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Ricardo Soares-Dos-Reis, Ana Inês Martins, Ana Brás, Anabela Matos, Conceição Bento, João Lemos
Ocular neuromyotonia is a rare, albeit treatable, ocular motor disorder, characterised by recurrent brief episodes of diplopia due to tonic extraocular muscle contraction. Ephaptic transmission in a chronically damaged ocular motor nerve is the possible underlying mechanism. It usually improves with carbamazepine. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of recurrent episodes of binocular vertical diplopia (up to 40/day), either spontaneously or after sustained downward gaze. Between episodes she had a mild left fourth nerve palsy...
February 21, 2018: Practical Neurology
Albert Serra-Compte, Ana Luisa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz, Damià Barceló, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, António Marques
Warming and acidification are expected impacts of climate change to the marine environment. Besides, organisms that live in coastal areas, such as bivalves, can also be exposed to anthropogenic pollutants like pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In this study, the effects of warming and acidification on the bioconcentration, metabolization and depuration of five PhACs (sotalol, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, carbamazepine and citalopram) and two EDCs (methylparaben and triclosan) were investigated in the mussel species (Mytilus galloprovincialis), under controlled conditions...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lars Skou Elkjær, Bodil Hammer Bech, Yuelian Sun, Thomas Munk Laursen, Jakob Christensen
Importance: Valproate sodium is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders in women of childbearing potential. However, there are concerns about impaired cognitive development in children who have been exposed to valproate during pregnancy. Objective: To estimate the association between long-term school performance and prenatal exposure to valproate and a number of other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, population-based cohort study conducted from August 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017, data used in the study were provided by Statistics Denmark on April 15, 2016...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi, Sedigheh Sheikhzadeh, Amirhossein Mirhashemi, Elahe Ansari, Yasaman Kheirandish, Mozhgan Allaedini, Ahmadreza Dehpour
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the carbamazepine and valproic acid on orthodontic tooth movement in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Evaluation of tooth movement after 21 days of drugs infusion was carried out by feeler gauge. Bone densitometry on lateral cephalograms was conducted on days 1 and 21. After dissection of the maxillae, histologic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Orthodontic tooth movement was accelerated in experimental groups rather than controls...
February 16, 2018: International Orthodontics
Manjula Chandragomi Caldera, Sameera Jayan Senanayake, Sujith Priyankara Perera, Nadeeke Nidhan Perera, Ranjanie Gamage, Inuka Kishara Gooneratne
Introduction: The antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) in trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described. We evaluated effects of BTX-A in relieving pain in patients with refractory TN at National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: Pain in patients with TN was assessed using a visual analog from 0 to 10. Three months after commencement of drug therapy with ≥2 drugs including one first-line drug (carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine), pain scores were re-assessed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Francesco Brigo, Simona Lattanzi, Giorgia Giussani, Laura Tassi, Nicola Pietrafusa, Carlo Andrea Galimberti, Raffaele Nardone, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Oriano Mecarelli
Wikipedia is the most commonly accessed source of health information by both healthcare professionals and the lay public worldwide. We aimed to evaluate information-seeking behavior of Internet users searching the Italian Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and its treatment. Using Pageviews Analysis, we assessed the total and mean monthly views of articles from the Italian Wikipedia devoted to epilepsy, epileptic syndromes, seizure type, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from January 1, 2015 to October 31, 2017...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ladislav Pazdera, Michael R Sperling, Jay H Harvey, Maria C Sam, Laura A Strom, David Blum, Todd Grinnell, Hailong Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of prior use of carbamazepine (CBZ) and other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with a putatively similar mechanism of action (inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels; VGSCs) on seizure outcomes and tolerability when converting to eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), using data pooled from 2 controlled conversion-to-ESL monotherapy trials (studies: 093-045, 093-046). METHODS: Adults with treatment-resistant focal (partial-onset) seizures were randomized 2:1 to ESL 1600 or 1200 mg once daily...
February 16, 2018: Epilepsia
Laith Furatian, Madjid Mohseni
The use of 185 nm radiation from a conventional low pressure mercury lamp generates the hydroxyl radical (OH) from the photolysis of water and offers an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for water treatment that does not require chemical addition. However, the influence of the water matrix on the process differs substantially from that of other ultraviolet and ozone based processes. In particular chloride (Cl - ), and not water, absorbs the majority of 185 nm photons when [Cl - ]>20mgL -1 and generates the chlorine atom radical (Cl) as a reactive species...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Joanna M Zakrzewska, Ning Wu, John Y K Lee, Brian Werneburg, Deborah Hoffman, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare orofacial disorder characterized by severe unilateral paroxysmal pain in the region of the fifth cranial nerve. Clinical guidelines recommend carbamazepine (only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for TN) and oxcarbazepine as first-line therapies. We utilized the US Truven Health MarketScan database to examine treatment patterns among patients with TN. METHODS: Included patients were aged ≥18 years, newly diagnosed with TN (≥2 TN diagnoses ≥14 days apart; no diagnosis in the prior year), continuously enrolled 1 year pre-index, with ≥3 years' follow-up post-index...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Zhonghua Huang, Mengkun Li, Na Li, Xinyuan Tang, Zhiyu Ouyang
Membrane technology is now being widely used in the field of water treatment for its unique advantages. Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique is a convenient and versatile method of modified nanofiltration (NF) membranes fabrication, which can be used to control the thickness and the surface properties of membranes by chemical deposition of polyelectrolytes. Herein, a new kind of composite NF membrane with enhanced antibacterial properties was successfully fabricated through LbL self-assembly method, having polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane as support layer, N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl] chloride chitosan (HTCC) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as active layer, and epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crosslinking reagent...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Y Miyata-Nozaka, S Mohd Zain, M Taguchi, M Shigeyama, T Isobe, N Hanioka
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly prescribed antiepileptic drug, and is mainly metabolized to 10,11-CBZ epoxide in humans. Its biotransformation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, with the predominant isoforms being CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. In the present study, the effects of the CYP3A5*3 (rs776746) polymorphism on CBZ 10,11-epoxidation in human liver microsomes genotyped as CYP3A5*3 were examined using a kinetic analysis. The kinetics for CBZ 10,11-epoxidation fit the Hill model with n of approximately 1...
