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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781253/developmental-plasticity-in-reptiles-insights-from-temperature-dependent-gene-expression-in-wall-lizard-embryos
#1
Nathalie Feiner, Alfredo Rago, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Many features of the development of reptiles are affected by temperature, but very little is known about how incubation temperature affects gene expression. Here, we provide a detailed case study of gene expression profiles in common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) embryos developing at stressfully low (15°C) versus benign (24°C) temperature. For maximum comparability between the two temperature regimes, we selected a precise developmental stage early in embryogenesis defined by the number of somites. We used a split-clutch design and lizards from four different populations to evaluate the robustness of temperature-responsive gene expression profiles...
May 20, 2018: Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780268/filling-the-bins-of-life-report-of-an-amphibian-and-reptile-survey-of-the-tanintharyi-tenasserim-region-of-myanmar-with-dna-barcode-data
#2
Daniel G Mulcahy, Justin L Lee, Aryeh H Miller, Mia Chand, Myint Kyaw Thura, George R Zug
Despite threats of species extinctions, taxonomic crises, and technological advances in genomics and natural history database informatics, we are still distant from cataloguing all of the species of life on earth. Amphibians and reptiles are no exceptions; in fact new species are described nearly every day and many species face possible extinction. The number of described species continues to climb as new areas of the world are explored and as species complexes are examined more thoroughly. The use of DNA barcoding provides a mechanism for rapidly estimating the number of species at a given site and has the potential to record all of the species of life on Earth...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779234/testing-the-role-of-climate-in-speciation-new-methods-and-applications-to-squamate-reptiles-lizards-and-snakes
#3
Tereza Jezkova, John J Wiens
Climate may play important roles in speciation, such as causing the range fragmentation that underlies allopatric speciation (through niche conservatism) or driving divergence of parapatric populations along climatic gradients (through niche divergence). Here, we developed new methods to test the frequency of climate niche conservatism and divergence in speciation, and applied it to species pairs of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). We used a large-scale phylogeny to identify 242 sister-species pairs for analysis...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779148/in-vitro-virulence-characteristics-of-rare-serovars-of-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-sand-lizards-lacerta-agilis-l
#4
Joanna Mokracka, Sylwia Krzymińska, Danił Ałtunin, Dariusz Wasyl, Ryszard Koczura, Krzysztof Dudek, Monika Dudek, Zofia Anna Chyleńska, Anna Ekner-Grzyb
The aim of this study was to estimate virulence potential of Salmonella enterica strains colonizing the gut of free-living sand lizards (Lacerta agilis L.). The strains belonged to three Salmonella serovars: Abony, Schleissheim, and Telhashomer. Adhesion and invasion abilities of the strains were determined in quantitative assays using the gentamicin protection method. Induction of apoptosis was assessed using HeLa cell monolayers. PCR assays were used for detection of 26 virulence genes localised within mobile elements: pathogenicity islands, virulence plasmids, and prophage sequences...
May 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774232/multiple-origins-of-green-blood-in-new-guinea-lizards
#5
Zachary B Rodriguez, Susan L Perkins, Christopher C Austin
Several species of lizards from the megadiverse island of New Guinea have evolved green blood. An unusually high concentration of the green bile pigment biliverdin in the circulatory system of these lizards makes the blood, muscles, bones, tongue, and mucosal tissues bright green in color, eclipsing the crimson color from their red blood cells. This is a remarkable physiological feature because bile pigments are toxic physiological waste products of red blood cell catabolism and, when chronically elevated, cause jaundice in humans and all other vertebrates...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773685/simulated-work-loops-predict-maximal-human-cycling-power
#6
James C Martin, Jennifer A Nichols
Fish, birds, and lizards sometimes perform locomotor activities with maximized muscle power. Whether humans maximize muscular power is unknown because current experimental techniques cannot be applied non-invasively. This study uses simulated muscle work loops to examine whether voluntary maximal cycling is characterized by maximized muscle power. The simulated work loops leverage experimentally measured joint angles, anatomically realistic muscle parameters (muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms), and a published muscle model to calculate powers and forces for thirty-eight muscles...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770866/meucin-49-a-multifunctional-scorpion-venom-peptide-with-bactericidal-synergy-with-neurotoxins
#7
Bin Gao, Julie Dalziel, Simone Tanzi, Shunyi Zhu
