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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544760/a-novel-pattern-of-yolk-processing-in-developing-snake-eggs-colubridae-lampropeltini-and-its-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#1
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540487/importance-of-common-wall-lizards-in-the-transmission-dynamics-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-the-northern-apennine-mountains-italy
#2
Laura Tomassone, L A Ceballos, C Ragagli, E Martello, R De Sousa, M C Stella, A Mannelli
During the investigations on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP) range expansion in the Northern Apennines, we captured 107 Podarcis muralis lizards. Sixty-eight animals were infested by immature Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis sulcata and H. punctata. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 3.7% of I. ricinus larvae and 8.0% of nymphs. Together with the species-specific B. lusitaniae, we identified B. garinii, B. afzelii and B. valaisiana. Rickettsia spp. (18.1% larvae, 12.0% nymphs), namely R. monacensis, R...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538689/reticulate-evolution-of-the-rock-lizards-meiotic-chromosome-dynamics-and-spermatogenesis-in-diploid-and-triploid-males-of-the-genus-darevskia
#3
Victor Spangenberg, Marine Arakelyan, Eduard Galoyan, Sergey Matveevsky, Ruzanna Petrosyan, Yuri Bogdanov, Felix Danielyan, Oxana Kolomiets
Knowing whether triploid hybrids resulting from natural hybridization of parthenogenetic and bisexual species are fertile is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of reticulate evolution in rock lizards. Here, using males of the bisexual diploid rock lizard species Darevskia raddei nairensis and Darevskia valentini and a triploid hybrid male Darevskia unisexualis × Darevskia valentini, we performed karyotyping and comparative immunocytochemistry of chromosome synapsis and investigated the distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci in spread spermatocyte nuclei in meiotic prophase I...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538188/identification-and-characterization-of-a-class-of-malat1-like-genomic-loci
#4
Bin Zhang, Yuntao S Mao, Sarah D Diermeier, Irina V Novikova, Eric P Nawrocki, Tom A Jones, Zsolt Lazar, Chang-Shung Tung, Weijun Luo, Sean R Eddy, Karissa Y Sanbonmatsu, David L Spector
The MALAT1 (Metastasis-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1) gene encodes a noncoding RNA that is processed into a long nuclear retained transcript (MALAT1) and a small cytoplasmic tRNA-like transcript (mascRNA). Using an RNA sequence- and structure-based covariance model, we identified more than 130 genomic loci in vertebrate genomes containing the MALAT1 3' end triple-helix structure and its immediate downstream tRNA-like structure, including 44 in the green lizard Anolis carolinensis. Structural and computational analyses revealed a co-occurrence of components of the 3' end module...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536444/the-geography-and-timing-of-genetic-divergence-in-the-lizard-phrynocephalus-theobaldi-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#5
Yuanting Jin, Naifa Liu, Richard P Brown
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) represents one of the earth's most significant physical features and there is increasing interest in the historical generation of biodiversity within this region. We hypothesized that there should be clear geographically coherent genetic structuring within one of the world's highest altitude lizards, Phrynocephalus theobaldi, due to considerable historical population fragmentation in this environment. This was tested using a major mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) survey and sequencing of two nuclear markers (AME and RAG-1) from P...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535441/enantioselective-metabolism-of-triadimefon-and-its-chiral-metabolite-triadimenol-in-lizards
#6
Qiuxuan Shen, Jitong Li, Peng Xu, Wei Li, Guoqiang Zhuang, Yinghuan Wang
Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were exposed to separated R-(-)-triadimefon, S-(+)-triadimefon and racemic triadimefon to evaluate enantioselective accumulation of triadimefon. After single oral administration of R-(-)-triadimefon, S-(+)-triadimefon and racemic triadimefon, the time-concentration curves in different tissues were found to be different. Triadimefon enantiomers crossed the blood-brain barrier and brain is a main target organ. The residues of triadimefon enantiomers in fat were highest after 24h indicating that fat was the main tissue of accumulation...
