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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330087/comparing-the-antipredator-behaviour-of-two-sympatric-but-not-syntopic-liolaemus-lizards
#1
Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329683/respiratory-disease-in-ball-pythons-python-regius-experimentally-infected-with-ball-python-nidovirus
#2
Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Marylee L Layton, Robert J Ossiboff, John S L Parker, Edward J Dubovi, Mark D Stenglein
Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321901/proximate-causes-of-altitudinal-differences-in-body-size-in-an-agamid-lizard
#3
Hong-Liang Lu, Chun-Xia Xu, Yuan-Ting Jin, Jean-Marc Hero, Wei-Guo Du
Body size is directly linked to key life history traits such as growth, fecundity, and survivorship. Identifying the causes of body size variation is a critical task in ecological and evolutionary research. Body size variation along altitudinal gradients has received considerable attention; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we compared the growth rate and age structure of toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus vlangalii) from two populations found at different elevations in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321848/divergent-habitat-use-of-two-urban-lizard-species
#4
Kristin M Winchell, Elizabeth J Carlen, Alberto R Puente-Rolón, Liam J Revell
Faunal responses to anthropogenic habitat modification represent an important aspect of global change. In Puerto Rico, two species of arboreal lizard, Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus, are commonly encountered in urban areas, yet seem to use the urban habitat in different ways. In this study, we quantified differences in habitat use between these two species in an urban setting. For each species, we measured habitat use and preference, and the niche space of each taxon, with respect to manmade features of the urban environment...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316515/the-body-burden-and-thyroid-disruption-in-lizards-eremias-argus-living-in-benzoylurea-pesticides-contaminated-soil
#5
Jing Chang, Jitong Li, Weiyu Hao, Huili Wang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Peng Xu
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg-1) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316349/adjusting-to-climate-acclimation-adaptation-and-developmental-plasticity-in-physiological-traits-of-a-tropical-rainforest-lizard
#6
John Llewelyn, Stewart L Macdonald, Craig Moritz, Felipe Martins, Amberlee Hatcher, Ben L Phillips
The impact of climate change may be felt most keenly by tropical ectotherms. In these taxa, it is argued, thermal specialisation means a given shift in temperature will have a larger effect on fitness. For species with limited dispersal ability, the impact of climate change depends on the capacity for their climate-relevant traits to shift. Such shifts can occur through genetic adaptation, various forms of plasticity, or a combination of these processes. Here we assess the extent and causes of shifts in seven physiological traits in a tropical lizard, the rainforest sunskink (Lampropholis coggeri)...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316302/oxygen-supply-did-not-affect-how-lizards-responded-to-thermal-stress
#7
Agustin Camacho Guerrero, John M VandenBrooks, Angela Riley, Rory S Telemeco, Michael J Angilletta
Zoologists rely on mechanistic niche models of behavioral thermoregulation to understand how animals respond to climate change. These models predict that species will need to disperse to higher altitudes to persist in a warmer world. However, thermal stress and thus thermoregulatory behavior may depend on atmospheric oxygen as well as environmental temperatures. Severe hypoxia causes animals to prefer lower body temperatures, which could be interpreted as evidence that oxygen supply limits heat tolerance. Such a constraint could prevent animals from successfully dispersing to high elevations during climate change...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306684/physiological-differences-in-preferred-temperatures-and-evaporative-water-loss-rates-in-two-sympatric-lacertid-species
#8
Marco Sannolo, Frederico M Barroso, Miguel A Carretero
Sister species living in sympatry offer the opportunity to study the degree of divergence in their ecological, physiological and life-history traits. It has been hypothesized that closely related species with overlapping distribution should differ in their niche to reduce competition for resources. Furthermore, the investigation of sympatric species may shed light on how they may coexist without outcompeting each other. In the present study, we assess the degree of physiological divergence in two sympatric lacertid lizards, Podarcis bocagei and Podarcis guadarramae lusitanicus...
