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Carbamazepine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542801/serum-protein-binding-of-25-antiepileptic-drugs-in-a-routine-clinical-setting-a-comparison-of-free-non-protein-bound-concentrations
#1
Philip N Patsalos, Miguel Zugman, Charlotte Lake, Anthony James, Neville Ratnaraj, Josemir W Sander
OBJECTIVE: Given that only the free non-protein-bound concentration of an antiepileptic drug (AED) crosses the blood-brain barrier, entering the brain and producing an antiepileptic effect, knowledge and measurement of the free drug fraction is important. Such data are sparse, particularly for newer AEDs, and have arisen from the use of disparate methodologies and settings over the past six decades. We report on the protein binding of 25 AEDs that are available for clinical use, along with two pharmacologically active metabolites (carbamazepine-epoxide and N-desmethyl clobazam), using standardized methodology and under set conditions...
May 24, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542738/carbamazepine-and-oxcarbazepine-induced-hyponatremia-in-people-with-epilepsy
#2
Bianca Berghuis, Job van der Palen, Gerrit-Jan de Haan, Dick Lindhout, Bobby P C Koeleman, Josemir W Sander
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain possible determinants of carbamazepine (CBZ)- and oxcarbazepine (OXC)-induced hyponatremia in a large cohort of people with epilepsy. METHODS: We collected data on serum sodium levels in people with epilepsy who were attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment with CBZ or OXC. We defined hyponatremia as Na+ ≤134 mEq/L and severe hyponatremia as Na+ ≤128 mEq/L. RESULTS: We identified 1,782 people who had used CBZ (n = 1,424) or OXC (n = 358), of whom 50 were treated with both drugs...
May 24, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539103/possible-oxcarbazepine-inductive-effects-on-aripiprazole-metabolism-a-case-report
#3
Ian R McGrane, Joshua G Loveland, Jose de Leon
Oxcarbazepine is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inducer, which is structurally similar to carbamazepine. Although lacking Food and Drug Administration approval, oxcarbazepine is sometimes prescribed to treat aggressive behavior in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These youths may also be taking second-generation antipsychotics, some of which are substrates of the CYP3A4 metabolic pathway. The combination of these medications may result in decreased serum antipsychotic concentrations, potentially reducing effectiveness...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534299/adsorption-onto-mesoporous-silica-using-supercritical-fluid-technology-improves-dissolution-rate-of-carbamazepine-a-poorly-soluble-compound
#4
Aditya V Gandhi, Priyanka Thipsay, Bharat Kirthivasan, Emilio Squillante
The purpose of this research was to design and characterize an immediate-release formulation of carbamazepine (CBZ), a poorly soluble anti-epileptic drug, using a porous silica carrier. Carbon dioxide in its supercritical state (2000 psi, 30-35°C) was used as an anti-solvent to precipitate CBZ onto two particle size variants of silica. Adsorption isotherms were used as a pre-formulation strategy to select optimum ratios of silica and CBZ. The obtained drug-silica formulations were characterized by dissolution studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 22, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534270/occurrence-distribution-and-attenuation-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-the-riverside-groundwater-of-the-beiyun-river-of-beijing-china
#5
Lei Yang, Jiang-Tao He, Si-Hui Su, Ya-Feng Cui, De-Liang Huang, Guang-Cai Wang
This study investigated the occurrence, seasonal-spatial distribution characteristics, and attenuation process of 15 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in riverside sections of Beiyun River of Beijing. The overall PPCP levels both in surface water and riverside groundwater were moderate on the global scale, and showed higher concentrations in the dry season mainly caused by water temperature variation. Caffeine (CF), carbamazepine (CBZ), metoprolol (MTP), N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), diclofenac (DF), bezafibrate (BF), and gemfibrozil (GF) were seven representative PPCPs, because the rest eight studied compounds occurred in low concentrations and less than 15% of the total concentration of PPCPs...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532677/predicting-melt-rheology-for-hot-melt-extrusion-by-means-of-a-simple-tg-measurement
#6
Esther S Bochmann, Elgin E Üstüner, Andreas Gryczke, Karl G Wagner
The feasibility of predicting melt rheology by using the glass transition temperature (Tg) of a desired amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) for hot-melt extrusion (HME) and other melt based processes is presented. Three groups of three different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) or plasticizer/copovidone mixtures, with identical glass transition in rheological testing, were used. Their rheological behavior as a function of temperature and frequency were analyzed by means of small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) on an oscillatory rheometer...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531959/occurrence-and-removal-of-pharmaceuticals-hormones-personal-care-products-and-endocrine-disrupters-in-a-full-scale-water-reclamation-plant
#7
Ngoc Han Tran, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
This study provided the first comprehensive data on the occurrence and removal of twenty-five target emerging contaminants (ECs) in a full-scale water reclamation plant (WRP) in the Southeast Asian region. Nineteen out of the twenty-five ECs were ubiquitously detected in raw influent samples. Concentrations of the detected ECs in raw influent samples ranged substantially from 44.3 to 124,966ng/L, depending upon the compound and sampling date. The elimination of ECs in full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems at a local WRP was evaluated and compared...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528895/influence-of-perfluorocarbons-on-carbamazepine-and-benzodiazepine-for-a-neuro-lung-protective-strategy