May 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528929/female-brazilian-whiptail-lizards-cnemidophorus-ocellifer-prefer-males-with-high-ultraviolet-ornament-reflectance
#7
Carolina M C A Lisboa, Katalin Bajer, Daniel M A Pessoa, Marc Huber, Gabriel C Costa
Conspicuous colouration is an important way of social communication in many taxa. The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has only recently been studied in lizards, and there is not a general understanding of the adaptive role of UV colouration. Colour ornaments can signal male quality in mate choice and are therefore suitable for reliably predicting the outcome of female preference. Here, we tested the potential role of UV colouration in female spatial preference in a non-territorial teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus ocellifer...
May 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527176/gila-monster-lizard-incretin-mimetics
#8
Jayant Pai Dhungat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517034/comparative-musculoskeletal-anatomy-of-chameleon-limbs-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-arboreal-locomotion-in-lizards-and-for-teratology
#9
Julia L Molnar, Raul E Diaz, Tautis Skorka, Grant Dagliyan, Rui Diogo
Chameleon species have recently been adopted as models for evo-devo and macroevolutionary processes. However, most anatomical and developmental studies of chameleons focus on the skeleton, and information about their soft tissues is scarce. Here, we provide a detailed morphological description based on contrast enhanced micro-CT scans and dissections of the adult phenotype of all the forelimb and hindlimb muscles of the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and compare these muscles with those of other chameleons and lizards...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515206/widespread-ecomorphological-convergence-in-multiple-fish-families-spanning-the-marine-freshwater-interface
#10
Aaron M Davis, Ricardo Betancur-R
The theoretical definition and quantification of convergence is an increasingly topical focus in evolutionary research, with particular growing interest on study scales spanning deep phylogenetic divergences and broad geographical areas. While much progress has recently been made in understanding the role of convergence in driving terrestrial (e.g. anole lizards) and aquatic (e.g. cichlids) radiations, little is known about its macroevolutionary effects across environmental gradients. This study uses a suite of recently developed comparative approaches integrating diverse aspects of morphology, dietary data, habitat affiliation and phylogeny to assess convergence across several well-known tropical-temperate fish families in the percomorph suborder Terapontoidei, a clade with considerable phenotypic and ecological diversity radiating in both marine and freshwater environments...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515008/localization-and-distribution-of-gonadal-proteins-in-the-oviparous-lizard-sceloporus-aeneus-squamata-phrynosomatidae
#11
Antonio-Rubio Nivia Rocio, Villagrán-SantaCruz Maricela, Moreno-Mendoza Norma
Among vertebrates, several specific proteins are involved in the function and development of gonads. Several genes such as SOX9, FOXL2, DDX4, IFITM3, and DPPA3, are active during embryonic differentiation and maintain their expression in adult tissues, playing important roles in the function and development of the line cell, where these are produced. Among reptiles, molecular mechanisms for sex differentiation have been analyzed in turtles, crocodiles, and some lizards, while in adult stages such studies are scarce...
May 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511076/the-tissue-distribution-metabolism-and-hepatotoxicity-of-benzoylurea-pesticides-in-male-eremias-argus-after-a-single-oral-administration
#12
Jing Chang, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Yinghuan Wang, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Benzoylurea pesticides (BPUs) are widely used to control the locust, but the toxicokinetics and hepatotoxicity of BPUs in lizards have not been investigated. In this study, the tissue distribution, metabolism and liver toxicity of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron were assessed in the Eremias argus following a single oral exposure. Diflubenzuron preferred to accumulate in the fat and brain (>1.0 mg kg(-1)) and was rapidly eliminate in other tissues. In the liver, 4-chloroaniline was one of diflubenzuron metabolites, although with a concentration less than 0...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507191/lowering-metabolic-rate-mitigates-muscle-atrophy-in-western-fence-lizards
#13
J Balaban, E Azizi
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse can cause a significant loss of contractile proteins, which compromises the ability to generate force, mechanical work or power, thus compromising locomotor performance. Several hibernating organisms can resist muscle atrophy despite months of inactivity. This resistance has been attributed to a reduction in body temperature and metabolic rate and activation of physiological pathways that counteract pathways of protein degradation. However, in these systems such strategies are not mutually exclusive and the effects of these mechanisms can be difficult to separate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502765/biogeographic-links-between-southern-atlantic-forest-and-western-south-america-rediscovery-re-description-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-two-rare-montane-anole-lizards-from-brazil
#14
Ivan Prates, Paulo Roberto Melo-Sampaio, Leandro de Oliveira Drummond, Mauro Teixeira, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Carnaval
Data on species ranges and phylogenetic relationships are key in historical biogeographical inference. In South America, our understanding of the evolutionary processes that underlie biodiversity patterns varies greatly across regions. Little is known, for instance, about the drivers of high endemism in the southern montane region of the Atlantic Rainforest. In this region, former biogeographic connections with other South American ecosystems have been invoked to explain the phylogenetic affinities of a number of endemic taxa...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495858/comparative-functional-analysis-of-ribonuclease-1-homologs-molecular-insights-into-evolving-vertebrate-physiology
#15
Jo E Lomax, Chelcie H Eller, Ronald T Raines
Pancreatic-type ribonucleases (ptRNases) comprise a class of highly conserved secretory endoribonucleases in vertebrates. The prototype of this enzyme family is ribonuclease 1 (RNase 1). Understanding the physiological roles of RNase 1 is becoming increasingly important, as engineered forms of the enzyme progress through clinical trials as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer. Here we present an in-depth biochemical characterization of RNase 1 homologs from a broad range of mammals (human, bat, squirrel, horse, cat, mouse, and cow) and non-mammalian species (chicken, lizard, and frog)...