December 24, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305803/lead-bioaccumulation-in-texas-harvester-ants-pogonomyrmex-barbatus-and-toxicological-implications-for-texas-horned-lizard-phrynosoma-cornutum-populations-of-bexar-county-texas
#9
Robert Burgess, Robert Davis, Deborah Edwards
Uptake of lead from soil was examined in order to establish a site-specific ecological protective concentration level for the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) at the Former Humble Refinery in San Antonio, Texas. Soils, harvester ants, and rinse water from the ants were analyzed at 11 Texas Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) mounds. Soil concentrations at the harvester ant mounds ranged from 13 to 7474 mg/kg of lead dry weight. Ant tissue sample concentrations ranged from < 0.82 to 21.17 mg/kg dry weight...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#10
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301691/do-female-reproductive-stage-and-phenotype-influence-thermal-requirements-in-an-oviparous-lizard
#11
Guadalupe López Juri, Margarita Chiaraviglio, Gabriela Cardozo
Reproduction is an energetically costly activity that can alter thermal requirements in Squamata. This phenomenon has been largely studied in many viviparous species; however, little is known about the role of oviparous females in controlling temperature during vitellogenesis and embryo development before oviposition. Diversity of female phenotypes could be associated with diversity of thermoregulatory performance, since thermal requirements are frequently influenced by body shape. Furthermore, studying the thermoregulatory behaviour is fundamental to understand how females regulate their body temperature...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301682/altitude-influences-thermal-ecology-and-thermal-sensitivity-of-locomotor-performance-in-a-toad-headed-lizard
#12
Qiong Wu, Wei Dang, Ying-Chao Hu, Hong-Liang Lu
Population differentiation in ectotherm physiological performance may be driven by adapting to different thermal environments. In this study, we measured locomotor performance in two different altitude populations of the Qinghai toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus vlangalii) at different test temperatures to assess between-population differences in thermal sensitivity of sprint speed. Low-elevation lizards ran faster than high-elevation lizards at most test temperatures. Sprint speed varied with test temperature similarly between populations, but the thermal sensitivity (performance breadth) differed significantly...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301442/helminth-parasites-of-the-lizard-nothobachia-ablephara-gymnophthalmidae-in-caatinga-areas-from-neotropical-semiarid
#13
Leonardo Barros Ribeiro, Antônio Ferreira, Diego Silva, Fabiano Vieira, Geraldo Moura
The lizard Nothobachia ablephara is endemic to dune areas and sandy soils adjacent to the São Francisco River in semiarid northeastern Brazil. Forty-nine lizard specimens were collected in 2 Caatinga areas in the municipality of Petrolina, in Pernambuco state. Three gastrointestinal helminth taxa were identified, the nematodes Parapharyngodon alvarengai and Physaloptera sp., and the cestode Oochoristica sp. Nothobachia ablephara showed low parasite richness, however higher levels of infection by P. alvarengai...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299250/marine-subsidies-change-short-term-foraging-activity-and-habitat-utilization-of-terrestrial-lizards
#14
Heather V Kenny, Amber N Wright, Jonah Piovia-Scott, Louie H Yang, David A Spiller, Thomas W Schoener
Resource pulses are brief periods of unusually high resource abundance. While population and community responses to resource pulses have been relatively well studied, how individual consumers respond to resource pulses has received less attention. Local consumers are often the first to respond to a resource pulse, and the form and timing of individual responses may influence how the effects of the pulse are transmitted throughout the community. Previous studies in Bahamian food webs have shown that detritivores associated with pulses of seaweed wrack provide an alternative prey source for lizards...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298932/island-and-lake-like-parallel-adaptive-radiations-replicated-in-rivers
#15
Edward D Burress, Lubomír Piálek, Jorge R Casciotta, Adriana Almirón, Milton Tan, Jonathan W Armbruster, Oldřich Říčan
