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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735666/detection-of-papillomavirus-dna-in-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-multiple-papillomas-in-captive-reptiles
#1
C Eleni, A Corteggio, G Altamura, R Meoli, C Cocumelli, G Rossi, K G Friedrich, P Di Cerbo, G Borzacchiello
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause mucocutaneous tumours including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in man. In animals, evidence supports a causal role for PVs in the development of cutaneous and oral SCC in some species. In reptiles, three cases of papilloma or fibropapilloma have been associated with PV infection, but no association has been reported to date with SCC. Two cases of cutaneous epithelial tumours, multiple papillomas in a spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx acanthinura) and SCC in a Dumeril's boa (Acrantophis dumerili), were investigated by polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735517/metallothionein-expression-and-synthesis-in-the-testis-of-the-lizard-podarcis-sicula-under-natural-conditions-and-following-estrogenic-exposure
#2
Mariailaria Verderame, Ermelinda Limatola, Rosaria Scudiero
Metallothionein (MT) is the main protein involved in the homeostasis of metallic micronutrients and in cellular defence against heavy metals and reactive oxygen species. Found in almost all vertebrate tissues, MT presence and localization in the testis has been controversial. In the present study, by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis we assessed the localization of both MT transcript and protein in Podarcis sicula testes during two different phases of the reproductive cycle: the autumnal resumption and the spring-early summer mating period...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731825/convergent-phenotypic-evolution-despite-contrasting-demographic-histories-in-the-fauna-of-white-sands
#3
Erica Bree Rosenblum, Christine E Parent, Eveline T Diepeveen, Clay Noss, Ke Bi
When are evolutionary outcomes predictable? Cases of convergent evolution can shed light on when, why, and how different species exhibit shared evolutionary trajectories. In particular, studying diverse species in a common environment can illuminate how different factors facilitate or constrain adaptive evolution. Here we integrate studies of pattern and process in the fauna at White Sands (New Mexico) to understand the determinants of convergent evolution. Numerous animal species at White Sands exhibit phenotypic convergence in response to a novel-and shared-selective environment: geologically young gypsum dunes...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729717/dietary-constraints-can-preclude-the-expression-of-an-honest-chemical-sexual-signal
#4
Roberto García-Roa, Jorge Sáiz, Belén Gómara, Pilar López, José Martín
Identifying the factors that underlie signal divergences remains challenging in studies of animal communication. Regarding the chemical signalling, different compounds can be found in some species but be absent in others. We hypothesized that if the costs that are associated with the expression of some compounds are too high, their presence in the signal may be restricted. However, these compounds may be expressed and be functional when those costs are relaxed. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol), a dietary compound with metabolic relevancy, acts as an honest chemical sexual signal in many lizards but no in others such as the Carpetan Rock lizard (Iberolacerta cyreni)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727845/emergent-multisystemic-enterococcus-infection-threatens-endangered-christmas-island-reptile-populations
#5
Karrie Rose, Jessica Agius, Jane Hall, Paul Thompson, John-Sebastian Eden, Mukesh Srivastava, Brendan Tiernan, Cheryl Jenkins, David Phalen
Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726024/thermal-physiology-of-three-sympatric-and-syntopic-liolaemidae-lizards-in-cold-and-arid-environments-of-patagonia-argentina
#6
F Duran, E L Kubisch, Jorgelina M Boretto
The thermal physiology determines the whole biology of ectotherm organisms, by limiting their acquisition and allocation of resources. Herein, we aim to add knowledge on how different species use the thermal resources when they coexist in a habitat, studying the thermal physiology of three sympatric and syntopic liolaemid lizards, Phymaturus querque, Phymaturus zapalensis, and Liolaemus elongatus during the summer season. We measured the body temperatures at capture places, the operative microenvironmental temperatures in the field, and the preferred body temperature in an experimental thermal gradient in the laboratory...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725412/corticosterone-a-costly-mediator-of-signal-honesty-in-sand-lizards
#7
Willow R Lindsay, Erik Wapstra, Bengt Silverin, Mats Olsson
The mechanisms underlying honest signal expression remain elusive and may involve the integration of social and physiological costs. Corticosterone is a socially modulated metabolic hormone that mediates energy investment and behavior and may therefore function to deter dishonest signal expression. We examined the relationship between corticosterone and green badge coloration in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), hypothesizing that physiological and behavioral costs resulting from elevated baseline glucocorticoids function in maintenance of honest signal expression...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725410/aegean-wall-lizards-switch-foraging-modes-diet-and-morphology-in-a-human-built-environment
#8
Colin M Donihue
