outcomes, such as avoidance of surgery and disease remission. As such, there is a need to identify and map the current evidence base on accelerated induction schedules of these medications in the treatment of IBD...
January 30, 2018: BMJ Open
Damien L Crone, Stefan Bode, Carsten Murawski, Simon M Laham
A major obstacle for the design of rigorous, reproducible studies in moral psychology is the lack of suitable stimulus sets. Here, we present the Socio-Moral Image Database (SMID), the largest standardized moral stimulus set assembled to date, containing 2,941 freely available photographic images, representing a wide range of morally (and affectively) positive, negative and neutral content. The SMID was validated with over 820,525 individual judgments from 2,716 participants, with normative ratings currently available for all images on affective valence and arousal, moral wrongness, and relevance to each of the five moral values posited by Moral Foundations Theory...
2018: PloS One
Ronen Hershman, Avishai Henik, Noga Cohen
Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Hui-Wen Yang, Ming-Yi Lu, Yu-Wei Chiu, Yi-Wen Liao, Yu-Feng Huang, Pin Ju Chueh, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Cheng-Chia Yu
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition with symptoms of limited mouth opening and areca nut chewing habit has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Hinokitiol, a natural tropolone derived from Chamacyparis taiwanensis, has been reported to improve oral lichen planus and inhibit various cancer cells. Here, we showed that hinokitiol reduced the myofibroblast activities in fBMFs and prevented the arecoline-induced transdifferentiation. Treatment of hinokitiol dose-dependently downregulated the myofibroblast markers as well as various EMT transcriptional factors...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Manon Launay, Antoine Roux, Laurence Beaumont, Benoit Douvry, Lucien Lecuyer, Emmanuel Douez, Clément Picard, Dominique Grenet, Vincent Jullien, Véronique Boussaud, Romain Guillemain, Eliane M Billaud
Appropriate exposure to posaconazole (PSZ) has been limited until the recent approval of the delayed-release oral tablet formulation. Our goal was to determine the exposure obtained by using the standard dose of 300 mg once a day in lung transplant (LT) patients, including patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). PSZ trough concentrations ( C 0 ) were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Indicative thresholds of interest were <0.7 mg/liter for prophylaxis and 1 to 3 mg/liter for cure...
March 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Alphia Abdikeeva, Alina Covaci
Across Europe, Roma face exclusion and obstacles in access to health services, resulting in poorer health. While there are legal and policy frameworks for Roma inclusion, implementation often lags behind. Increasing the grassroots capacity of Roma to advocate for accountability in health care and against systemic impediments has been a central focus of Open Society Foundations (OSF) support. This analysis discusses the impact of an OSF-supported legal advocacy project on Roma health rights in Macedonia. The paper uses qualitative indicators to measure the capacity of nongovernmental organizations, accountability for violations, changes in law and practice, and impact on communities...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
Ivo K Genev, Lindsey A Tompkins, Manorama M Khare, Farhad Farokhi
Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the United States. It has been associated with a reduction in patient quality of life and more serious complications such as stroke and heart failure. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of commonly performed invasive procedures in keeping patients in normal sinus rhythm. Methods and Results: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent primary radiofrequency catheter ablation, the complete Cox-maze, or the hybrid maze at OSF Saint Anthony Medical Center between January 2010 and December 2013 (n=140)...
February 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Che-Yi Lin, Yi-Wen Liao, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Ming-Yi Lu, Chih-Yu Peng, Pei-Ming Chu, Hui-Wen Yang, Yu-Feng Huang, Cheng-Chia Yu, Chuan-Hang Yu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Emerging research findings suggest that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulators to fibrosis formation. Nevertheless, the role of lncRNA GAS5-AS1 in the progression of precancerous oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR were used to examine the expression of GAS5-AS1 in OSF tissues. The activities of myofibroblasts, including collagen contractility and cell migration, as well as the marker α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) were assessed following overexpression of GAS5-AS1...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Michal Brylinski, Misagh Naderi, Rajiv Gandhi Govindaraj, Jeffrey Lemoine
About 7000 rare, or orphan, diseases affect more than 350 million people worldwide. Although these conditions collectively pose significant health care problems, drug companies seldom develop drugs for orphan diseases due to extremely limited individual markets. Consequently, developing new treatments for often life-threatening orphan diseases is primarily contingent on financial incentives from governments, special research grants, and private philanthropy. Computer-aided drug repositioning is a cheaper and faster alternative to traditional drug discovery offering a promising venue for orphan drug research...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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