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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936697/reactive-oxygen-species-and-glutathione-antioxidants-in-the-testis-of-the-soil-biosentinel-podarcis-sicula-rafinesque-1810
#1
Giulia Guerriero, Gerardino D'Errico, Rossella Di Giaimo, Dea Rabbito, Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju, Gaetano Ciarcia
Important toxicological achievements have been made during the last decades using reptiles. We focus our investigation on gonadal reproductive health of the soil biosentinel Podarcis sicula which is very sensitive to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The aim of this study is to quantitatively detect, by sensitive microassays, reactive oxygen species and the glutathione antioxidants in the testis and investigate if they are differentially expressed before and after remediation of a site of the "Land of Fires" (Campania, Italy) subject to illicit dumping of unknown material...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931936/bite-force-in-the-horned-frog-ceratophrys-cranwelli-with-implications-for-extinct-giant-frogs
#2
A Kristopher Lappin, Sean C Wilcox, David J Moriarty, Stephanie A R Stoeppler, Susan E Evans, Marc E H Jones
Of the nearly 6,800 extant frog species, most have weak jaws that play only a minor role in prey capture. South American horned frogs (Ceratophrys) are a notable exception. Aggressive and able to consume vertebrates their own size, these "hopping heads" use a vice-like grip of their jaws to restrain and immobilize prey. Using a longitudinal experimental design, we quantified the ontogenetic profile of bite-force performance in post-metamorphic Ceratophrys cranwelli. Regression slopes indicate positive allometric scaling of bite force with reference to head and body size, results that concur with scaling patterns across a diversity of taxa, including fish and amniotes (lizards, tuatara, turtles, crocodylians, rodents)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931071/the-origin-of-multiple-clones-in-the-parthenogenetic-lizard-species-darevskia-rostombekowi
#3
Alexey P Ryskov, Fedor A Osipov, Andrey V Omelchenko, Seraphima K Semyenova, Anastasiya E Girnyk, Vitaly I Korchagin, Andrey A Vergun, Robert W Murphy
The all-female Caucasian rock lizard Darevskia rostombekowi and other unisexual species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Typically, diploid parthenogenetic reptiles exhibit some amount of clonal diversity. However, allozyme data from D. rostombekowi have suggested that this species consists of a single clone. Herein, we test this hypothesis by evaluating variation at three variable microsatellite loci for 42 specimens of D. rostombekowi from four populations in Armenia. Analyses based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of each locus reveal five genotypes or presumptive clones in this species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926155/idna-screening-disease-vectors-as-vertebrate-samplers
#4
Arthur Kocher, Benoit De Thoisy, François Catzeflis, Sophie Valiere, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Jérôme Murienne
In the current context of global change and human-induced biodiversity decline, there is an urgent need for developing sampling approaches able to accurately describe the state of biodiversity. Traditional surveys of vertebrate fauna involve time-consuming and skill-demanding field methods. Recently, the use of DNA derived from invertebrate parasites (leeches and blowflies) was suggested as a new tool for vertebrate diversity assessment. Blood meal analyses of arthropod disease vectors have long been performed to describe their feeding behaviour, for epidemiological purposes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925092/the-ontogeny-of-developmental-buffering-in-lizard-head-shape
#5
Marko M Lazić, Dennis Rödder, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou
Canalization and developmental stability (DS) are important organismal properties involved in determining the level of phenotypic variation. Ontogenetic patterns of phenotypic variance components can shed light on the mechanistic basis of developmental buffering (DB). Here, we analyze how individual FA and among-individual variation in head shape change in ontogenetic series of three lizard species raised in laboratory. The degree of asymmetry increased slightly with size, suggesting that developmental mechanisms hypothesized to correct for deviations either do not exist, or that their efficiency is truncated with increasing size...