Foraging mode is a functional trait with cascading impacts on ecological communities. The foraging syndrome hypothesis posits a suite of concurrent traits that vary with foraging mode; however, comparative studies testing this hypothesis are typically interspecific. While foraging modes are often considered typological for a species when predicting foraging-related traits or mode-specific cascading impacts, intraspecific mode switching has been documented in some lizards. Mode-switching lizards provide an opportunity to test foraging syndromes and explore how intraspecific variability in foraging mode might affect local ecological communities...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725379/field-estimates-of-parentage-reveal-sexually-antagonistic-selection-on-body-size-in-a-population-of-anolis-lizards
#9
Mary C Duryea, Patrick Bergeron, Zachary Clare-Salzler, Ryan Calsbeek
Sexual dimorphism evolves when selection favors different phenotypic optima between the sexes. Such sexually antagonistic selection creates intralocus sexual conflict when traits are genetically correlated between the sexes and have sex-specific optima. Brown anoles are highly sexually dimorphic: Males are on average 30% longer than females and 150% heavier in our study population. Viability selection on body size is known to be sexually antagonistic, and directional selection favors large male size whereas stabilizing selection constrains females to remain small...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724218/roadside-verges-as-habitats-for-endangered-lizard-orchids-himantoglossum-spp-ecological-traps-or-refuges
#10
Réka Fekete, Timea Nagy, Judit Bódis, Éva Biró, Viktor Löki, Kristóf Süveges, Attila Takács, Jácint Tökölyi, Attila Molnár V
Alterations in traditional land use practices have led to severe declines in the area of semi-natural grasslands, thereby seriously threatening plant and animal species dependent on these habitats. Small anthropogenic managed habitats, like roadsides can act as refuges and might play an important role in conserving these species. Colonization of roadside verges by endangered lizard orchids (Himantoglossum spp.) has long been known, but few studies have systematically explored the suitability of roadside habitats for these orchids and the impact of roads on them...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716742/never-judge-an-iguana-by-its-spines-systematics-of-the-yucatan-spiny-tailed-iguana-ctenosaura-defensor-cope-1866
#11
Catherine L Malone, Víctor Hugo Reynoso, Larry Buckley
Spiny tailed iguanas are highly diverse clade of lizards in Mesoamerica, ranging from northern Mexico through Panama. Utilizing 2 regions of mitochondrial DNA (1948 bp) and 4 nuclear loci (2232 bp) we explored the relationships between these species and the phylogeographic history of the major clades. We discovered that the lineage endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula render the genus Ctenosaura paraphyletic. To resolve this non-m0nophyly, we resurrect the taxon CachryxCope, 1866, and provide a new diagnosis for the genus...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716358/the-ability-of-lizards-to-identify-an-artificial-batesian-mimic
#12
Josef Beneš, Petr Veselý
Birds are usually considered the main predators shaping the evolution of aposematic signals and mimicry. Nevertheless, some lizards also represent predominately visually oriented predators, so they may also play an important role in the evolution of aposematism. Despite this fact, experimental evidence regarding the responses of lizards to aposematic prey is very poor compared to such evidence in birds. Lizards possess very similar sensory and cognitive abilities to those of birds and their response to aposematic prey may thus be affected by very similar processes...
June 3, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714214/climate-related-environmental-variation-in-a-visual-signalling-device-the-male-and-female-dewlap-in-anolis-sagrei-lizards
#13
Tess Driessens, Simon Baeckens, Manuela Balzarolo, Bieke Vanhooydonck, Katleen Huyghe, Raoul Van Damme
Animals communicate using a variety of signals that differ dramatically among and within species. The astonishing dewlap diversity in anoles has attracted considerable attention in this respect. Yet, the evolutionary processes behind it remain elusive and have mostly been explored for males only. Here, we considered Anolis sagrei males and females to study signal divergence among populations. First, we assessed the degree of variation in dewlap design (size, pattern, colour) and displays by comparing 17 populations distributed across the Caribbean...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712135/long-term-changes-in-abundances-of-sonoran-desert-lizards-reveal-complex-responses-to-climatic-variation
#14
Aaron D Flesch, Philip C Rosen, Peter Holm
Understanding how climatic variation affects animal populations and communities is essential for addressing threats posed by climate change, especially in systems where impacts are projected to be high. We evaluated abundance dynamics of five common species of diurnal lizards over 25 years in a Sonoran Desert transition zone where precipitation decreased and temperature increased across time, and assessed hypotheses for the influence of climatic flux on spatiotemporal variation in abundances. We repeatedly surveyed lizards in spring and summer of each year at up to 32 sites, and used hierarchical mixture models to estimate detection probabilities, abundances, and population growth rates...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711707/protecting-group-free-radical-decarboxylation-of-bile-acids-synthesis-of-novel-steroidal-substituted-maleic-anhydrides-and-maleimides-and-evaluation-of-their-cytotoxicity-on-c6-rat-glioma-cells
#15
Mohammad Samadi, Thomas Nury, Ali Khalafi-Nezhad, Gérard Lizard
We report the first Barton radical decarboxylation of unprotected bile acids via in situ irradiation of their thiohydroxamic esters in the presence of citraconic anhydride and citracoimide, leading to the synthesis a series of steroidal maleic anhydrides and maleimides as novel hybrid bile acids. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated on C6 rat glioma cells.
