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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155264/modulation-of-adrenal-steroidogenesis-by-testosterone-in-the-lizard-coleonyx-elegans
#1
Rocco V Carsia, Patrick J McIlroy, Henry B John-Alder
Our previous work with adrenocortical cells from several Sceloporus lizard species suggests that gonadal hormones influence the steroidogenic capacity and the sensitivity to ACTH. However, there are discrepancies in these cellular response parameters suggesting that the effects of gonadal hormones on adrenocortical function vary with species, sex, age, season, and environmental/experimental conditions. To gain further insight into these complex interactions, here we report studies on Coleonyx elegans, Eublepharidae (Yucatán Banded Gecko), which is only distantly related to Sceloporus lizards via a basal common ancestor and in captivity, reproduces throughout the year...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155263/identification-and-characterisation-of-the-epididymal-proteins-in-the-lizard-eutropis-carinata-reptilia-squamata-schneider-1801
#2
R Medini, M Bhagya, S Samson
Lizards are seasonal breeders. Cyclic reproductive nature makes lizard as a useful model for the study of the reproductively active protein secretions in the epididymis. During breeding season, the epididymides of the lizard secret proteins that mixes with the spermatozoa and create a favourable environment for sperm maturation. In this spectrum, the aim of this study is to identify and characterize proteins which are present in the lumen of the epididymis of the lizard, E. carinata during the active phase of reproduction...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150716/slow-life-histories-in-lizards-living-in-the-highlands-of-the-andes-mountains
#3
Jorgelina M Boretto, Facundo Cabezas-Cartes, Nora R Ibargüengoytía
In the highlands of the Andes, lizards must balance precisely the allocation of energy for growth and reproduction to ensure their survival. We studied the individuals' age, growth rates, age at sexual maturity, and maximum life span of the viviparous lizard Phymaturus antofagastensis, endemic of cold and harsh environments at high altitudes in the Andes Mountains of Catamarca province, Argentina. We also estimated key life history parameters like reproductive effort, lifetime reproductive effort, net reproductive rate, and relative reproductive time in P...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145368/wag-the-lizard
#4
Jason G Goldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143964/signatures-of-selection-in-embryonic-transcriptomes-of-lizards-adapting-in-parallel-to-cool-climate
#5
Nathalie Feiner, Alfredo Rago, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Populations adapting independently to the same environment provide important insights into the repeatability of evolution at different levels of biological organization. In the 20(th) century, common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) from southern and western Europe were introduced to England, north of their native range. Non-native populations of both lineages have adapted to the shorter season and lower egg incubation temperature by increasing the absolute rate of embryonic development. Here we tested if this adaptation is accompanied by signatures of directional selection in the transcriptomes of early embryos and, if so, if non-native populations show adaptive convergence...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143284/development-and-characterization-of-79-nuclear-markers-amplifying-in-viviparous-and-oviparous-clades-of-the-european-common-lizard
#6
J L Horreo, M L Peláez, T Suárez, P S Fitze
The European common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) is a widely distributed species across Europe and Asia exhibiting two reproductive modes (oviparity/viviparity), six major lineages and several sublineages. It has been used to tackle a large variety of research questions, nevertheless, few nuclear DNA sequence markers have been developed for this species. Here we developed 79 new nuclear DNA sequence markers using a clonation protocol. These markers were amplified in several oviparous and viviparous specimens including samples of all extant clades, to test the amplification success and their diversity...
