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Martin J Brodie, Toufic Fakhoury, Belinda McDonough, Anny-Odile Colson, Armel Stockis, Sami Elmoufti, John Whitesides
To assess the association, if any, between brivaracetam (BRV)-induced elevated carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) and toxicity and efficacy in patients with epilepsy. Data were pooled from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III studies of adjunctive BRV in adults with uncontrolled focal seizures (N01252/NCT00490035, N01253/NCT00464269, N01358/NCT01261325). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of interest (ataxia, diplopia, dizziness, nystagmus, somnolence, accidental overdose or poisoning, and toxicity), discontinuations due to TEAEs, and serious TEAEs (SAEs) were assessed in subgroups who did/did not receive carbamazepine (CBZ) at study entry (CBZ+ and CBZ-)...
June 4, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Justine W Welsh, Valeria Tretyak, R Kathryn McHugh, Roger D Weiss, Olivera Bogunovic
BACKGROUND: Many patients require discontinuation of benzodiazepines due to a reduction in drug efficacy over time, the development of a sedative use disorder, or unwanted side effects. Benzodiazepine discontinuation can pose a significant challenge for prescribing clinicians due to potential withdrawal symptoms and a recurrence of psychiatric complaints. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using the medical subject heading of benzodiazepines in combination with the following key words: discontinuation, withdrawal, detoxification, cessation, dependence, addiction, substance use disorders, or long term...
May 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Priyadarshani Galappatthy, Chiranthi Kongala Liyanage, Marianne Nishani Lucas, Dilini T L M Jayasekara, Sachith Aloka Abhayaratna, Chamari Weeraratne, Kusum De Abrew, Padma Sriyani Gunaratne, Ranjani Gamage, Chandrika N Wijeyaratne
BACKGROUND: Management of epilepsy during pregnancy in a resource-limited setting (RLS) is challenging. This study aimed to assess obstetric outcomes and effects on babies of women with epilepsy (WWE) exposed to Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) compared to non-exposed controls in a RLS. METHODS: Pregnant WWE were recruited from antenatal and neurology clinics of a tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka. Patients were reviewed in each trimester and post-partum. Medication adherence, adverse effects, seizure control and carbamazepine blood levels were monitored...
June 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Ingrid Fricke-Galindo, Adrián LLerena, Helgi Jung-Cook, Marisol López-López
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of adverse reactions (ADRs) to CBZ can negatively impact the quality of life of patients, as well as, increase health care costs. Thus, knowledge of CBZ-induced ADRs is important to achieve safer treatment outcomes. Areas covered. This review describes the clinical features, known mechanisms, and clinical management of the main CBZ-induced ADRs. In addition, pharmacogenetic studies focused on ADRs induced by CBZ are cited...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Lin Ma, Yifei Liu, Jing Zhang, Qing Yang, Guanghe Li, Dayi Zhang
Groundwater pollution by emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), has caused increasing concerns around the world. The vadose zone is an active zone where lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere interact. It is an important medium for PPCPs removal and entry into groundwater from irrigation using wastewater or polluted surface water. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of eleven PPCPs in areas with a vadose zone (up to 16 m) was investigated from wastewater irrigated farmland, groundwater irrigated farmland and a seasonal river course in Beijing (China)...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Manuela Contin, Francesca Bisulli, Margherita Santucci, Roberto Riva, Francesca Tonon, Susan Mohamed, Lorenzo Ferri, Carlotta Stipa, Paolo Tinuper
We prospectively examined the effect of antiepileptic (AED) cotherapy on steady state plasma concentrations of perampanel (PMP) in epileptic patients. We classified AEDs as strong enzyme inducers (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine), not strong enzyme inducers/not inhibitors (levetiracetam, lamotrigine, topiramate, rufinamide, lacosamide, zonisamide, clobazam), and enzyme inhibitors (valproic acid [VPA]). The main outcome was the comparison of PMP plasma concentration to weight-adjusted dose ratio (C/D; [μg/mL]/mg kg-1  d-1 ) among comedication subgroups...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsia
