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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025283/internet-addiction-in-tibetan-and-han-chinese-middle-school-students-prevalence-demographics-and-quality-of-life
#1
Li Lu, Dan-Dan Xu, Huan-Zhong Liu, Ling Zhang, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Feng-Rong An, Yu-Tao Xiang
Internet addiction (IA) is common amongst young people, but no data on IA are available in Tibetan middle school students in China. This study compared the prevalence of IA between Tibetan and Han Chinese middle school students, and examined its association with quality of life. The study was conducted in two middle schools in the Tibetan area of Qinghai province and two Han Chinese middle schools in Anhui province, China. Internet addiction, depressive symptoms and quality of life were measured using standardized instruments...
July 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025152/a-clinical-trial-with-combined-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-attentional-bias-modification-in-alcohol-dependent-patients
#2
Tess E den Uyl, Thomas E Gladwin, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Modifying attentional processes with attentional bias modification (ABM) might be a relevant add-on to treatment in addiction. This study investigated whether influencing cortical plasticity with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could increase training effects. TDCS could also help alcohol-dependent patients to overcome craving and reduce relapse, independent of training. These approaches were combined to investigate effects in the treatment of alcoholism. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients (analytical sample=83) were randomly assigned to four groups in a two-by-two factorial design...
July 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024721/mode-selective-raman-imaging-of-dopamine-human-dopamine-transporter-interaction-in-live-cells
#3
Achut Prasad Silwal, H Peter Lu
Dopamine (DA) is the catecholamine neurotransmitter which interacts with dopamine receptors (DARs) to generate dopaminergic signals in nervous system. Dopamine transporter (DAT) interacts with DA to maintain DA's homeostasis in synaptic and perisynaptic space. DAT and DARs have great importance in central nervous system (CNS) since they are associated to the targeted binding of drugs. Interactions of DA, or its analogue with DARs, or DAT have been studied extensively to understand the mechanism of the dopaminergic signaling process and several neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson's diseases, addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder...
July 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024188/technology-mediated-addictive-behaviors-constitute-a-spectrum-of-related-yet-distinct-conditions-a-network-perspective
#4
Stéphanie Baggio, Vladan Starcevic, Joseph Studer, Olivier Simon, Sally M Gainsbury, Gerhard Gmel, Joël Billieux
An important ongoing debate in the addiction field is whether certain technology-mediated behaviors constitute tenable and independent constructs. This study investigated whether problematic technology-mediated behaviors could be conceptualized as a spectrum of related, yet distinct disorders (spectrum hypothesis), using the network approach, which considers disorders as networks of symptoms. We used data from the Cohort Study on Substance Use and Risk Factors (C-SURF; Swiss National Science Foundation), with a representative sample of young Swiss men (subsample of participants engaged in technology-mediated behaviors, n = 3,404)...
July 19, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024076/comparison-of-three-measurement-models-of-discounting-among-individuals-with-methamphetamine-use-disorder
#5
Jin H Yoon, Matthew T Weaver, Richard De La Garza, Robert Suchting, Chandra S Nerumalla, Yasmine Omar, Gregory S Brown, Ilana Haliwa, Thomas F Newton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delay discounting is associated with numerous clinically significant aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs). Recent studies have demonstrated that different models for assessing discounting may result in disparate conclusions. The current study compared two discounting tasks: money now versus money later (M-M) and methamphetamine now versus money later (MA-M) among non-treatment seeking individuals (N = 59) with methamphetamine use disorder (MAUD). Results from each task were assessed using three different models for assessing delay discounting...
July 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023446/patient-profiling-for-success-after-weight-loss-surgery-go-bypass-study-an-interdisciplinary-study-protocol
#6
Bodil Just Christensen, Julie Berg Schmidt, Mette Søndergaard Nielsen, Louise Tækker, Lotte Holm, Susanne Lunn, Wender L P Bredie, Christian Ritz, Jens Juul Holst, Torben Hansen, Anja Hilbert, Carel W le Roux, Oliver J Hulme, Hartwig Siebner, Tobias Morville, Lars Naver, Andrea Karen Floyd, Anders Sjödin
Despite substantial research efforts, the mechanisms proposed to explain weight loss after gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SL) do not explain the large individual variation seen after these treatments. A complex set of factors are involved in the onset and development of obesity and these may also be relevant for the understanding of why success with treatments vary considerably between individuals. This calls for explanatory models that take into account not only biological determinants but also behavioral, affective and contextual factors...
