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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822307/efficacy-of-a-third-or-later-antiepileptic-drug-regimen-according-to-epilepsy-syndrome-among-adult-patients
#1
Go Ito, Akihisa Okumura, Kousuke Kanemoto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of third or later antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens in adult patients with epilepsy according to epilepsy syndrome. METHODS: The time courses of AEDs and their efficacy were evaluated in 449 adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n=153), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME, n=33), or extratemporal focal epilepsy (FE, n=263) based mainly on clinical symptoms and EEG findings. Any change in AEDs after their initiation demarcated the end of one regimen, whereas changes in dose did not...
August 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815754/pharmacokinetic-interactions-and-dosing-rationale-for-antiepileptic-drugs-in-adults-and-children
#2
S C van Dijkman, W M Rauwé, M Danhof, O Della Pasqua
AIM: Population pharmacokinetic modelling has been widely used across many therapeutic areas to identify sources of variability, which are incorporated into models as covariate factors. Despite numerous publications on pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), such data are not used to support the dose rationale for polytherapy in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Here we assess the impact of DDIs on plasma concentrations and evaluate the need for AED dose adjustment...
August 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809556/radical-chemistry-and-structural-relationships-of-ppcp-degradation-by-uv-chlorine-treatment-in-simulated-drinking-water
#3
Kaiheng Guo, Zihao Wu, Chii Shang, Bo Yao, Shaodong Hou, Xin Yang, Weihua Song, Jingyun Fang
The UV/chlorine process is an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP) used for the degradation of micropollutants. However, the radical chemistry of this AOP is largely unknown for the degradation of numerous structurally diverse micropollutants in water matrices of varying quality. These issues were addressed by grouping 34 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) according to the radical chemistry of their degradation in the UV/chlorine process at practical PPCP concentrations (1 μg L-1) and in different water matrices...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799509/update-on-pharmacological-treatment-of-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies
#4
Edoardo Ferlazzo, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Gerrit-Jan de Haan, Felix Felix Nitschke, Saija Ahonen, Sara Gasparini, Berge A Minassian
BACKGROUND: Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of rare inherited diseases featuring a combination of myoclonus, seizures and variable degree of cognitive impairment. Despite extensive investigations, a large number of PMEs remain undiagnosed. In this review, we focus on the current pharmacological approach to PMEs. METHODS: References were mainly identified through PubMed search until February 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793962/simultaneous-extraction-and-concentration-of-water-pollution-tracers-using-ionic-liquid-based-systems
#5
Teresa B V Dinis, Helena Passos, Diana L D Lima, Ana C A Sousa, João A P Coutinho, Valdemar I Esteves, Mara G Freire
Human activities are responsible for the release of innumerous substances into the aquatic environment. Some of these substances can be used as pollution tracers to identify contamination sources and to prioritize monitoring and remediation actions. Thus, their identification and quantification are of high priority. However, due to their presence in complex matrices and at significantly low concentrations, a pre-treatment/concentration step is always required. As an alternative to the currently used pre-treatment methods, mainly based on solid-phase extractions, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and K3C6H5O7 are here proposed for the simultaneous extraction and concentration of mixtures of two important pollution tracers, caffeine (CAF) and carbamazepine (CBZ)...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789808/visible-light-driven-n-tio2-sio2-fe3o4-magnetic-nanophotocatalysts-synthesis-characterization-and-photocatalytic-degradation-of-ppcps
#6
Ashutosh Kumar, Musharib Khan, Liping Fang, Irene M C Lo
TiO2-based photocatalysis offers certain advantages like rapid degradation and mineralization of organic compounds. However, the practical applicability of photocatalysts in degradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is still restricted by challenges including their limited photocatalytic activity under visible light and difficulty in their separation from suspension. To overcome these challenges, a visible-light-driven magnetic N-TiO2@SiO2@Fe3O4 nanophotocatalyst was developed through fine-tuning the pertinent factors (calcination temperature, Fe3O4 loading, and nitrogen doping) involved during synthesis process, on the basis of degradation of ibuprofen (a typical PPCP)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783915/comparison-of-pocis-passive-samplers-vs-composite-water-sampling-a-case-study
#7
Justine Criquet, David Dumoulin, Michael Howsam, Leslie Mondamert, Jean-François Goossens, Jean Prygiel, Gabriel Billon
The relevance of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was evaluated for the assessment of concentrations of 46 pesticides and 19 pharmaceuticals in a small, peri-urban river with multi-origin inputs. Throughout the period of POCIS deployment, 24h-average water samples were collected automatically, and showed the rapid temporal evolution of concentrations of several micropollutants, as well as permitting the calculation of average concentrations in the water phase for comparison with those estimated from POCIS passive samplers...
