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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922061/alanine-aminotransferase-and-total-bilirubin-are-synergistically-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-among-middle-aged-and-elderly-japanese-women
#1
Ryuichi Kawamoto, Daisuke Ninomiya, Kensuke Senzaki, Teru Kumagi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at high levels and total bilirubin (T-BiL) at low levels were oxidative potentials, but it was uncertain whether ALT and T-BiL had an additive interaction for the risk of MetS. METHODS: From a single community, we recruited 864 women (70 ± 8 years) during their annual health examination. We cross-sectionally investigated whether ALT and T-BiL are associated with MetS and its components based on the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III report...
September 18, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921996/treatments-for-internet-gaming-disorder-and-internet-addiction-a-systematic-review
#2
Kristyn Zajac, Meredith K Ginley, Rocio Chang, Nancy M Petry
Problems related to excessive use of the Internet and video games have recently captured the interests of both researchers and clinicians. The goals of this review are to summarize the literature on treatment effectiveness for these problems and to determine whether any treatments meet the minimum requirement of an evidence-based treatment as defined by Chambless et al. (1998). Studies of treatments for Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and Internet addiction were examined separately, as past studies have linked IGD to more severe outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921935/assessing-causal-relationships-using-genetic-proxies-for-exposures-an-introduction-to-mendelian-randomisation
#3
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Michael Green, Amy E Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research, and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Mendelian randomisation (MR) offers potential solutions to these problems...
September 18, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921814/nabilone-pharmacotherapy-for-cannabis-dependence-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#4
Kevin P Hill, Matthew D Palastro, Staci A Gruber, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Shelly F Greenfield, Scott E Lukas, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of nabilone, a cannabinoid agonist, to treat cannabis dependence. METHODS: Eighteen adults with DSM-IV cannabis dependence were randomized to receive either 2 mg/day of nabilone (n = 10) or placebo (n = 8) for 10 weeks in addition to medication management. Twelve participants, six in each group, completed treatment. The safety and tolerability of nabilone was assessed at each visit...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921780/factors-associated-with-attrition-in-substance-using-patients-enrolled-in-an-intensive-outpatient-program
#5
James Mckowen, Nicholas Carrellas, Courtney Zulauf, Emin Nalan Ward, Ronna Fried, Timothy Wilens
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of attrition from treatment and exhibit impairments on measures of executive functioning (EF). The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if EF is associated with attrition from a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD, and examine the feasibility of implementing the project. METHODS: Baseline neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921760/genome-wide-association-study-of-a-nicotine-metabolism-biomarker-in-african-american-smokers-impact-of-chromosome-19-genetic-influences
#6
Meghan J Chenoweth, Jennifer J Ware, Andy Z X Zhu, Christopher B Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul M Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent...
September 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#7
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920960/long-noncoding-rna-egfr-as1-mediates-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-addiction-and-modulates-treatment-response-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Daniel S W Tan, Fui Teen Chong, Hui Sun Leong, Shen Yon Toh, Dawn P Lau, Xue Lin Kwang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Gopinath M Sundaram, Gek San Tan, Mei Mei Chang, Boon Tin Chua, Wan Teck Lim, Eng Huat Tan, Mei Kim Ang, Tony K H Lim, Prabha Sampath, Balram Chowbay, Anders J Skanderup, Ramanuj DasGupta, N Gopalakrishna Iyer
Targeting EGFR is a validated approach in the treatment of squamous-cell cancers (SCCs), although there are no established biomarkers for predicting response. We have identified a synonymous mutation in EGFR, c.2361G>A (encoding p.Gln787Gln), in two patients with head and neck SCC (HNSCC) who were exceptional responders to gefitinib, and we showed in patient-derived cultures that the A/A genotype was associated with greater sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as compared to the G/A and G/G genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920715/the-mixed-message-behind-medication-assisted-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#9
Sean M Robinson, Bryon Adinoff
The gap between treatment utilization and treatment need for substance use disorders (SUDs) remains a significant concern in our field. While the growing call to bridge this gap often takes the form of more treatment services and/or better integration of existing services, this perspective proposes that more effective labels for and transparent descriptions of existing services would also have a meaningful impact. Adopting the perspective of a consumer-based health-care model (wherein treatments and services are products and patients are consumers) allows us to consider how labels like Addiction-focused Medical Management, Medication-Assisted Treatment, Medication-Assisted Therapy, and others may actually be contributing to the underutilization problem rather than alleviating it...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#10
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920521/implementing-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-psychosocial-care-units-caps-in-brazil
#11
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Nilson R da Silva, Marta Rd Campos, Helena F Moura, Gustavo Zabert, Beatriz M Champagne, Katherine E Kemper, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among mental health and addiction (MHA) patients is 3 times higher than it is in the general population, yet this patient population has received little help to combat smoking. Considering this, psychosocial care centers (CAPS - Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) are strategic locations for integrating tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) into existing treatment activities. METHODS: Our team provided an 8-hour training package to the staff of CAPS that have not been providing specialized TDT for smokers...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920179/review-of-virtual-reality-treatment-in-psychiatry-evidence-versus-current-diffusion-and-use
#12
REVIEW
Matthew C Mishkind, Aaron M Norr, Andrea C Katz, Greg M Reger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of the current evidence base for and clinical applications of the use of virtual reality (VR) in psychiatric practice, in context of recent technological developments. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of VR in psychiatric practice shows promise with much of the research demonstrating clinical effectiveness for conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and phobias, chronic pain, rehabilitation, and addictions...