Besides key roles in prey capture and predator defense, scorpion venom also functions as internal immune agents protecting the venom gland from infection and external immune agents cleaning saprophytic microbes from their own body surfaces. However, antimicrobials (typically antimicrobial peptides, AMPs) in the venom often exist in low abundance that might exclude their immune role alone, leaving an open question with regard to their in vivo biological function. Here, we report the bactericidal activity of seven peptides isolated from the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus venom, including one classical α-helical AMP and five ion channel-targeted neurotoxins...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765501/peroxisomal-acyl-coa-oxidase-type-1-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-aging-properties-with-a-special-emphasis-on-studies-with-lps-and-argan-oil-as-a-model-transposable-to-aging
#8
REVIEW
Joseph Vamecq, Pierre Andreoletti, Riad El Kebbaj, Fatima-Ezzahra Saih, Norbert Latruffe, M' Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj, Gérard Lizard, Boubker Nasser, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki
To clarify appropriateness of current claims for health and wellness virtues of argan oil, studies were conducted in inflammatory states. LPS induces inflammation with reduction of PGC1- α signaling and energy metabolism. Argan oil protected the liver against LPS toxicity and interestingly enough preservation of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase type 1 (ACOX1) activity against depression by LPS. This model of LPS-driven toxicity circumvented by argan oil along with a key anti-inflammatory role attributed to ACOX1 has been here transposed to model aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761044/the-brown-anole-dewlap-revisited-do-predation-pressure-sexual-selection-and-species-recognition-shape-among-population-signal-diversity
#9
Simon Baeckens, Tess Driessens, Raoul Van Damme
Animal signalling structures are amongst the most variable characteristics, as they are subjected to a diversity of selection pressures. A well-known example of a diverse signalling system in the animal kingdom is the dewlap of Anolis lizards. Dewlap characteristics can vary remarkably among and within species, and also between sexes. Although a considerable amount of studies have attempted to disentangle the functional significance of the staggering dewlap diversity in Anolis , the underlying evolutionary processes remain elusive...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760909/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-across-an-altitudinal-gradient-in-the-lizard-phrynocephalus-vlangalii
#10
Wenya Zhang, Na Li, Xiaolong Tang, Naifa Liu, Wei Zhao
High altitude is an important driving force in animal evolution. However, the effect of altitude on gut microbial communities in reptiles has not been examined in detail. Here, we investigated the intestinal microbiota of three populations of the lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii living at different altitudes using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Bacteroides , Odoribacter , and Parabacteroides were the most abundant genera. Significant differences in the intestinal microbiota composition were found among the three populations from different altitudes...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760886/geographic-variation-in-body-size-and-its-relationship-with-environmental-gradients-in-the-oriental-garden-lizard-calotes-versicolor
#11
Xiaomei Wei, Linmiao Yan, Chengjian Zhao, Yueyun Zhang, Yongli Xu, Bo Cai, Ni Jiang, Yong Huang
Patterns of geographic variation in body size are predicted to evolve as adaptations to local environmental gradients. However, many of these clinal patterns in body size, such as Bergmann's rule, are controversial and require further investigation into ectotherms such as reptiles on a regional scale. To examine the environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, topography and primary productivity) that shaped patterns of geographic variation in body size in the reptile Calotes versicolor , we sampled 180 adult specimens (91 males and 89 females) at 40 locations across the species range in China...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751579/did-lizards-follow-unique-pathways-in-sex-chromosome-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam, Stephen D Sarre, Dianne Gleeson, Arthur Georges, Tariq Ezaz
Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata) which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity...
May 3, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750558/comparative-evolution-of-an-archetypal-adaptive-radiation-innovation-and-opportunity-in-anolis-lizards
#13
Steven Poe, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Kevin de Queiroz, Julián A Velasco, Brad Truett, Levi N Gray, Mason J Ryan, Gunther Köhler, Fernando Ayala-Varela, Ian Latella
Adaptive radiation is a widely recognized pattern of evolution wherein substantial phenotypic change accompanies rapid speciation. Adaptive radiation may be triggered by environmental opportunities resulting from dispersal to new areas or via the evolution of traits, called key innovations, that allow for invasion of new niches. Species sampling is a known source of bias in many comparative analyses, yet classic adaptive radiations have not been studied comparatively with comprehensively sampled phylogenies...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743266/biodiversity-and-socioeconomics-in-the-city-a-review-of-the-luxury-effect
#14
REVIEW
Misha Leong, Robert R Dunn, Michelle D Trautwein
The ecological dynamics of cities are influenced not only by geophysical and biological factors, but also by aspects of human society. In cities around the world, a pattern of higher biodiversity in affluent neighbourhoods has been termed 'the luxury effect'. The luxury effect has been found globally regarding plant diversity and canopy or vegetative cover. Fewer studies have considered the luxury effect and animals, yet it has been recognized in the distributions of birds, bats, lizards and indoor arthropods...
