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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549063/food-addiction-and-obesity-unnecessary-medicalization-of-hedonic-overeating
#1
REVIEW
Graham Finlayson
The concept of addiction is loaded with connotations and is often used for its political as much as its medical utility. The scientific case for 'food addiction' as a clinical phenotype currently rests on its association with generic diagnostic criteria for substance-related disorders being applied to everyday foods and eating-related problems. This has fused the concept of obesity with addiction regardless of whether it fits the definition. The hedonic, or reward, system can account for the ingestion of foods and drugs, confirming that they share neural substrates that differentiate liking and wanting...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546740/new-developments-in-managing-opioid-addiction-impact-of-a-subdermal-buprenorphine-implant
#2
REVIEW
MariaLisa Itzoe, Michael Guarnieri
Opioid addiction to prescription and illicit drugs is a serious and growing problem. In the US alone, >2.4 million people suffer from opioid use disorder. Government and pharmaceutical agencies have begun to address this crisis with recently released and revised task forces and medication-assisted therapies (MAT). For decades, oral or intravenous (IV) MATs have helped patients in their recovery by administration of opioid agonists (methadone, buprenorphine, oxycodone), antagonists (naltrexone, naloxone), and combinations of the two (buprenorphine/naloxone)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546584/delta-coherence-in-resting-state-eeg-predicts-the-reduction-in-cigarette-craving-after-hypnotic-aversion-suggestions
#3
Xiaoming Li, Ru Ma, Liangjun Pang, Wanwan Lv, Yunlu Xie, Ying Chen, Pengyu Zhang, Jiawen Chen, Qichao Wu, Guanbao Cui, Peng Zhang, Yifeng Zhou, Xiaochu Zhang
Cigarette craving is a key contributor of nicotine addiction. Hypnotic aversion suggestions have been used to help smoking cessation and reduce smoking relapse rates but its neural basis is poorly understood. This study investigated the underlying neural basis of hypnosis treatment for nicotine addiction with resting state Electroencephalograph (EEG) coherence as the measure. The sample consisted of 42 male smokers. Cigarette craving was measured by the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire. The 8-minute resting state EEG was recorded in baseline state and after hypnotic induction in the hypnotic state...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546432/regulation-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-acupuncture-on-brain-injury-caused-by-heroin-addiction
#4
Yong-Long Gao, Yang Zhang, Jiang-Peng Cao, Sheng-Bing Wu, Xing-Hui Cai, Yan-Chun Zhang, Rong-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Ge Song, Li-Da Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response by acupuncture and to investigate its neuroprotective effect on brain injury caused by heroin addiction. METHODS: A total of 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a healthy control group (Control), an untreated heroin exposed group (Heroin) and a heroin exposed group receiving electroacupuncture (EA) treatment at GV14 and GV20 (Heroin+acupuncture) with n=16 rats per group...
May 25, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546155/long-term-nicotine-exposure-dampens-lps-induced-nerve-mediated-airway-hyperreactivity-in-murine-airways
#5
Yuan Xu, Lars-Olaf Cardell
Nicotine is a major component of cigarette smoke. It causes addiction and is used clinically to aid smoke cessation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and to explore the potential involvement of neuronal mechanisms behind nicotine's effects in murine models in vivo and in vitro. BALB/c mice were exposed to nicotine in vivo via subcutaneous Alzet osmotic minipumps containing nicotine tartate salt solution (24 mg/kg/day) for 28 days...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545572/intensive-case-management-for-addiction-to-promote-engagement-with-care-of-people-with-severe-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-an-observational-study
#6
Stéphane Morandi, Benedetta Silva, Philippe Golay, Charles Bonsack
BACKGROUND: Co-occurring severe mental and substance use disorders are associated with physical, psychological and social complications such as homelessness and unemployment. People with severe mental and substance use disorders are difficult to engage with care. The lack of treatment worsens their health and social conditions and increases treatment costs, as emergency department visits arise. Case management has proved to be effective in promoting engagement with care of people with severe mental and substance use disorders...