September 18, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919771/the-challenge-of-perioperative-pain-management-in-opioid-tolerant-patients
#13
REVIEW
Flaminia Coluzzi, Francesca Bifulco, Arturo Cuomo, Mario Dauri, Claudio Leonardi, Rita Maria Melotti, Silvia Natoli, Patrizia Romualdi, Gennaro Savoia, Antonio Corcione
The increasing number of opioid users among chronic pain patients, and opioid abusers among the general population, makes perioperative pain management challenging for health care professionals. Anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses should be familiar with some pharmacological phenomena which are typical of opioid users and abusers, such as tolerance, physical dependence, hyperalgesia, and addiction. Inadequate pain management is very common in these patients, due to common prejudices and fears. The target of preoperative evaluation is to identify comorbidities and risk factors and recognize signs and symptoms of opioid abuse and opioid withdrawal...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#14
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918540/a-mixed-method-assessment-of-a-pilot-peer-advocate-intervention-for-rural-gender-and-sexual-minorities
#15
Cathleen E Willging, Audrey Harkness, Tania Israel, David Ley, Patricia S Hokanson, Catherine DeMaria, Aaron Joplin, Verida Smiley
Mental health disparities affect lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people in rural America. There are few empirically-based mental health interventions for this population. This exploratory study uses a mixed-method approach to assess implementation issues related to the feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and preliminary impacts of a novel peer-based intervention designed to enhance support and treatment engagement among rural LGBTQ people with mental distress and/or addiction issues...
September 16, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918457/effects-of-menthol-and-its-interaction-with-nicotine-conditioned-cue-on-nicotine-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#16
Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Ramachandram Avusula, Meiyu Zhang, Yongzhen Gong, Xiu Liu
RATIONALE: Increasing clinical evidence suggests that menthol, a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products, may contribute to smoking and nicotine dependence. Relapse to smoking behavior presents a formidable challenge for the treatment of tobacco addiction. An unresolved issue is whether the mentholation of tobacco products precipitates relapse to tobacco use in abstinent smokers. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effects of menthol on the perseverance and relapse of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#17
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#18
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918056/the-therapeutic-potential-of-crispr-cas9-systems-in-oncogene-addicted-cancer-types-virally-driven-cancers-as-a-model-system
#19
REVIEW
Luqman Jubair, Nigel A J McMillan
The field of gene editing is undergoing unprecedented growth. The first ex vivo human clinical trial in China started in 2016, more than 1000 US patents have been filed, and there is exponential growth in publications. The ability to edit genes with high fidelity is promising for the development of new treatments for a range of diseases, particularly inherited conditions, infectious diseases, and cancers. For cancer, a major issue is the identification of driver mutations and oncogenes to target for therapeutic effect, and this requires the development of robust models with which to prove their efficacy...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917440/neuroticism-and-quality-of-life-multiple-mediating-effects-of-smartphone-addiction-and-depression
#20
Tingting Gao, Yu-Tao Xiang, Han Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Songli Mei
The purposes of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression on neuroticism and quality of life. Self-reported measures of neuroticism, smart-phone addiction, depression, and quality of life were administered to 722 Chinese university students. Results showed smartphone addiction and depression were both significantly affected neuroticism and quality of life. The direct effect of neuroticism on quality of life was significant, and the chain-mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression was also significant...
August 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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