#8
V Natchimuthu, Sabu Thomas, Murugan Ramalingam, S Ravi
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is commonly characterized by a triad of features including multiple seizure types, intellectual disability or regression. LGS type of seizures is epilepsy which is due to abnormal vibrations occurring in seizures. During the time of such abnormal vibrations, both the seizures and the lungs suffer a lack in oxygen content to a considerable extent. This results in prolonged vibrations and loses of nervous control. As a neuro-lung protective strategy, a novel attempt has been made to enrich both seizures and lungs with oxygen content through the support of Perfluorodecalin (an excellent oxygen carrier) C10F18 (PFD) and Perfluorohexane C6F14 (PFH) along with an enhancement in the antiepileptic activity by the two chosen antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Benzodiazepine (BDZ)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527278/-drug-rash-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-syndrome-induced-by-carbamazepine-case-report
#9
Jorge Alonso Marín, Mayra Alexandra Ortega, Isaura Pilar Sánchez, José Armando Pacheco
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction associated with a variety of drugs, mainly anticonvulsants, which is characterized by systemic symptoms and erythematous lesions, common to other toxicodermas. It is an uncommon clinical entity that requires a high suspicion by clinical staff given its varied initial presentation, and the fact that symptoms can overlap with those of other adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs. Without early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, mortality increases...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525812/clinical-characteristics-and-prrt2-gene-mutation-analysis-of-sporadic-patients-with-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-in-china
#11
Yu Zhang, Lin Li, Wei Chen, Jing Gan, Zhen Guo Liu
OBJECTIVE: As a rare type of movement disorder, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia mainly affects children and is associated with PRRT2 gene mutation. The objective of our study is to identify whether the sporadic patients share the same genotype-phenotype correlations as familial patients in China. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the clinical characteristics and PRRT2 gene mutations of 15 sporadic patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in china. The clinical and investigational data of our patients was recorded and analyzed meticulously...
May 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523600/sodium-channel-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#12
Martin J Brodie
Sodium channel blockers have been the mainstay of the pharmacological management of focal and generalised tonic-clonic seizures for more than 70 years. The focus of this paper will be on phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and eslicarbazepine acetate. All these antiepileptic drugs have similar efficacy and share similar dose-dependent, adverse effect profiles, although phenytoin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are more likely to cause idiosyncratic reactions than the others...
May 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522185/orofacial-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-and-functional-mri
#13
Yeon-Hee Lee, Kyung Mi Lee, Hyug-Gi Kim, Soo-Kyung Kang, Q-Schick Auh, Jyung-Pyo Hong, Yang-Hyun Chun
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated...
March 14, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508174/preclinical-comparison-of-mechanistically-different-antiseizure-antinociceptive-and-or-antidepressant-drugs-in-a-battery-of-rodent-models-of-nociceptive-and-neuropathic-pain
#14
Misty D Smith, Jose H Woodhead, Laura J Handy, Timothy H Pruess, Fabiola Vanegas, Erin Grussendorf, Joel Grussendorf, Karen White, Karolina K Bulaj, Reisa K Krumin, Megan Hunt, Karen S Wilcox
The series of experiments herein evaluated prototype drugs representing different mechanisms of antiseizure, antinociceptive or antidepressant action in a battery of preclinical pain models in adult male CF#1 mice (formalin, writhing, and tail flick) and Sprague Dawley rats partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). In the formalin assay, phenytoin (PHT, 6 mg/kg), sodium valproate (VPA, 300 mg/kg), amitriptyline (AMI, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg), gabapentin (GBP, 30 and 70 mg/kg), tiagabine (TGB, 5 and 15 mg/kg), and acetominophen (APAP, 250 and 500 mg/kg) reduced both phases of the formalin response to ≤ 25% of vehicle-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506426/heterogeneity-of-fhf1-related-phenotype-novel-case-with-early-onset-severe-attacks-of-apnea-partial-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complex-ii-deficiency-neonatal-onset-seizures-without-neurodegeneration
#15
Nathalie Villeneuve, Affef Abidi, Pierre Cacciagli, Cécile Mignon-Ravix, Brigitte Chabrol, Laurent Villard, Mathieu Milh
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a child prospectively followed in our institution for a severe, neonatal onset epilepsy presenting with severe attacks of apnea that were not initially recognized as seizure since they were not associated with any abnormal movement and since interictal EEG was normal. Recording of attacks using prolonged video-EEG recording allowed to confirm the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. RESULTS: Using whole exome sequencing we found a de novo heterozygous, missense mutation of FHF1 (p...