Parallel adaptive radiations have arisen following the colonization of islands by lizards and lakes by fishes. In these classic examples, parallel adaptive radiation is a response to the ecological opportunities afforded by the colonization of novel ecosystems and similar adaptive landscapes that favour the evolution of similar suites of ecomorphs, despite independent evolutionary histories. Here, we demonstrate that parallel adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes arose in South American rivers. Speciation-assembled communities of pike cichlids (Crenicichla) have independently diversified into similar suites of novel ecomorphs in the Uruguay and Paraná Rivers, including crevice feeders, periphyton grazers and molluscivores...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298332/comparison-of-african-and-north-american-velvet-ant-mimicry-complexes-another-example-of-africa-as-the-odd-man-out
#16
Joseph S Wilson, Aaron D Pan, Erica S Limb, Kevin A Williams
Africa has the most tropical and subtropical land of any continent, yet has relatively low species richness in several taxa. This depauperate nature of the African tropical fauna and flora has led some to call Africa the "odd man out." One exception to this pattern is velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), wingless wasps that are known for Müllerian mimicry. While North American velvet ants form one of the world's largest mimicry complexes, mimicry in African species has not been investigated. Here we ask do African velvet ant Müllerian mimicry rings exist, and how do they compare to the North American complex...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296276/preparation-of-transgenic-iranian-lizard-leishmania-coding-hil-12
#17
Tahereh Donyavi, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi
Background and Objectives: Leishmania are intracellular flagellate protozoan parasites cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in human. The immunological basis for resistance against leishmaniasis depends on Thl responses in the course of performance of cytokines like IL-12. In this study, a transgenic Leishmania coding human IL-12 was produced that can be used in Leishmanization. Materials and Methods: A fragment of Iranian lizard Leishmania (I.L.L) gene, named Cysteine Peptidase C (CPC), was amplified separately as two parts with PCR reaction...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291070/morphological-and-genetic-evidence-for-a-new-karst-specialist-lizard-from-new-guinea-cyrtodactylus-gekkonidae
#18
Stuart V Nielsen, Paul M Oliver
Exposed limestone karst landscapes, especially in the tropics, are often home to distinctive and specialized biotas. Among vertebrates, a particularly large number of karst-associated lizard taxa have been described, but for the vast majority, evidence of specific adaptions to karst is lacking. A number of studies, however, have provided evidence of consistent morphological trends in lizards that use complex, three-dimensional, saxicoline habitats such as those that typify karst areas. Here we combine morphological and genetic data to test whether a newly discovered gecko from an extremely rugged karst area in New Guinea shows morphological trends matching those observed in other lizards associated with complex rock habitats such as karst and caves...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291066/incubation-environment-impacts-the-social-cognition-of-adult-lizards
#19
Harry Siviter, D Charles Deeming, M F T van Giezen, Anna Wilkinson
Recent work exploring the relationship between early environmental conditions and cognition has shown that incubation environment can influence both brain anatomy and performance in simple operant tasks in young lizards. It is currently unknown how it impacts other, potentially more sophisticated, cognitive processes. Social-cognitive abilities, such as gaze following and social learning, are thought to be highly adaptive as they provide a short-cut to acquiring new information. Here, we investigated whether egg incubation temperature influenced two aspects of social cognition, gaze following and social learning in adult reptiles (Pogona vitticeps)...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273440/pitx1-promotes-chondrogenesis-and-myogenesis-in-mouse-hindlimbs-through-conserved-regulatory-targets
#20
Jialiang S Wang, Carlos R Infante, Sungdae Park, Douglas B Menke
The PITX1 transcription factor is expressed during hindlimb development, where it plays a critical role in directing hindlimb growth and the specification of hindlimb morphology. While it is known that PITX1 regulates hindlimb formation, in part, through activation of the Tbx4 gene, other transcriptional targets remain to be elucidated. We have used a combination of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq to investigate enhancer regions and target genes that are directly regulated by PITX1 in embryonic mouse hindlimbs. In addition, we have analyzed PITX1 binding sites in hindlimbs of Anolis lizards to identify ancient PITX1 regulatory targets...
December 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
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