September 19, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919954/immunocytological-analysis-of-meiotic-recombination-in-two-anole-lizards-squamata-dactyloidae
#6
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Although the evolutionary importance of meiotic recombination is not disputed, the significance of interspecies differences in the recombination rates and recombination landscapes remains under-appreciated. Recombination rates and distribution of chiasmata have been examined cytologically in many mammalian species, whereas data on other vertebrates are scarce. Immunolocalization of the protein of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3), centromere proteins and the mismatch-repair protein MLH1 was used, which is associated with the most common type of recombination nodules, to analyze the pattern of meiotic recombination in the male of two species of iguanian lizards, Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 and Deiroptyx coelestinus (Cope, 1862)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918590/the-role-of-diet-in-shaping-the-chemical-signal-design-of-lacertid-lizards
#7
Simon Baeckens, Roberto García-Roa, José Martín, Raoul Van Damme
Lizards communicate with others via chemical signals, the composition of which may vary among species. Although the selective pressures and constraints affecting chemical signal diversity at the species level remain poorly understood, the possible role of diet has been largely neglected. The chemical signals of many lizards originate from the femoral glands that exude a mixture of semiochemicals, and may be used in a variety of contexts. We analyzed the lipophilic fraction of the glandular secretions of 45 species of lacertid lizard species by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913635/skin-lipids-of-the-striped-plateau-lizard-sceloporus-virgatus-correlate-with-female-receptivity-and-reproductive-quality-alongside-visual-ornaments
#8
Jay K Goldberg, Alisa K Wallace, Stacey L Weiss
Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards...
September 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913164/haemoprotozoa-making-biological-sense-of-molecular-phylogenies
#9
REVIEW
Peter O'Donoghue
A range of protistan parasites occur in the blood of vertebrates and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Some 48 genera are recognized in bood primarily on the basis of parasite morphology and host specificity; including extracellular kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids) and intracellular apicomplexa (haemogregarines, haemococcidia, haemosporidia and piroplasms). Gene sequences are available for a growing number of species and molecular phylogenies often link parasite and host or vector evolution...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912255/sex-hormones-and-the-development-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-dihydrotestosterone-inhibits-growth-in-a-female-larger-lizard-sceloporus-undulatus
#10
Nicholas B Pollock, Stephanie Feigin, Marko Drazenovic, Henry B John-Alder
Sexual differences in adult body size (sexual size dimorphism; SSD) and color (sexual dichromatism) are widespread, and both male- and female-biased dimorphisms are observed even among closely related species. A growing body of evidence indicates testosterone (T) can regulate growth, thus the development of SSD, and sexual dichromatism. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are conjectural, including possible conversions of T to estradiol (E2) or 5 α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In the present study, we hypothesized that effects of T are physiological responses mediated by androgen receptors, and we tested two specific predictions: 1) that DHT would mimic effects of T by inhibiting growth and enhancing coloration, and 2) that removal of endogenous T via surgical castration would stimulate growth...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904785/genomic-timetree-and-historical-biogeography-of-caribbean-island-ameiva-lizards-pholidoscelis-teiidae
#11
Derek B Tucker, Stephen Blair Hedges, Guarino R Colli, Robert Alexander Pyron, Jack W Sites
The phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of Caribbean island ameivas (Pholidoscelis) are not well-known because of incomplete sampling, conflicting datasets, and poor support for many clades. Here, we use phylogenomic and mitochondrial DNA datasets to reconstruct a well-supported phylogeny and assess historical colonization patterns in the group. We obtained sequence data from 316 nuclear loci and one mitochondrial marker for 16 of 19 extant species of the Caribbean endemic genus Pholidoscelis...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904761/too-hot-to-die-the-effects-of-vegetation-shading-on-past-present-and-future-activity-budgets-of-two-diurnal-skinks-from-arid-australia
#12
Annegret Grimm-Seyfarth, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Klaus Henle
Behavioral thermoregulation is an important mechanism allowing ectotherms to respond to thermal variations. Its efficiency might become imperative for securing activity budgets under future climate change. For diurnal lizards, thermal microhabitat variability appears to be of high importance, especially in hot deserts where vegetation is highly scattered and sensitive to climatic fluctuations. We investigated the effects of a shading gradient from vegetation on body temperatures and activity timing for two diurnal, terrestrial desert lizards, Ctenotus regius, and Morethia boulengeri, and analyzed their changes under past, present, and future climatic conditions...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904179/phylogenomic-analyses-of-more-than-4000-nuclear-loci-resolve-the-origin-of-snakes-among-lizard-families