April 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506063/extensive-transformation-of-the-pharmaceutical-carbamazepine-following-uptake-into-intact-tomato-plants
#16
Christina Riemenschneider, Bettina Seiwert, Monika Moeder, Dietmar Schwarz, Thorsten Reemtsma
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an antiepileptic drug which is persistent in wastewater treatment plants and the environment. It has been frequently detected in plant material after irrigation with treated wastewater. To date, little information is, however, available on the transformation of CBZ in plants. In the present study, the uptake, translocation and transformation of CBZ was studied in hydroponically grown tomato plants. After 35 days of exposure > 80% of the total spiked amount of CBZ was taken by the tomato plants and mainly stored in the leaves...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505531/rapid-degradation-mineralization-and-detoxification-of-pharmaceutically-active-compounds-in-aqueous-solution-during-pulsed-corona-discharge-treatment
#17
Raj Kamal Singh, Ligy Philip, Sarathi Ramanujam
In the present study, plasma generated by pulsed corona discharge was used for the degradation of diclofenac, carbamazepine and ciprofloxacin. Pollutants in aqueous solution were plasma treated under two categories: single and mixed pollutant condition. Mixed pollutant condition showed an antagonistic behaviour and thus the degradation time was higher for mixed condition compared to the single condition. At different voltage and frequencies, degradation efficiency followed the trend, diclofenac>carbamazepine>ciprofloxacin...
May 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502907/neuropathic-and-inflammatory-antinociceptive-effects-and-electrocortical-changes-produced-by-salvia-divinorum-in-rats
#18
Karina Simón-Arceo, Ma Eva González-Trujano, Ulises Coffeen, Rodrigo Fernández-Mas, Francisco Mercado, Angélica Almanza, Bernardo Contreras, Orlando Jaimes, Francisco Pellicer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia divinorum Epling et Játiva-M (SD, Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in hallucinogenic ethnopharmacological practices and for its analgesic and antinflammatory properties. Its active compounds include diterpenes known as salvinorins which act as potent κ opioid receptor agonists. AIM OF THE STUDY: Given its effects in acute animal models of pain, as well as its antinflammatory attributes, we decided to investigate the analgesic effects of an SD extract in neuropathic (sciatic loose nerve ligature) and inflammatory (intra plantar carrageenan) pain models in rats...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496467/interference-free-determination-of-carbamazepine-in-human-serum-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-a-comprehensive-research-with-three-way-calibration-methods
#19
Shiva Ghafghazi, Taraneh Moini Zanjani, Maryam Vosough, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei
In the present study, a comprehensive and systematic strategy was described to evaluate the performance of several three-way calibration methods on a bio-analytical problem. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD), self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition (SWATLD), alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD), and unfolded partial least squares combined with the residual bilinearization procedure (U-PLS/RBL) were applied on high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) data to quantify carbamazepine (CBZ) in different serum samples...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487146/evaluation-of-a-biphasic-in-vitro-dissolution-test-for-estimating-the-bioavailability-of-carbamazepine-polymorphic-forms
#20
Jia Deng, Sven Staufenbiel, Roland Bodmeier
The purpose of this study was to discriminate three crystal forms of carbamazepine (a BCS II drug) by in vitro dissolution testing and to correlate in vitro data with published in vivo data. A biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) was used to evaluate the dissolution of the three polymorphic forms and to compare it with conventional single phase dissolution tests performed under sink and non-sink conditions. Similar dissolution profiles of three polymorphic forms were observed in the conventional dissolution test under sink conditions...
May 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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