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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103805/evolutionary-history-of-podarcis-tiliguerta-on-corsica-and-sardinia
#1
V Rodríguez, J M Buades, R P Brown, B Terrasa, V Pérez-Mellado, C Corti, M Delaugerre, J A Castro, A Picornell, M M Ramon
BACKGROUND: Podarcis tiliguerta is a wall lizard endemic to the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Previous findings of high mtDNA and morphological diversity have led to the suggestion that it may represent a species complex. Here, we analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers (mtDNA, 3110 bp; 6 nDNA loci, 3961 bp) in P. tiliguerta sampled from thirty-two localities across Corsica and Sardinia. RESULTS: We find much greater intraspecific genetic divergence than between sister species of other Mediterranean island Podarcis, i...
January 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102007/effects-of-diet-restriction-and-diet-complexity-on-life-history-strategies-in-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#2
Heather M Skinner, Andrew M Durso, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Sarah D Mueller, Susannah S French
Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101674/posterior-tail-development-in-the-salamander-eurycea-cirrigera-exploring-cellular-dynamics-across-life-stages
#3
Janet L Vaglia, Chet Fornari, Paula K Evans
During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae)...
January 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101121/embryology-of-the-vno-and-associated-structures-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-naticinae-a-3d-perspective
#4
Paweł Kaczmarek, Mateusz Hermyt, Weronika Rupik
BACKGROUND: Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100821/tail-regeneration-after-autotomy-revives-survival-a-case-from-a-long-term-monitored-lizard-population-under-avian-predation
#5
Jhan-Wei Lin, Ying-Rong Chen, Ying-Han Wang, Kuen-Chih Hung, Si-Min Lin
Caudal autotomy in lizards has intrigued scientists for more than 100 years. Because of the relative lack of literature under natural conditions, the complicated association among field autotomy rate, real predation pressure, the long-term cost of tail loss, and the benefit of regeneration remains equivocal. In this study, we conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture (CMR) programme with a wild population of a sexually dichromatic lizard, Takydromus viridipunctatus We used autotomy indexes and a contemporary bird census mega-dataset of four predatory birds as predictors to examine the association between tail loss and predation pressure...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099952/zebrin-ii-is-expressed-in-sagittal-stripes-in-the-cerebellum-of-dragon-lizards-ctenophorus-sp
#6
Douglas R Wylie, Daniel Hoops, Joel W Aspden, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida...
January 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097049/sharing-refuges-on-arid-islands-ecological-and-social-influence-on-aggregation-behaviour-of-wall-geckos
#7
Raquel Vasconcelos, Sara Rocha, Xavier Santos
BACKGROUND: The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. METHODS: After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078708/blood-vessel-formation-during-tail-regeneration-in-the-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-the-blastema-is-not-avascular
#8
Samantha L Payne, Hanna M Peacock, Matthew K Vickaryous
Unique among amniotes, many lizards are able to self-detach (autotomize) their tail and then regenerate a replacement. Tail regeneration involves the formation of a blastema, an accumulation of proliferating cells at the site of autotomy. Over time, cells of the blastema give rise to most of the tissues in the replacement tail. In non-amniotes capable of regenerating (such as urodeles and some teleost fish), the blastema is reported to be essentially avascular until tissue differentiation takes place. For tail regenerating lizards less is known...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077776/odour-based-discrimination-of-similarity-at-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-birds
#9
Sarah Leclaire, Maria Strandh, Jérôme Mardon, Helena Westerdahl, Francesco Bonadonna
Many animals are known to preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in order to maximize the antigen binding repertoire (or disease resistance) in their offspring. Although several mammals, fish or lizards use odour cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners, the ability of birds to assess MHC similarity using olfactory cues has not yet been explored. Here we used a behavioural binary choice test and high-throughput-sequencing of MHC class IIB to determine whether blue petrels can discriminate MHC similarity based on odour cues alone...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077086/the-measure-of-success-geographic-isolation-promotes-diversification-in-pachydactylus-geckos
#10
Matthew P Heinicke, Todd R Jackman, Aaron M Bauer
BACKGROUND: Geckos of the genus Pachydactylus and their close relatives comprise the most species-rich clade of lizards in sub-Saharan Africa. Many explanations have been offered to explain species richness patterns of clades. In the Pachydactylus group, one possible explanation is a history of diversification via geographic isolation. If geographic isolation has played a key role in facilitating diversification, then we expect species in more species-rich subclades to have smaller ranges than species in less diverse subclades...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073034/unraveling-the-different-toxic-effect-of-flufenoxuron-on-the-thyroid-endocrine-system-of-the-mongolia-racerunner-eremias-argus-at-different-stages
#11
Jing Chang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Peng Xu, Yinghuan Wang, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Flufenoxuron is a widely used pesticide to inhibit the synthesis of chitin during insect development and its effect on the growth of lizards has been little addressed. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis plays an important role on the development of lizards. In this study, the lizards at different development stages (proliferation and resting stages) were exposed to flufenoxuron for 21 days. The plasma thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland histopathology and expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptors (trα, trβ), deiodinases (dio1, dio2), and transthyretin (ttr) genes were measured to evaluated the toxic effect of flufenoxuron on the HPT axis at different stages...