#13
Jeffrey W Streicher, John J Wiens
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates, with more than 10 000 species. Despite considerable effort to resolve relationships among major squamates clades, some branches have remained difficult. Among the most vexing has been the placement of snakes among lizard families, with most studies yielding only weak support for the position of snakes. Furthermore, the placement of iguanian lizards has remained controversial. Here we used targeted sequence capture to obtain data from 4178 nuclear loci from ultraconserved elements from 32 squamate taxa (and five outgroups) including representatives of all major squamate groups...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902864/comparative-skull-anatomy-of-terrestrial-and-crevice-dwelling-trachylepis-skinks-squamata-scincidae-with-a-survey-of-resources-in-scincid-cranial-osteology
#14
Daniel J Paluh, Aaron M Bauer
Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891227/expression-of-regulatory-genes-in-the-embryonic-brain-of-a-lizard-and-implications-for-understanding-pallial-organization-and-evolution
#15
Ester Desfilis, Antonio Abellán, Vicente Sentandreu, Loreta Medina
The comparison of gene expression patterns in the embryonic brain of mouse and chicken is being essential for understanding pallial organization. However, the scarcity of gene expression data in reptiles, crucial for understanding evolution, makes it difficult to identify homologues of pallial divisions in different amniotes. We cloned and analyzed the expression of the genes Emx1, Lhx2, Lhx9 and Tbr1 in the embryonic telencephalon of the lacertid lizard Psammodromus algirus. The comparative expression patterns of these genes, critical for pallial development, are better understood when using a recently proposed six-part model of pallial divisions...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887150/geography-and-past-climate-changes-have-shaped-the-evolution-of-a-widespread-lizard-from-the-chilean-hotspot
#16
Carla Muñoz-Mendoza, Guillermo D'Elía, Alejandra Panzera, Marco A Méndez T, Amado Villalobos-Leiva, Jack W Sites, Pedro F Victoriano
The complex orogenic history and structure of Southern South America, coupled with Pleistocene glacial cycles, have generated paleoclimatic and environmental changes that influenced the spatial distribution and genetic composition of natural populations. Despite the increased number of phylogeographic studies in this region and given the frequent idiosyncratic phylogeographic patterns, there is still the need to focus research especially on species that are currently distributed within a wide range of bioclimatic regimes, and that historically have been subject to contrasting scenarios...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885068/the-phylogenetic-relationships-and-molecular-systematics-of-scincid-lizards-of-the-genus-heremites-sauria-scincidae-in-the-middle-east-based-on-mtdna-sequences
#17
Zahed Bahmani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani
The taxonomic status of species included in the genus Heremites in Iran and Iraq is uncertain. Three of these species have been assigned to the genus based on morphology: Heremites auratus transcaucasica, H. vittatus, and H. septemtaeniatus. We examined the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of the Iranian and Iraqi species of Heremites by performing phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rRNA). Phylogenetic relationships and estimated genetic distances indicated that the Heremites populations of the area (Iran and Iraq) form five distinct clades...
September 8, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#18
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879011/the-morphology-of-the-inner-ear-of-squamate-reptiles-and-its-bearing-on-the-origin-of-snakes
#19
Alessandro Palci, Mark N Hutchinson, Michael W Caldwell, Michael S Y Lee
The inner ear morphology of 80 snake and lizard species, representative of a range of ecologies, is here analysed and compared to that of the fossil stem snake Dinilysia patagonica, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Inner ear morphology is linked to phylogeny (we find here a strong phylogenetic signal in the data that can complicate ecological correlations), but also correlated with ecology, with Dinilysia resembling certain semi-fossorial forms (Xenopeltis and Cylindrophis), consistent with previous reports...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874017/environmental-drivers-of-seasonal-patterns-of-host-utilization-by-culiseta-melanura-diptera-culicidae-in-florida
#20
Erik M Blosser, Cynthia C Lord, Tanise Stenn, Carolina Acevedo, Hassan K Hassan, Lawrence E Reeves, Thomas R Unnasch, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
Field studies were carried out in four Florida counties to investigate winter and spring ecology of host use by Culiseta melanura (Coquillet), the primary vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in North America. Bloodmeal analysis by PCR was used to identify 233 host bloodmeals, which mainly originated from birds (78.5%) and reptiles (17.2%), primarily Anolis spp. lizards. Across counties, the percentage of bloodmeals from reptiles (7-37% depending upon county) increased with increasing day length and temperature in the spring...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
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