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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340165/attitudes-toward-opioids-and-risk-of-misuse-abuse-in-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain-receiving-long-term-opioid-therapy
#1
Grisell Vargas-Schaffer, Jennifer Cogan
Objectives.:  To determine the attitudes of patients toward long-term opioid therapy (LtOT) and the potential risk of misuse/abuse in patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Design.:  Prospective, descriptive epidemiological study. Setting.:  Multidisciplinary tertiary care pain center within the Montreal University Health Center. Subjects.:  Patients who had had at least one visit at least one year prior to the invitation...
March 7, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340145/human-abuse-potential-of-the-new-opioid-analgesic-molecule-nktr-181-compared-with-oxycodone
#2
Lynn Webster, Jack Henningfield, August R Buchhalter, Suresh Siddhanti, Lin Lu, Aleksandrs Odinecs, Carlo J Di Fonzo, Michael A Eldon
Objective.:  Evaluate the human abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of NKTR-181, a novel mu-opioid agonist molecule, relative to oxycodone. Design.:  This randomized, single-center, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled five-period crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, non-physically dependent recreational opioid users. Setting.:  Inpatient clinical research site. Subjects. : Forty-two randomized subjects (73...
March 10, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340034/estimating-demand-and-cross-price-elasticity-for-very-low-nicotine-content-vlnc-cigarettes-using-a-simulated-demand-task
#3
Megan R Tucker, Murray Laugesen, Randolph C Grace
Introduction: Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes, using simulated demand tasks. Methods: 40 New Zealand smokers sampled a VLNC cigarette and completed Cigarette Purchase Tasks to indicate their demand for regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes at a range of prices, and a cross-price task indicating how many regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes they would purchase at 0...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339973/day-to-day-variability-in-self-reported-cigarettes-per-day
#4
John R Hughes, Saul Shiffman, Shelly Naud, Erica N Peters
Background and Aims: Nicotine addiction theory predicts small day to day variability in cigarettes/day (CPD) whereas social learning theory predicts large variability. A description of the variability in CPD over multiple days is not available. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of two natural history studies with daily smokers - one of smokers not intending to quit, and one of smokers intending to quit sometime in the next 3 months. In the former, smokers recorded their smoking during the day by Ecological Momentary Assessment, using a palm-top computer...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339890/pennsylvania-state-core-competencies-for-education-on-opioids-and-addiction
#5
Michael A Ashburn, Rachel L Levine
Objective.:  The objective of this project was to develop core competencies for education on opioids and addiction to be used in all Pennsylvania medical schools. Methods.:  The Pennsylvania Physician General created a task force that was responsible for the creation of the core competencies. A literature review was completed, and a survey of graduating medical students was conducted. The task force then developed, reviewed, and approved the core competencies...
March 2, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339662/hiv-1-proteins-influence-novelty-seeking-behavior-and-alter-region-specific-transcriptional-responses-to-chronic-nicotine-treatment-in-hiv-1tg-rats
#6
Zhongli Yang, Tanseli Nesil, Taylor Wingo, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
Introduction: Clinical studies suggest that HIV-1-infected patients are more likely to use or abuse addictive drugs than is the general population. We hypothesized that HIV-1 proteins impact novelty-seeking behavior and enhance the transcriptional response to nicotine in genes implicated in both novelty-seeking behavior and drug addiction. Methods: We assessed the effects of HIV-1 proteins on novelty-seeking behavior by comparing baseline activity differences of HIV-1Tg and F344 control rats in the open-field test...
February 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#7
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339586/framing-tobacco-dependence-as-a-brain-disease-implications-for-policy-and-practice
#8
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Like other forms of drug dependence, tobacco dependence is increasingly being described as a "chronic brain disease." The potential consequences of this medical labelling have been examined in relation to other addictions, but the implications for tobacco control have been neglected. Some have posited that biomedical conceptions of addiction will reduce stigma and increase uptake of efficacious treatments. Others have countered that it could increase stigma, reduce treatment seeking, and deter unassisted quitting...
January 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339439/dezocine-antagonizes-morphine-analgesia-upon-simultaneous-administration-in-rodent-models-of-acute-nociception
#9
Na-Na Li, Ya-Qin Huang, Ling-Er Huang, Shao-Hui Guo, Maxwell R Shen, Chen-Ling Guo, Sheng-Mei Zhu, Yong-Xing Yao
BACKGROUND: Dezocine is a powerful analgesic that can be less addictive than morphine, yet how the two drugs interact in vivo is poorly understood. Here we administered dezocine alone or in combination with morphine to different acute nociception paradigms to explore the interactions of the 2 drugs upon co-administration. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how dezocine interacts with morphine in different acute nociception paradigms. STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory animal study...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339199/structure-based-discovery-of-new-antagonist-and-biased-agonist-chemotypes-for-the-kappa-opioid-receptor
#10
Zhong Zheng, Xi-Ping Huang, Thomas J Mangano, Rodger Zou, Xin Chen, Saheem Zaidi, Bryan L Roth, Raymond C Stevens, Vsevolod Katritch
The ongoing epidemics of opioid overdose raises an urgent need for effective anti-addiction therapies and addiction-free painkillers. The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) has emerged as a promising target for both indications, raising demand for new chemotypes of KOR antagonists, as well as G-protein-biased agonists. We employed the crystal structure of the KOR-JDTic complex and ligand-optimized structural templates to perform virtual screening of available compound libraries for new KOR ligands. The prospective virtual screening campaign yielded a high 32% hit rate, identifying novel fragment-like and lead-like chemotypes of KOR ligands...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337700/experimental-research-showing-the-reduction-of-naloxone-place-aversion-by-oral-zinc-administration-in-rats
#11
Diana Ciubotariu, Raoul Vasile Lupușoru, Elena Luca, Liliana Mititelu-Tarțău, Cătălina Elena Lupușoru
Previous studies showed the attenuation of both morphine-dependence and morphine-place preference by zinc. Conditioned place preference and aversion are experimental models frequently used to test the reward-stimulating, respectively the aversive effects induced by different stimuli or substances. Addictive substances usually induce place preference (exhibit reward-stimulating properties), while their antagonists determine place-avoidance (aversion). The present study aimed to assess the effect determined by zinc sulphate oral administration (2 and 4 mg/kg/day, 14 days, prior to habituation) on the place aversion induced by two naloxone doses (1...