May 25, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545551/identifying-and-reducing-disparities-in-successful-addiction-treatment-completion-testing-the-role-of-medicaid-payment-acceptance
#7
Erick G Guerrero, Bryan R Garner, Benjamin Cook, Yinfei Kong, William A Vega, Lillian Gelberg
BACKGROUND: Medicaid has become the largest payer of substance use disorder treatment and may enhance access to quality care and reduce disparities. We tested whether treatment programs' acceptance of Medicaid payments was associated with reduced disparities between Mexican Americans and non-Latino Whites. METHODS: We analyzed client and program data from 122 publicly funded treatment programs in 2010 and 112 programs in 2013. These data were merged with information regarding 15,412 adult clients from both periods, of whom we selected only Mexican Americans (n = 7130, 46...
May 25, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544993/muscarinic-receptor-m4-positive-allosteric-modulators-attenuate-central-effects-of-cocaine
#8
Camilla Dall, Pia Weikop, Ditte Dencker, Anna C Molander, Gitta Wörtwein, P Jeffrey Conn, Anders Fink-Jensen, Morgane Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific muscarinic M4 receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544009/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-delaying-onset-of-adolescent-substance-abuse-on-cognitive-development-and-addiction-following-a-selective-personality-targeted-intervention-program-the-co-venture-trial
#9
Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
AIMS: Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. DESIGN: Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth)...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543648/making-the-choices-necessary-to-make-a-difference-the-responsibility-of-national-bioethics-commissions
#10
Christine Grady
In this essay, I offer some reflections on how the topics were identified and approached by the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, on which I had the honor to serve, in the hope that the reflections may be useful to future national bioethics commissions. In the executive order that established the bioethics commission, President Obama explicitly recognized the ethical imperative to responsibly pursue science, innovation, and advances in biomedical research and health care, and the importance of national attention to these issues...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543418/reconciling-patient-safety-and-epistemic-humility-an-ethical-use-of-opioid-treatment-plans
#11
Anita Ho
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542511/association-of-cyp2a6-activity-with-lung-cancer-incidence-in-smokers-the-multiethnic-cohort-study
#12
Sungshim L Park, Sharon E Murphy, Lynne R Wilkens, Daniel O Stram, Stephen S Hecht, Loïc Le Marchand
While smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, only 11-24% of smokers develop the malignancy over their lifetime. The primary addictive agent in tobacco smoke is nicotine and variation in nicotine metabolism may influence the smoking levels of an individual. Therefore, inter-individual variation in lung cancer risk among smokers may be due in part to differences in the activity of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. In most smokers, cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6)-catalyzed C-oxidation accounts for >75% of nicotine metabolism, and the activity of this enzyme has been shown to correlate with the amount of nicotine and carcinogens drawn from cigarettes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541119/treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-with-ibogaine-detoxification-and-drug-use-outcomes
#13
Thomas Kingsley Brown, Kenneth Alper
BACKGROUND: Ibogaine is a monoterpene indole alkaloid used in medical and nonmedical settings for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Its mechanism of action is apparently novel. There are no published prospective studies of drug use outcomes with ibogaine. OBJECTIVES: To study outcomes following opioid detoxification with ibogaine. METHODS: In this observational study, 30 subjects with DSM-IV Opioid Dependence (25 males, 5 females) received a mean total dose of 1,540 ± 920 mg ibogaine HCl...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540927/regional-differences-in-striatal-neuronal-ensemble-excitability-following-cocaine-and-extinction-memory-retrieval-in-fos-gfp-mice
#14
Joseph Ziminski, Meike C Sieburg, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Learned associations between drugs of abuse and the drug administration environment play an important role in addiction. In rodents, exposure to a drug-associated environment elicits conditioned psychomotor activation, which may be weakened following extinction learning. While widespread drug-induced changes in neuronal excitability have been observed, little is known about specific changes within neuronal ensembles activated during the recall of drug-environment associations. Using a cocaine conditioned locomotion procedure, the present study assessed the excitability of neuronal ensembles in the nucleus accumbens core and shell (NAc(core) and NAc(shell)), and dorsal striatum (DS) following cocaine conditioning and extinction in Fos-GFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in activated neurons (GFP+)...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540176/the-effect-of-8-oh-dpat-and-dapoxetine-on-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-male-rats-during-ejaculation