May 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494399/comparative-toxic-responses-of-male-and-female-lizards-eremias-argus-exposed-to-s-metolachlor-contaminated-soil
#16
Li Chen, Dezhen Wang, Zhongnan Tian, Shanshan Di, Wenjun Zhang, Fang Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Jinling Diao
Soil contamination caused by the widespread use of pesticides is one of the main environmental problems facing conservation organizations. (S)-metolachlor (SM) is a selective pre-emergent herbicide that poses potential risks to soil-related organisms such as reptiles. The present study elucidated the toxic effects of SM (3 and 30 mg/kg soil weight) in Eremias argus. The results showed that growth pattern was similar between the sexes in breeding season. For males, both kidney coefficient (KC) and testis coefficient in the exposure group were significantly different from those in the control group, while only KC in the high-dose group was significantly higher for females...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491275/outflow-tract-septation-and-the-aortic-arch-system-in-reptiles-lessons-for-understanding-the-mammalian-heart
#17
Robert E Poelmann, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Marcel W M Biermans, Anne I Dolfing, Armand Jagessar, Sam van Hattum, Amanda Hoogenboom, Lambertus J Wisse, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Merijn A G de Bakker, Freek J Vonk, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani, Michael K Richardson
BACKGROUND: Cardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation. RESULTS: We studied embryonic stages of reptile hearts (lizard, turtle and crocodile) and compared these to avian and mammalian development. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to indicate where the essential cell components in the outflow tract and aortic sac were deployed, more specifically endocardial, neural crest and second heart field cells...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486882/foot-preference-underlies-bite-scar-asymmetry-in-the-gecko-ptyodactylus-guttatus
#18
Guy Sion
Scar-asymmetry may reflect brain laterality because scar location may reflect behaviour when being attacked. This has been studied in a few organisms, but never in lizards. Wild geckos (Ptyodactylus guttatus) from Israel were examined for bite-scar numbers and their lateral asymmetry. Social status was documented in the field before capture. Foot-preference, for either the right (R-footed) or left (L-footed) hind leg was determined in six trials for each gecko on adults captured in Jerusalem. I studied 48 geckos: 15 R-footed, 6 ambidextrous and 9 L-footed females; 6 R-footed, 3 ambidextrous and 9 L-footed males...
May 9, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477376/chronic-effects-of-an-invasive-species-on-an-animal-community
#19
J Sean Doody, David Rhind, Brian Green, Christina Castellano, Colin McHenry, Simon Clulow
Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible...
May 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474568/lipid-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Amira Zarrouk, Meryam Debbabi, Maryem Bezine, El Mostafa Karym, Asmaa Badreddine, Olivier Rouaud, Thibault Moreau, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Mohamed El Ayeb, Boubker Nasser, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia. It is characterized by three successive stages (preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia), which are determined with a panel of complementary tests including behavioral and biochemical tests and imaging methods. Currently accepted biomarkers of AD include levels of brain chemicals related to amyloid or tau, and imaging-derived estimates of the size and metabolic activity of specific brain regions. At the moment, the pathogenesis of AD is still poorly understood but some studies support a link between lipid metabolism disorders and AD...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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