December 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
I González-García, V Mangas-Sanjuan, M Merino-Sanjuán, C Álvarez-Álvarez, J Díaz-Garzón Marco, M A Rodríguez-Bonnín, T Langguth, J J Torrado-Durán, P Langguth, A García-Arieta, M Bermejo
The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of obtaining an IVIVC by combination of data from two bioequivalence (BE) studies of carbamazepine (CBZ) in order to assess if the previously published dissolution media and conditions could be applicable to any other oral immediate release (IR) CBZ products with conventional excipients. Twenty-four healthy male subjects from two BE study received one IR dose of the test (test 1 or 2) or the reference formulation (Tegretol, 400 mg). Dissolution studies of the IR CBZ tablets were performed in two different laboratories...
August 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Lars Vedel Kessing, Michael Bauer, Willem A Nolen, Emanuel Severus, Guy M Goodwin, John Geddes
OBJECTIVES: For the first time to present a systematic review of observational studies on the efficiency of lithium monotherapy in comparison with other maintenance mood stabilizers in monotherapy and in combination. METHODS: As part of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force on Lithium Treatment, we undertook a systematic literature search of non-randomized controlled observational studies on (i) lithium monotherapy vs treatment with another maintenance mood stabilizer in monotherapy and (ii) lithium in combination with other mood stabilizers vs monotherapy...
February 14, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Thomas Burden, Charlotte Thompson, Efstathios Bonanos, Andrew Rl Medford
A 71-year-old female with a history of pulmonary embolism treated with rivaroxaban presented with acute onset shortness of breath, chest pain and palpitations. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary emboli. The patient was concurrently prescribed carbamazepine and was later diagnosed with recurrence of breast cancer during the admission. We discuss common drug interactions pertinent to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) that can increase the risk of further venous thromboembolism...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Toru Usui, Lee Faulkner, John Farrell, Neil French, Ana Alfirevic, Munir Pirmohamed, B Kevin Park, Dean John Naisbitt
It is unclear whether priming of naïve T cells to drugs is detectable in healthy human donors expressing different HLA alleles. Thus, we examined T cell priming with drugs associated with HLA risk alleles and control compounds in 14 HLA-typed donors. Nitroso sulfamethoxazole & piperacillin activated T cells from all donors, whereas responses to carbamazepine and oxypurinol were only seen in donors expressing HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-B*58:01, respectively. Weak flucloxacillin-specific T cell responses were detected in donors expressing HLA-B*57:01 and HLA-B*58:01...
February 13, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Mar Martín-Pérez, David Gaist, Francisco J de Abajo, Luis A García Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the population impact of previously reported interactions between warfarin and other drugs on international normalized ratio (INR) levels. METHODS:  Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a United Kingdom primary care database, a cohort of warfarin users between 2005 and 2013 (N = 121,962) was followed until the first qualifying prescription for the potential interacting drugs was evaluated. Sixteen sub-cohorts, one for each study drug, and a control sub-cohort of warfarin were ascertained...
February 12, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Roberta Blé, Piernanda Vigliano
Mutations in SCN8A gene have been described in relation to infantile onset epilepsy with movement disorders and developmental delay. Recently various authors have reported patients carrying autosomal dominant heterozygous SCN8A mutations and a milder phenotype expression. We discuss the case of a 6-year-old girl with a positive family history for epilepsy, early benign focal epilepsy, well controlled by Carbamazepine, upper limb tremor since birth, ataxia, slight motor delay and normal cognitive development...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Dorota Mehrholz, Anna Emilia Urban, Marta Herstowska, Roman Nowicki, Wiesław Cubała, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak
OBJECTIVES: DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome) is qualified as hypersensitivity after drug reaction. This syndrome may occur due to any medication intake. There are three main groups of symptoms defining DRESS: skin lesions, hematological abnormalities and internal organ involvement. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on a group of 261 patients with drug reactions hospitalized in the Clinic of Dermatology from 2004 until 2017...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Roberto Antonucci, Laura Cuzzolin, Alessandra Manconi, Claudio Cherchi, Anna Maria Oggiano, Cristian Locci
BACKGROUND: Usually, no adverse effects are observed in breastfed infants whose mothers are treated with the anti-epileptic carbamazepine. In this article, we described unusual short-term adverse effects observed in a young infant after exposure to carbamazepine during pregnancy and lactation. CASE REPORT: A 40-day-old female infant, born at term, was admitted to the Pediatric Clinic at University of Sassari, Italy, for recurrent regurgitations and vomiting. She was breastfed since birth and her mother was under chronic carbamazepine therapy...
February 12, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Mini Sreedharan, Kalpana Devadathan, Kunju P A Mohammed, Bindusha Sasidharan, Jayakumar Parameswaran Pillai, Minikumari Amma Vasumathy Amma, Saboorabeegum Muthubeevi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of monotherapy with Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Sodium valproate (VPA) on serum 25-OH Vitamin D levels in children with epilepsy compared to controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a tertiary-care Pediatric Neurology centre, and a nearby day-care centre and school. STUDY PERIOD: June 2012 to May 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Children with epilepsy aged 2 to 13 years on monotherapy with CBZ (n=28) or VPA (n=28) for at least 6 months; 109 age-matched controls from a nearby day-care centre and school...
February 9, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
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