August 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783498/a-fe-ii-citrate-uv-pms-process-for-carbamazepine-degradation-at-a-very-low-fe-ii-pms-ratio-and-neutral-ph-the-mechanisms
#8
Li Ling, Dapeng Zhang, Chihhao Fan, Chii Shang
A novel Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for degrading a model micropollutant, carbamazepine (CBZ), at a low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH has been proposed in this study, and the mechanisms of radical generation in the system was explored. With a UV dose of 302.4 mJ/cm(2), an initial pH of 7, and CBZ, PMS, Fe(II) and citrate at initial concentrations of 10, 100, 12 and 26 μM, respectively, the CBZ degradation efficiency reached 71% in 20 min in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, which was 4.7 times higher than that in either the citrate/UV/PMS or Fe(II)/citrate/PMS process...
July 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782244/using-the-affective-bias-test-to-predict-drug-induced-negative-affect-implications-for-drug-safety
#9
S A Stuart, C M Wood, E S J Robinson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Predicting the risk of drug-induced adverse psychiatric effects is important but currently not possible in non-human species. This study has investigated whether the affective bias test (ABT) could provide a preclinical method with translational and predictive validity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The ABT is a bowl-digging task which quantifies biases associated with learning and memory. Rats encounter independent learning experiences, on separate days, under either acute manipulations (e...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781184/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-the-open-sea-waters-of-the-western-mediterranean
#10
Miroslav Brumovský, Jitka Bečanová, Jiří Kohoutek, Mireno Borghini, Luca Nizzetto
Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772184/assessing-the-ecotoxicity-of-potentially-neurotoxic-substances-evaluation-of-a-behavioural-parameter-in-the-embryogenesis-of-danio-rerio
#11
Fabian G Weichert, Carolin Floeter, Adriana S Meza Artmann, Ulrike Kammann
The pollution of the aquatic environment is currently characterised by a large number of contaminants, especially by mixtures of micro-pollutants including neurotoxins. The ecotoxicological consequences of this burden are not yet assessable. Within the present study, a new test method was applied which evaluates behavioural changes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to quantify the neurotoxic effect of selected chemicals. Changes in the frequency of spontaneous tail movements - a parameter of locomotion - occurring during embryogenesis was assessed as parameter for neurotoxic effects...
July 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766129/use-and-safety-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-psychiatric-inpatients-data-from-the-amsp-study
#12
Katrin Druschky, Stefan Bleich, Renate Grohmann, Rolf R Engel, Alexandra Kleimann, Susanne Stübner, Waldemar Greil, Sermin Toto
The psychiatric utilization patterns and risks of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were assessed by using data from the drug safety programme Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie over the time period 1993-2013. In a total of 432,215 patients, the main indications for AED use were acute mania, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenic and organic psychoses. Valproic acid (VPA) was the most common substance across all of those groups, reaching administration rates of up to 50% since 2005, at which time carbamazepine (CBZ) administration consistently dropped below a rate of 10%...
August 1, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763668/effects-of-exposure-to-pharmaceuticals-diclofenac-and-carbamazepine-spiked-sediments-in-the-midge-chironomus-riparius-diptera-chironomidae
#13
Elena Nieto, Carmen Corada-Fernández, Miriam Hampel, Pablo A Lara-Martín, Paloma Sánchez-Argüello, Julián Blasco
Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and degradation products are continuously introduced into the environment. To date, there is a lack of information about the effects of pharmaceuticals in spiked toxicity tests with non-target organisms. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of exposure to two common pharmaceuticals in the midge Chironomus riparius in spiked sediment experiments. The selected pharmaceuticals are the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID): diclofenac (DF) and the anti-depressant drug carbamazepine (CBZ)...
July 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762108/trigeminal-neuropathy-associated-with-an-enlarging-arachnoid-cyst-in-meckel-s-cave-case-report-management-strategy-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Mark G Bigder, Adel Helmi, Anthony M Kaufmann
We describe a rare case and novel management strategy of painful trigeminal neuropathy caused by an arachnoid cyst confined to Meckel's cave. A 57-year-old female presented with several years of progressive trigeminal pain and signs of trigeminal deafferentation, including sensory loss, corneal anesthesia and mastication muscle atrophy. Medical treatment with carbamazepine provided partial and temporary pain control. Surgical treatment was eventually performed by aspiration of the arachnoid cyst through the foramen ovale using a percutaneous approach...