November 15, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143128/the-evolution-of-androgen-receptor-expression-and-behavior-in-anolis-lizard-forelimb-muscles
#7
Michele A Johnson, Bonnie K Kircher, Diego J Castro
The motor systems that produce behavioral movements are among the primary targets for the action of steroid hormones, including androgens. Androgens such as testosterone bind to androgen receptors (AR) to induce physiological changes in the size, strength, and energetic capacity of skeletal muscles, which can directly influence the performance of behaviors in which those muscles are used. Because tissues differentially express AR, resulting in tissue-specific sensitivity to androgens, AR expression may be a major target of selection for the evolution of behavior...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142272/individuals-of-the-common-namib-day-gecko-vary-in-how-adaptive-simplification-alters-sprint-biomechanics
#8
Clint E Collins, Timothy E Higham
Locomotion inextricably links biomechanics to ecology as animals maneuver through mechanically challenging environments. Faster individuals are more likely to escape predators, surviving to produce more offspring. Fast sprint speed evolved several times in lizards, including geckos. However, the underlying mechanisms determining performance await discovery in many clades. Novel morphological structures influence these mechanisms by adding complexity to the government of locomotion. Gecko adhesion coevolves with modified muscles, tendons, and reflexes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136399/proteinaceous-sperm-motility-inhibitory-factor-from-the-female-indian-garden-lizard-calotes-versicolor
#9
Goutham Shankar, Shubhashree Uppangala, Satish K Adiga, Belinda Willard, Bhadravathi K C Sagar, Ruth S K Titus, Gopal K Marathe
Female sperm storage is an intriguing adaptation exhibited by a wide array of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The mechanisms underlying female sperm storage have remained elusive. Using the Indian garden lizard Calotes versicolor as a model organism, we investigated the role of low and high molecular weight factors in this phenomenon. Previously, we demonstrated three distinct phases of the reproductive cycle in this animal with live, motile spermatozoa recovered from the uterovaginal region during the reproductive phase...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134056/semicircular-canals-in-anolis-lizards-ecomorphological-convergence-and-ecomorph-affinities-of-fossil-species
#10
Blake V Dickson, Emma Sherratt, Jonathan B Losos, Stephanie E Pierce
Anolis lizards are a model system for the study of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Greater Antillean anoles have repeatedly evolved six similar forms or ecomorphs: crown-giant, grass-bush, twig, trunk, trunk-crown and trunk-ground. Members of each ecomorph category possess a specific set of morphological, ecological and behavioural characteristics which have been acquired convergently. Here we test whether the semicircular canal system-the organ of balance during movement-is also convergent among ecomorphs, reflecting the shared sensory requirements of their ecological niches...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133310/convergent-origination-of-a-drosophila-like-dosage-compensation-mechanism-in-a-reptile-lineage
#11
Ray Marin, Diego Cortez, Francesco Lamanna, Madapura M Pradeepa, Evgeny Leushkin, Philippe Julien, Angélica Liechti, Jean Halbert, Thoomke Brüning, Katharina Mössinger, Timo Trefzer, Christian Conrad, Halie N Kerver, Juli Wade, Patrick Tschopp, Henrik Kaessmann
Sex chromosomes differentiated from different ancestral autosomes in various vertebrate lineages. Here, we trace the functional evolution of the XY Chromosomes of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis), on the basis of extensive high-throughput genome, transcriptome and histone modification sequencing data and revisit dosage compensation evolution in representative mammals and birds with substantial new expression data. Our analyses show that Anolis sex chromosomes represent an ancient XY system that originated at least ≈160 million years ago in the ancestor of Iguania lizards, shortly after the separation from the snake lineage...
November 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129393/disulfide-bond-mediated-cross-linking-of-corneous-beta-proteins-in-lepidosaurian-epidermis
#12
Karin B Holthaus, Lorenzo Alibardi
Corneous beta-proteins (CBPs), formerly referred to as beta-keratins, are major protein components of the epidermis in lepidosaurian reptiles and are largely responsible for their material properties. These proteins have been suggested to form filaments of 3.4nm in thickness and to interact with themselves or with other proteins, including intermediate filament (IF) keratins. Here, we performed immunocytochemical labeling of CBPs in the epidermis of different lizards and snakes and investigated by immunoblotting analysis whether the reduction of disulfide bonds or protein oxidation affects the solubility and mobility of these CBPs...
October 29, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128926/helminth-infections-in-a-pair-of-sympatric-congeneric-lizard-species
#13
Thiago Maia-Carneiro, Tatiana Motta-Tavares, Robson Waldemar Ávila, Carlos F D Rocha
We analyzed parameters of parasitism by helminths in a pair of sympatric congeneric lizard species (Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus). Differences in their supracommunities (richness, composition, and abundance) and the influence of helminthic loads on minimum flight initiation distances and body temperatures were evaluated. We reported new findings of Piratuba digiticauda infecting T. hispidus and Oochoristica bresslaui infecting T. semitaeniatus. Parapharyngodon alvarengai was the most abundant helminth in both host species...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126714/testicular-steroidogenic-enzymes-in-the-lizard-podarcis-sicula-during-the-spermatogenic-cycle
#14
Luigi Rosati, Alessandra Santillo, Maria Maddalena Di Fiore, Piero Andreuccetti, Marina Prisco
Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), 5α-Reductase (5α-Red), P450 aromatase are key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis. Recently, we showed the expression and the localization of P450 aromatase in Podarcis sicula testis during the different phases of the reproductive cycle, showing its involvement in the control of steroidogenesis, particularly in 17β-estradiol synthesis. Now, we have investigated the presence and distribution of the other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, i...