March 23, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337695/calcium-impermeable-nmda-receptor-a-novel-target-for-addiction
#12
Xiaodan Huang, Wei Ni, Changzheng Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337287/memri-is-a-biomarker-defining-nicotine-specific-neuronal-responses-in-subregions-of-the-rodent-brain
#13
Aditya N Bade, Howard E Gendelman, Michael D Boska, Yutong Liu
Nicotine dependence is defined by dopaminergic neuronal activation within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and by affected neural projections from nicotine-stimulated neurons. Control of any subsequent neural activities would underpin any smoking cessation strategy. While extensive efforts have been made to study the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction, more limited works were developed to find imaging biomarkers. If such biomarkers are made available, addictive behaviors could be monitored noninvasively. To such ends, we employed manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to determine whether it could be used to monitor neuronal activities after acute and chronic nicotine exposure in rats...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336492/looking-into-the-brain-through-the-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-evidences
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Emanuel Bubl, Laurence Lalanne, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Vincent Laprevote
Psychiatry and neuroscience research need novel approaches to indirectly investigate brain function. As the retina is an anatomical and developmental extension of the central nervous system (CNS), changes in retinal function may reflect neurological dysfunctions in psychiatric disorders. The last and most integrated retinal relay before visual information transfer to the brain is the ganglion cell layer. Here, based on collected arguments, we argue that these cells offer a crucial site for indirectly investigating brain function...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335873/parental-psychopathology-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-offspring-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#15
Susanna Leivonen, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews, Roshan Chudal, David Gyllenberg, Dan Sucksdorff, Auli Suominen, Arja Voutilainen, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between maternal and paternal psychiatric diagnoses and Tourette syndrome (TS)/chronic tic disorder (CT) in a nationwide study. METHOD: This nested case-control study linked data derived from three national registers. All singletons born and diagnosed with TS/CT in Finland between January 1991 and December 2010 were identified (n = 1,120) and matched to four controls (n = 4,299). Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between parental psychopathology and TS/CT...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335530/risk-of-suicide-and-dysfunctional-patterns-of-personality-among-bereaved-substance-users
#16
Laura Masferrer, Beatriz Caparrós
Background: Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods: The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334915/salience-and-default-mode-network-dysregulation-in-chronic-cocaine-users-predict-treatment-outcome
#17
Xiujuan Geng, Yuzheng Hu, Hong Gu, Betty Jo Salmeron, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang
While chronic cocaine use is associated with abnormalities in both brain structure and function within and interactions between regions, previous studies have been limited to interrogating structure and function independently, and the detected neural differences have not been applied to independent samples to assess the clinical relevance of results. We investigated consequences of structural differences on resting-state functional connectivity in cocaine addiction and tested whether resting-state functional connectivity of the identified circuits predict relapse in an independent cohort...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334672/effects-of-4-mbc-and-triclosan-in-embryos-of-the-frog-pelophylax-perezi
#18
Diana Martins, Marta S Monteiro, Amadeu M V M Soares, Carla Quintaneiro
The widespread and increasing use of personal care products (PCPs) have led to environmental contamination by substances included in these products. These substances have been detected in aquatic compartments and shown to cause adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. In this work toxicity of the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) and of the UV-filter 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) was assessed in the embryos of Perez' frog Pelophylax perezi. Lethal and sub-lethal parameters were evaluated in embryos in Gosner stage 8-9 exposed to 0...
March 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334119/climbing-the-yeast-cell-wall
#19
Enrico Cabib
Here is a life in three countries, with different cultures, different political structures and even different skies. The constant through all these changes is the addiction of the subject of this story to science and laboratory work. Perhaps the tale that unfolds here will show to some beginners in research that persistence, seasoned with a little luck, can bring results and satisfaction in the long run.
February 25, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333571/screening-and-assessment-of-substance-use-in-hospice-care-examining-content-from-a-national-sample-of-psychosocial-assessments
#20
Paul Sacco, John G Cagle, Melissa L Moreland, Elizabeth A S Camlin
BACKGROUND: Quality of care provided by hospice and palliative care agencies depends on a thorough understanding of the patient, the family, their history, and current risk factors. It is therefore imperative for social workers and other providers in these settings to assess patients and caregivers for substance use disorders and potential for substance misuse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how hospice social workers in the United States screen and assess for alcohol and substance use and risk of medication diversion among patients and family caregivers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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