July 31, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761370/phenytoin-and-carbamazepine-in-trigeminal-neuralgia-marketing-based-versus-evidence-based-treatment
#15
EDITORIAL
Jan M Keppel Hesselink, Michael E Schatman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758982/n-doped-tio%C3%A2-coated-ceramic-membrane-for-carbamazepine-degradation-in-different-water-qualities
#16
Enbal Luster, Dror Avisar, Inna Horovitz, Luca Lozzi, Mark A Baker, Rossana Grilli, Hadas Mamane
The photocatalytic degradation of the model pollutant carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated under simulated solar irradiation with an N-doped TiO₂-coated Al₂O₃ photocatalytic membrane, using different water types. The photocatalytic membrane combines photocatalysis and membrane filtration in a single step. The impact of each individual constituent such as acidity, alkalinity, dissolved organic matter (DOM), divalent cations (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)), and Cl(-) on the degradation of CBZ was examined. CBZ in water was efficiently degraded by an N-doped TiO₂-coated Al₂O₃ membrane...
July 31, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758238/design-synthesis-and-docking-study-of-pyrimidine-triazine-hybrids-for-gaba-estimation-in-animal-epilepsy-models
#17
Meeta Sahu, Nadeem Siddiqui, Mohd Javed Naim, Ozair Alam, Mohammad Shahar Yar, Vidushi Sharma, Sharad Wakode
A series of new pyrimidine-triazine hybrids (4a-t) was designed and synthesized, from which potent anticonvulsant agents were identified. Most of the compounds exhibited promising anticonvulsant activity against the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) tests, along with minimal motor impairment with higher safety compared to the standard drugs, phenytoin and carbamazepine. In the series, 5-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4o) and 5-(6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4s) emerged as most potent anticonvulsant agents with median doses of 22...
July 31, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757050/electroencephalographic-cognitive-and-neurochemical-effects-of-ly3130481-cerc-611-a-selective-antagonist-of-tarp-%C3%AE-8-associated-ampa-receptors
#18
Jeffrey M Witkin, Jennifer Li, Gary Gilmour, Stephen N Mitchell, Guy Carter, Scott D Gleason, Wesley F Seidel, Brian J Eastwood, Andrew McCarthy, Warren J Porter, Jon Reel, Kevin M Gardinier, Akihiko S Kato, Keith A Wafford
6-[(1S)-1-[1-[5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-pyridyl]pyrazol-3-yl]ethyl]-3H-1,3-benzothiazol-2-one (LY3130481 or CERC-611) is a selective antagonist of AMPA receptors containing transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) γ-8. This molecule has been characterized as a potent and efficacious anticonvulsant in an array of acute and chronic epilepsy models in rodents. The present set of experiments was designed to assess the effects of LY3130481 on the electroencephelogram (EEG), cognitive function, and neurochemical outflow...
July 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756378/thalamic-and-cerebellar-hypermetabolism-and-cortical-hypometabolism-during-absence-status-epilepticus
#19
Kei Shimogori, Tadashi Doden, Kazuhiro Oguchi, Takao Hashimoto
We report on a 17-year-old girl with absence status epilepticus who developed recurrent motionless confusional state and continuous generalised 3-4 Hz rhythmic delta waves on electroencephalogram (EEG). The patient had no history of absence, myoclonus or generalised convulsion. Her seizure was resistant to a combination of antiepileptic drugs including carbamazepine. Ictal positron emission tomography using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG-PET) revealed hypermetabolism of the bilateral thalamus and cerebellum and hypometabolism of the frontal, parietal and posterior cingulate cortices...
July 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748902/acute-renal-failure-secondary-to-drug-related-crystalluria-and-or-drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptom-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#20
Saime Paydas, Mustafa Balal, Firat Kocabas, Nurettin Ay
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. Aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, and some drugs, can induce DRESS. Atypical crystalluria can be seen in patients treated with amoxycillin or some drugs and can cause acute renal failure. We describe a 66-year-old man who presented fever and rash and acute renal failure three days after starting amoxycillin. He was also using phenytoin because of cerebral metastatic lung cancer...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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