November 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118742/diets-alter-the-gut-microbiome-of-crocodile-lizards
#15
Hai-Ying Jiang, Jing-E Ma, Juan Li, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Lin-Miao Li, Nan He, Hai-Yang Liu, Shu-Yi Luo, Zheng-Jun Wu, Ri-Chou Han, Jin-Ping Chen
The crocodile lizard is a critically endangered reptile, and serious diseases have been found in this species in recent years, especially in captive lizards. Whether these diseases are caused by changes in the gut microbiota and the effect of captivity on disease remains to be determined. Here, we examined the relationship between the gut microbiota and diet and disease by comparing the fecal microbiota of wild lizards with those of sick and healthy lizards in captivity. The gut microbiota in wild crocodile lizards was consistently dominated by Proteobacteria (∼56...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112964/environment-dependence-of-behavioural-consistency-in-adult-male-european-green-lizards-lacerta-viridis
#16
Gergely Horváth, Boglárka Mészáros, Tamás János Urszán, Katalin Bajer, Orsolya Molnár, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Gábor Herczeg
Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108562/support-for-the-thermal-coadaptation-hypothesis-from-the-growth-rates-of-sceloporus-jarrovii-lizards
#17
L D Patterson, C-A Darveau, G Blouin-Demers
The thermal coadaptation hypothesis posits that ectotherms thermoregulate behaviorally to maintain body temperatures (Tb) that maximize performance, such as net energy gain. Huey's (1982) energetics model describes how food availability and Tb interact to affect net energy gain. We tested the thermal coadaptation hypothesis and Huey's energetics model with growth rates of juvenile Yarrow's spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii). We compared the preferred (selected) Tb range (Tsel) of lizards in high and low energy states to their optimal temperature (To) for growth over nine weeks, and determined whether the To for growth depended on food availability...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108558/partitioning-thermal-habitat-on-a-vertical-rock-a-herculean-task
#18
Panayiotis Pafilis, Panayiota Maragou, Kostas Sagonas, Efstratios Valakos
Species occurring in sympatry have to effectively segregate their niche in order to co-exist. In the case of ectotherms in particular, the very important parameter of thermal biology has to be taken into account. Here we investigated the thermoregulatory effectiveness (E) of two endemic Greek lizards (Hellenolacerta graeca and Podarcis peloponnesiacus) that live syntopically on a rocky cliff in the Peloponnese. We presumed that the two species would select different microhabitats, to avoid interspecific competition, and follow a similar thermoregulation pattern as they experience the same conditions...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106045/hyaluronic-acid-in-the-tail-and-limb-of-amphibians-and-lizards-recreates-permissive-embryonic-conditions-for-regeneration-due-to-its-hygroscopic-and-immunosuppressive-properties
#19
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alibardi
The present review focuses on the role of hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid; HA) during limb and tail regeneration in amphibians and lizards mainly in relation to cells of the immune system. This non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) increases in early stages of wound healing and blastema formation, like during limb or tail embryogenesis, when the immune system is still immature. The formation of a regenerating blastema occurs by the accumulation of mesenchymal cells displaying embryonic-like antigens and HA. This GAG adsorbs large amount of water and generates a soft tissue over 80% hydrated where mesenchymal and epithelial cells can move and interact, an obligatory passage for organ regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102778/early-visual-processing-of-snakes-and-angry-faces-an-erp-study
#20
Sandra J E Langeslag, Jan W van Strien
Snakes and angry faces are common fear stimuli and both elicit an Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) in the event-related potential, which indicates that they capture early automatic visual attention. But because snakes have been a predatory threat for primates since long before communication through facial expressions evolved, we tested the hypothesis that the EPN for snakes would be more pronounced than the EPN for angry faces. We carefully controlled for differences between reptiles and faces by using lizards and neutral faces as control stimuli...
November 1, 2017: Brain Research
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