#15
Xijun Qin, Xiaojun Ma, Dongping Tu, Zuliang Luo, Jie Huang, Changming Mo
The 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) promotes ejaculation of male rats, whereas dapoxetine delays this process. However, the gene expression profile of the brain at ejaculation following administrationof these two compounds has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a transcriptomic BodyMap was generated by conducting mRNA-Seq on brain samples of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study included four groups: pre-copulatory control (CK) group, ejaculation (EJ) group, 0...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539999/assessment-of-executive-functions-in-methamphetamine-addicted-individuals-emphasis-on-duration-of-addiction-and-abstinence
#16
Majid Farhadian, Malahat Akbarfahimi, Peyman Hassani Abharian, Seyedeh Golaleh Hosseini, Susan Shokri
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have conducted on impairments of executive functions in individuals with methamphetamine addiction; however, only a few have investigated the relationship between executive functions and duration of addiction or abstinence. This study was designed to assess the executive functions in methamphetamine-addicted individuals in relation to the duration of addiction or abstinence. METHODS: A total of 161 subjects aged between 20 and 45 years were categorized into three subgroups: currently abusing (n=41), abstinent (n=60), and control healthy individuals (n=60)...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539957/the-relationship-of-sexual-abuse-with-self-esteem-depression-and-problematic-internet-use-in-korean-adolescents
#17
Bung-Nyun Kim, Subin Park, Min-Hyeon Park
The association of sexual victimization with self-esteem, depression, and problematic internet use was examined in Korean adolescents. A total of 695 middle and high school students were recruited (413 boys, 282 girls, mean age, 14.06±1.37 years). The participants were administered the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The associations between sexual abuse and the level of self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problematic internet use were analyzed...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539894/modulation-of-brain-activity-with-noninvasive-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-clinical-applications-and-safety-concerns
#18
REVIEW
Haichao Zhao, Lei Qiao, Dongqiong Fan, Shuyue Zhang, Ofir Turel, Yonghui Li, Jun Li, Gui Xue, Antao Chen, Qinghua He
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely-used tool to induce neuroplasticity and modulate cortical function by applying weak direct current over the scalp. In this review, we first introduce the underlying mechanism of action, the brief history from discovery to clinical scientific research, electrode positioning and montages, and parameter setup of tDCS. Then, we review tDCS application in clinical samples including people with drug addiction, major depression disorder, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538519/expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factors-neurotrophin-3-and-neurotrophin-4-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-heroin-dependency-and-withdrawal
#19
Yixin Li, Baijuan Xia, Rongrong Li, Dan Yin, Yanlin Wang, Wenmei Liang
Neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), have been implicated in the modulation of heroin dependency. This study was designed to explore the expression alterations of BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in the context of heroin dependence and withdrawal in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Heroin dependence was induced by a progressive intraperitoneal treatment of heroin. The results showed that the expression levels of BDNF and NT-4 were significantly decreased in the NAc of rats with heroin addiction in comparison with the control group, whereas there was a significant increase in BDNF and NT-4 expressions in the groups of rats with both naloxone-induced and spontaneous withdrawal...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537967/nortriptyline-enhances-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-neuropathic-rats-role-of-the-central-noradrenergic-system
#20
Wenli Mi, Shuxing Wang, Zerong You, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Hyangin Kim, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao
BACKGROUND: Combination drug therapy is commonly used to treat chronic pain conditions such as neuropathic pain, and antidepressant is often used together with opioid analgesics. While rewarding is an intrinsic property of opioid analgesics, it is unknown whether the use of an antidepressant would influence opioid reward, which may contribute to opioid addiction. In this study, we examined whether nortriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant and a first-line medication for neuropathic pain) would enhance the morphine rewarding property in both naive and chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI) rats...
May 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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