January 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071239/induction-by-arsenate-of-cell-type-specific-cytotoxic-effects-in-nerve-and-hepatoma-cells
#12
Wafa Kharroubi, Thomas Nury, Samia Haj Ahmed, Pierre Andreoletti, Rachid Sakly, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of sodium arsenate (AsV) on two different cell types: 158N murine oligodendrocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Exposure of 158N cells to AsV (0.1-400 µM; 48 h) induced a biphasic cytoxic effect defined as hormesis. Thus, low concentrations of AsV stimulate cell proliferation, as shown by phase-contrast microscopy, cell counting with trypan blue, and crystal violet assay, whereas high concentrations induce cell death associated with a loss of cell adhesion...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067864/protective-effect-of-cactus-cladode-extracts-on-peroxisomal-functions-in-microglial-bv-2-cells-activated-by-different-lipopolysaccharides
#13
Fatima-Ezzahra Saih, Pierre Andreoletti, Stéphane Mandard, Norbert Latruffe, M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj, Gérard Lizard, Boubker Nasser, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli-LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota-LPS reduced only catalase activity...
January 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058803/would-behavioral-thermoregulation-enables-pregnant-viviparous-tropical-lizards-to-cope-with-a-warmer-world
#14
Saúl López-Alcaide, Miguel Nakamura, Eric N Smith, Enrique Martínez-Meyer
Sceloporus lizards depend on external heat to achieve their preferred temperature (Tse1 ) for performing physiological processes. Evidence both in the field and laboratory indicates that pregnant females of this genus select body temperatures (Tb ) lower than 34°C as higher temperatures may be lethal to embryos. Therefore, thermoregulation is crucial for successful embryo development. Given the increase in global air temperature, it is expected that the first compensatory response of species that inhabit tropical climates will be behavioral thermoregulation...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056768/a-combination-of-long-term-fragmentation-and-glacial-persistence-drove-the-evolutionary-history-of-the-italian-wall-lizard-podarcis-siculus
#15
Gabriele Senczuk, Paolo Colangelo, Emanuela De Simone, Gaetano Aloise, Riccardo Castiglia
BACKGROUND: The current distribution of genetic diversity is the result of a vast array of microevolutionary processes, including short-term demographic and ecological mechanisms and long-term allopatric isolation in response to Quaternary climatic fluctuations. We investigated past processes that drove the population differentiation and spatial genetic distribution of the Italian wall lizard Podarcis siculus by means of sequences of mitochondrial cytb (n = 277 from 115 localities) and nuclear mc1r and β-fibint7genes (n = 262 and n = 91, respectively) from all its distribution range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056042/effect-of-the-level-of-anesthesia-on-the-auditory-brainstem-response-in-the-emei-music-frog-babina-daunchina
#16
Jianguo Cui, Bicheng Zhu, Guangzhan Fang, Ed Smith, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang
Anesthesia is known to affect the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in mice, rats, birds and lizards. The present study investigated how the level of anesthesia affects ABR recordings in an amphibian species, Babina daunchina. To do this, we compared ABRs evoked by tone pip stimuli recorded from 35 frogs when Tricaine methane sulphonate (MS-222) anesthetic immersion times varied from 0, 5 and 10 minutes after anesthesia induction at sound frequencies between 0.5 and 6 kHz. ABR thresholds increased significantly with immersion time across the 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050465/lizard-bite-masquerading-as-scorpion-sting-envenomation
#17
Ramesh Neelannavar, Mallanagouda Patil, Shankargouda Patil, Bhavana Lakhkar, Vijaykumar Shegji
Lizard bite is very infrequent in children. Lizards tend to avoid confrontation. Bites are only inflicted when they are manipulated or when they are cornered and feel threatened. Lizard bites may be frightening but most do not cause serious health problems. The wall lizard or gecko, found in most homes, is not poisonous at all. It only checks insect population. A two-year-old boy was brought with history of lizard bite over right hand when he was trying to capture it. The child had experienced excessive sweating and irritability within two hours of bite...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040775/genomic-signatures-of-historical-allopatry-and-ecological-divergence-in-an-island-lizard
#18
Richard P Brown, Steve Paterson, Judith Risse
Geographical variation among contiguous populations is frequently attributed to ecological divergence or historical isolation followed by secondary contact. Distinguishing between these effects is key to studies of incipient speciation and could be revealed by different genomic signatures. We used RAD-seq analyses to examine morphologically divergent populations of the endemic lizard (Gallotia galloti) from the volcanic island of Tenerife. Previous analyses have suggested ecological and historical causes to explain the morphological diversity...
December 31, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039834/disruption-of-sex-hormone-levels-and-steroidogenic-related-gene-expression-on-mongolia-racerunner-eremias-argus-after-exposure-to-triadimefon-and-its-enantiomers
#19
Jitong Li, Jing Chang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Triadimefon (TF) is a widely used chiral fungicide with one chiral centre and two enantiomers (TF1 and TF2). However, little is reported about the ecological toxicity of reptiles on an enantioselective level. TF is a potential endocrine disruptor that may interfere with sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2). In our study, the lizards Mongolia Racerunner (Eremias argus) were orally exposed to TF and its enantiomers for 21 days. Plasma sex steroid hormones and steroidogenic-related genes, including 17-beta-hydroxysteroid (hsd17β), cytochrome P450 enzymes (cyp19 and cyp17), and steroid hormone receptors (erα and Ar) were evaluated...
December 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039387/accounting-for-uncertainty-in-gene-tree-estimation-summary-coalescent-species-tree-inference-in-a-challenging-radiation-of-australian-lizards
#20
Mozes P K Blom, Jason G Bragg, Sally Potter, Craig Moritz
Accurate gene tree inference is an important aspect of species tree estimation in a summary-coalescent framework. Yet, in empirical studies, inferred gene trees differ in accuracy due to stochastic variation in phylogenetic signal between targeted loci. Empiricists should, therefore, examine the consistency of species tree inference, while accounting for the observed heterogeneity in gene tree resolution of phylogenomic data sets. Here, we assess the impact of gene tree estimation error on summary-coalescent species tree inference by screening [Formula: see text] exonic loci based on gene tree resolution prior to phylogenetic inference...
October 6, 2016: Systematic Biology
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