Fenglai Xiao, Lorenzo Caciagli, Britta Wandschneider, Josemir W Sander, Meneka Sidhu, Gavin Winston, Jane Burdett, Karin Trimmel, Andrea Hill, Christian Vollmar, Sjoerd B Vos, Sebastien Ourselin, Pamela J Thompson, Dong Zhou, John S Duncan, Matthias J Koepp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language network activations in patients with focal epilepsy. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we identified patients who were treated at the time of language fMRI scanning with either carbamazepine (CBZ; n = 42) or lamotrigine (LTG; n = 42), but not another sodium channel-blocking AED. We propensity-matched 42 patients taking levetiracetam (LEV) as "patient-controls" and included further 42 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsia
Jeremy Jost, Voa Ratsimbazafy, Thu Trang Nguyen, Thuy Linh Nguyen, Hanh Dufat, Annabelle Dugay, Alassane Ba, Guilhem Sivadier, Yattussia Mafilaza, Cyril Jousse, Mounir Traïkia, Martin Leremboure, Emilie Auditeau, Adeline Raharivelo, Edgard Ngoungou, Symon M Kariuki, Charles R Newton, Pierre-Marie Preux
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a major public health issue in low- and middle-income countries, where the availability and accessibility of quality treatment remain important issues, the severity of which may be aggravated by poor quality antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The primary objective of this study was to measure the quality of AEDs in rural and urban areas in 3 African countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Gabon, Kenya, and Madagascar. Both official and unofficial supply chains in urban and rural areas were investigated...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsia
Fen Pan, Shangda Li, Haimei Li, Yi Xu, Manli Huang
Background: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is characterized by sudden episodes of involuntary movements. PKD is a very rare movement disorder, and correct clinical diagnosis is often a challenge. Case: We present the case of a 23-year-old female with PKD. The patient showed episodes of twisting movements for 3 years. The symptoms lasted for about 5-10 minutes and subsided spontaneously. She was diagnosed as having epilepsy, and depressive and anxiety disorders successively...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ailin Li, Zihao Wu, Tingting Wang, Shaodong Hou, Bangjie Huang, Xiujuan Kong, Xuchun Li, Yinghong Guan, Rongliang Qiu, Jingyun Fang
The abatement of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including carbamazepine (CBZ), acetaminophen (ACP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), by zero-valent iron (Fe°) activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) system (Fe°/PDS) in pure water and groundwater was investigated. The removal rates of CBZ, ACP and SMX were 85.4%, 100% and 73.1%, respectively, within 10 min by Fe°/PDS in pure water. SO4 •- , • OH and O2 •- were identified in the Fe°/PDS system, and O2 •- was indicated to play an important role in the ACP degradation...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Stefan Dittmar, Frederik Zietzschmann, Maike Mai, Eckhard Worch, Martin Jekel, Aki Sebastian Ruhl
Adsorption onto activated carbon is a promising option for removing organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The heterogeneity of activated carbons and adsorption competition between OMPs and adsorbable compounds of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) complicate the prediction of OMP removals. Thus, reliable and simple test systems are desirable. For this study, batch experiments with powdered activated carbon (PAC) were carried out to examine methyl orange (MO) as a selected surrogate competitor to simulate EfOM adsorption competition...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
P Barmpalexis, A Karagianni, I Nikolakakis, K Kachrimanis
The present work describes the development of an efficient, fast and accurate method for the quantification of polymer-based cocrystal formulations. Specifically, the content of carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ/NIC) and ibuprofen-nicotinamide (IBU/NIC) cocrystals in Soluplus®-based formulations was independently determined with the aid of either Raman or Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Spectra peaks from mixtures of IBU/NIC and CBZ/NIC cocrystals with Soluplus at a ratio ranging from 90/10 to 1/99 w/w (cocrystal to SOL) were evaluated and modelled with the aid of feed-forward, back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANNs) and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yujie He, Nora B Sutton, Yu Lei, Huub H M Rijnaarts, Alette A M Langenhoff
Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in constructed wetlands (CWs) is a complex interplay of different processes. We studied fate and distribution of seven PhACs (caffeine, CAF; naproxen, NAP; metoprolol, MET; propranolol, PRO; ibuprofen, IBP; carbamazepine, CBZ; diclofenac, DFC) in mesocosm CWs and effects of irradiation via pre-photocatalysis, substrate composition (mainly sediment) through addition of litter (dead plant biomass), and plants. CWs showed high removal of CAF, NAP, MET, PRO, and IBP (79-99%)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
C M López-Ortiz, I Sentana-Gadea, P J Varó-Galvañ, S E Maestre-Pérez, D Prats-Rico
In this study, the removal of nine emerging organic contaminants was investigated by using anion exchange resins. The selected compounds were carbamazepine, atrazine, simazine, estrone, bisphenol A, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben. Two different magnetic anionic exchanger resins were tested: MIEX® DOC and MIEX® GOLD. The optimal resin dose (40 mL/L) and contact time (20 min) had been previously determined. Once these optimum parameters were set, the effect of the initial concentration of contaminants on the removal efficiency of the contaminants by the resins was studied...
June 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Jie Yang, Zhi Sun, Duolu Li, Fei Duan, Zhuolun Li, Jingli Lu, Yingying Shi, Tanye Xu, Xiaojian Zhang
Shenkang injection is a traditional Chinese formula with good curative effect on chronic renal failure. In this paper, a novel, rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole orbitrap high resolution accurate mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of seven bioactive constituents of Shenkang injection in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration. Acetonitrile was used as protein precipitation agent in biological samples dispose with carbamazepine as internal standard...
June 7, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Dheeraj Kattula, Jayaprakash Russell Ravan, Munaf Babajan Nandyal
Background: Managing any chronic illness in marginalized communities in resource-poor settings is always a challenge. Lack of facility to monitor lithium and the common morbidity of hypokalemic periodic paralysis and chronic renal failure among tribals of northern part of Odisha pose unique challenges in managing bipolar disorder. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study done in a district-level hospital catering to predominantly tribal population. A part of the data was collected by a psychiatrist prospectively and analyzed...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Woo Cheal Cho, Safina Hafeez, Peter Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Arnoud de Wilt, Yujie He, Nora Sutton, Alette Langenhoff, Huub Rijnaarts
This study explored the removal of six pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in lab-scale experiments with sediments under four redox conditions, namely aerobic, nitrate reducing, sulfate reducing, and methanogenic conditions using batch and column set-ups. Redox conditions were found to influence PhAC removal by sorption and biodegradation. The most optimal PhAC removal was observed at the outer ranges of the redox spectrum, i.e. either aerobic or deep anaerobic (sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions), whereas nitrate reducing conditions were found least effective for PhACs biodegradation and sorption...
February 2018: Chemosphere
Jordan Crago, Rebecca Klaper
Determining impacts of emerging contaminants is difficult due to the different concentrations of mixtures of these chemicals over a landscape. Assessment approaches need to account for absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the chemicals in an organism, and potential crosstalk between molecular pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of employing a modified zebrafish embryo toxicity (ZFET) assay that assesses morphological alterations and measurements of estrogen-associated mRNA transcripts, to exposure of a mixtures of chemicals at concentrations measured in several locations in Lake Michigan...
February 2018: Chemosphere
Charles Tapley Hoyt, Daniel Domingo-Fernández, Nora Balzer, Anka Güldenpfennig, Martin Hofmann-Apitius
Cross-sectional epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of several nervous system diseases is more frequent in epilepsy patients than in the general population. Some comorbidities [e.g. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease] are also risk factors for the development of seizures; suggesting they may share pathophysiological mechanisms with epilepsy. A literature-based approach was used to identify gene overlap between epilepsy and its comorbidities as a proxy for a shared genetic basis for disease, or genetic pleiotropy, as a first effort to identify shared mechanisms...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
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