May 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743257/thermal-physiology-and-thermoregulatory-behaviour-exhibit-low-heritability-despite-genetic-divergence-between-lizard-populations
#15
Michael L Logan, John David Curlis, Anthony L Gilbert, Donald B Miles, Albert K Chung, Joel W McGlothlin, Robert M Cox
Ectothermic species are particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and may adapt to changes in thermal environments through evolutionary shifts in thermal physiology or thermoregulatory behaviour. Nevertheless, the heritability of thermal traits, which sets a limit on evolutionary potential, remains largely unexplored. In this study, we captured brown anole lizards ( Anolis sagrei ) from two populations that occur in contrasting thermal environments. We raised offspring from these populations in a laboratory common garden and compared the shape of their thermal performance curves to test for genetic divergence in thermal physiology...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742301/a-genomic-evaluation-of-taxonomic-trends-through-time-in-coast-horned-lizards-genus-phrynosoma
#16
Adam D Leaché, Matthew T McElroy, Anna Trinh
Determining the boundaries between species and deciding when to describe new species are challenging practices that are particularly difficult in groups with high levels of geographic variation. The coast horned lizards (Phrynosoma blainvillii, P. cerroense, and P. coronatum) have an extensive geographic distribution spanning many distinctive ecological regions ranging from northern California to the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico, and populations differ substantially with respect to external morphology across much of this range...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738739/molecular-evidence-for-host-parasite-co-speciation-between-lizards-and-schellackia-parasites
#17
Rodrigo Megía-Palma, Javier Martínez, José J Cuervo, Josabel Belliure, Octavio Jiménez-Robles, Verónica Gomes, Carlos Cabido, Juli G Pausas, Patrick S Fitze, José Martín, Santiago Merino
Current and past parasite transmission may depend on the overlap of host distributions, potentially affecting parasite specificity and co-evolutionary processes. Nonetheless, parasite diversification may take place in sympatry when parasites are transmitted by vectors with low mobility. Here, we test the co-speciation hypothesis between lizard final hosts of the Family Lacertidae, and blood parasites of the genus Schellackia, which are potentially transmitted by haematophagous mites. The effects of current distributional overlap of host species on parasite specificity are also investigated...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737602/plasticity-and-local-adaptation-explain-lizard-cold-tolerance
#18
Daren C Card, Drew R Schield, Todd A Castoe
How does climate variation limit the range of species and what does it take for species to colonize new regions? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Campbell-Staton et al. () address these broad questions by investigating cold tolerance adaptation in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) across a latitudinal transect. By integrating physiological data, gene expression data and acclimation experiments, the authors disentangle the mechanisms underlying cold adaptation. They first establish that cold tolerance adaptation in Anolis lizards follows the predictions of the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis, which states that organisms are limited by temperature thresholds at which oxygen supply cannot meet demand...
May 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736863/mate-familiarity-and-social-learning-in-a-monogamous-lizard
#19
Kirke L Munch, Daniel W A Noble, Erik Wapstra, Geoffrey M While
Social learning is thought to be advantageous as it allows an animal to gather information quickly without engaging in costly trial-and-error learning. However, animals should be selective about when and whom they learn from. Familiarity is predicted to positively influence an animal's reliance on social learning; yet, few studies have empirically tested this theory. We used a lizard (Liopholis whitii) that forms long-term monogamous pair bonds to examine the effects of partner familiarity on social learning in two novel foraging tasks, an association and a reversal task...
May 8, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731682/amphibians-and-reptiles-of-the-state-of-san-luis-potos%C3%A3-mexico-with-comparisons-with-adjoining-states
#20
Julio A Lemos-Espinal, Geoffrey R Smith, Guillermo A Woolrich-Piña
A summary of the species of amphibians and reptiles of the state has been compiled, including their geographic distributions, habitats, and conservation statuses. The herpetofauna of San Luis Potosí consists of 41 species of amphibians and 141 species of reptiles. San Luis Potosí shares the highest number of species with Hidalgo and Tamaulipas, and the least number of species with Nuevo León. In San Luis Potosí, there are several taxa of particular conservation concern including salamanders, emydid and trionychid turtles, anguid and xenosaurid lizards, and natricid and colubrid snakes...
2018: ZooKeys
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