July 12, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699999/detection-of-zoonotic-and-livestock-specific-assemblages-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-free-living-wild-lizards
#16
Aurora Reboredo-Fernández, Elvira Ares-Mazás, Pedro Galán, Simone Mario Cacciò, Hipólito Gómez-Couso
Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasite that infects the gut of a wide range of vertebrates, including numerous wildlife species. However, little is known about this protozoan parasite in reptiles. Fecal samples from 31 wild lizards were collected in Galicia (northwest Spain) and screened for the presence of Giardia by PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region in the ribosomal unit. This allowed detection of the parasite in 5 samples (16.1%), and enabled identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A2 in two samples of Iberian rock lizard (Iberolacerta monticola), G...
July 10, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690787/the-effects-of-historical-fragmentation-on-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii-%C3%AE-and-microsatellite-variation-in-the-aegean-island-reptile-podarcis-erhardii
#17
Trent Santonastaso, Jackie Lighten, Cock van Oosterhout, Kenneth L Jones, Johannes Foufopoulos, Nicola M Anthony
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in disease resistance and is the most polymorphic gene region in vertebrates. Although habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to a loss in MHC variation through drift, the impact of other evolutionary forces may counter this effect. Here we assess the impact of selection, drift, migration, and recombination on MHC class II and microsatellite variability in 14 island populations of the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii. Lizards were sampled from islands within the Cyclades (Greece) formed by rising sea levels as the last glacial maximum approximately 20,000 before present...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690096/modeling-the-effects-of-variable-feeding-patterns-of-larval-ticks-on-the-transmission-of-borrelia-lusitaniae-and-borrelia-afzelii
#18
Luca Ferreri, Silvia Perazzo, Ezio Venturino, Mario Giacobini, Luigi Bertolotti, Alessandro Mannelli
Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato (sl) group cause Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is the most commonly reported vector-borne zoonosis in Europe. B. burgdorferi sl is maintained in nature in a complex cycle involving Ixodes ricinus ticks and several species of vertebrate hosts. The transmission dynamics of B. burgdorferi sl is complicated by the varying competence of animals for different genospecies of spirochetes that, in turn, vary in their capability of causing disease. In this study, a set of difference equations simplifying the complex interaction between vectors and their hosts (competent and not for Borrelia) is built to gain insights into conditions underlying the dominance of B...
July 6, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689724/thermal-biology-in-two-syntopic-lizards-phymaturus-extrilidus-and-liolaemus-parvus-in-the-puna-region-of-argentina
#19
Rodrigo Gómez Alés, Juan Carlos Acosta, Alejandro Laspiur
Body temperature is the most important ecophysiological variable affecting reptiles' life history. Moreover, thermoregulation in ectotherms implies a struggle to reach preferred temperatures in natural conditions due to the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the thermal biology of two syntopic species, Phymaturus extrilidus and Liolaemus parvus, in the Puna region of San Juan, Argentina. We determined body temperature (Tb), micro-environmental temperatures (Ta and Ts) and operative temperatures (Te) in the field...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689723/methods-and-pitfalls-of-measuring-thermal-preference-and-tolerance-in-lizards
#20
REVIEW
Agustín Camacho, Travis W Rusch
Understanding methodological and biological sources of bias during the measurement of thermal parameters is essential for the advancement of thermal biology. For more than a century, studies on lizards have deepened our understanding of thermal ecophysiology, employing multiple methods to measure thermal preferences and tolerances. We reviewed 129 articles concerned with measuring preferred body temperature (PBT), voluntary thermal tolerance, and critical temperatures of lizards to offer: a) an overview of the methods used to measure and report these parameters, b) a summary of the methodological and biological factors affecting thermal preference and tolerance, c) recommendations to avoid identified pitfalls, and d) directions for continued progress in our application and understanding of these thermal parameters...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
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