June 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022813/heroin-dependent-patient-satisfaction-with-methadone-as-a-medication-influences-satisfaction-with-basic-interventions-delivered-by-staff-to-implement-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#7
Saul Alcaraz, Carme Viladrich, Joan Trujols, Núria Siñol, José Pérez de Los Cobos
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to test a structural equation model of patient satisfaction with different key facets of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). In this model, the three dimensions of patient satisfaction with methadone as a medication (ie, personal functioning and well-being, anti-addictive effect on heroin, and anti-addictive effect on non-opioid substances) were expected to predict satisfaction with the basic interventions delivered by the staff of treatment centers to implement MMT...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021888/selective-neuronal-silencing-using-synthetic-botulinum-molecules-alleviates-chronic-pain-in-mice
#8
Maria Maiarù, Charlotte Leese, Michelangelo Certo, Irene Echeverria-Altuna, Antonina S Mangione, Jason Arsenault, Bazbek Davletov, Stephen P Hunt
Chronic pain is a widespread debilitating condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Although several pharmacological treatments for relieving chronic pain have been developed, they require frequent chronic administration and are often associated with severe adverse events, including overdose and addiction. Persistent increased sensitization of neuronal subpopulations of the peripheral and central nervous system has been recognized as a central mechanism mediating chronic pain, suggesting that inhibition of specific neuronal subpopulations might produce antinociceptive effects...
July 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021873/evolution-and-comparative-genomics-of-f33-a-b-plasmids-carrying-bla-ctx-m-55-or-bla-ctx-m-65-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-animals-food-products-and-humans-in-china
#9
Jing Wang, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Xin-Yi Huang, Zhen-Bao Ma, Ze-Wen Guo, Lu-Chao Lv, Ying-Bi Xia, Li Zeng, Qian-Hua Song, Jian-Hua Liu
To understand the underlying evolution process of F33:A-:B- plasmids among Enterobacteriaceae isolates of various origins in China, the complete sequences of 17 bla CTX-M -harboring F33:A-:B- plasmids obtained from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different sources (animals, animal-derived food, and human clinics) in China were determined. F33:A-:B- plasmids shared similar plasmid backbones comprising replication, leading, and conjugative transfer regions and differed by the numbers of repeats in yddA and traD and by the presence of group II intron, except that pHNAH9 lacked a large segment of the leading and transfer regions...
July 18, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021798/mir-205-mediates-adaptive-resistance-to-met-inhibition-via-errfi1-targeting-and-raised-egfr-signaling
#10
Cristina Migliore, Elena Morando, Elena Ghiso, Sergio Anastasi, Vera P Leoni, Maria Apicella, Davide Cora', Anna Sapino, Filippo Pietrantonio, Filippo De Braud, Amedeo Columbano, Oreste Segatto, Silvia Giordano
The onset of secondary resistance represents a major limitation to long-term efficacy of target therapies in cancer patients. Thus, the identification of mechanisms mediating secondary resistance is the key to the rational design of therapeutic strategies for resistant patients. MiRNA profiling combined with RNA-Seq in MET-addicted cancer cell lines led us to identify the miR-205/ERRFI1 (ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor-1) axis as a novel mediator of resistance to MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In cells resistant to MET-TKIs, epigenetically induced miR-205 expression determined the downregulation of ERRFI1 which, in turn, caused EGFR activation, sustaining resistance to MET-TKIs...
July 18, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021647/relative-frequency-and-risk-factors-for-long-term-opioid-therapy-following-surgery-and-trauma-among-adults-a-systematic-review-protocol
#11
M Gabrielle Pagé, Irina Kudrina, Hervé Tchala Vignon Zomahoun, Daniela Ziegler, Pierre Beaulieu, Céline Charbonneau, Jennifer Cogan, Raoul Daoust, Marc O Martel, Andrée Néron, Philippe Richebé, Hance Clarke
BACKGROUND: When patients have been on opioid therapy for more than 90 days, more than half of them continue using opioids years later. Knowing that long-term opioid consumption could lead to harmful side effects including misuse, abuse, and addiction, it is important to understand the risks of transitioning to prolonged opioid therapy to reduce its occurrence. Perioperative and trauma contexts are ideal models commonly used to study such transition. Long-term use of opioids might be associated with transformation of acute pain to chronic, which might be an example of a risk factor...
July 18, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021489/a-developmental-model-of-addictions-integrating-neurobiological-and-psychodynamic-theories-through-the-lens-of-attachment
#12
Mauricio Alvarez-Monjaras, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena Jv Rutherford
Although substance use and abuse may impact brain and behavior, it is still unclear why some people become addicted while others do not. Neuroscientific theories explain addiction as a series of between- and within-system neuroadaptations that lead to an increasingly dysregulating cycle, affecting reward, motivation, and executive control systems. In contrast, psychoanalysis understands addiction through a relational perspective wherein there is an underlying failure in affect regulation, a capacity shaped early developmentally...
July 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020573/-new-indications-for-existing-drugs-repurposing-in-psychiatry-and-addiction-medicine
#13
Jurriaan F M Strous, Wim van den Brink
Repurposing is the discovery - whether or not by accident - of a new use for an existing product, for example, a new indication for a drug. In the past, several psychotropic drugs have received their place in the treatment arsenal via this route. Both in psychiatry and addiction medicine, there is an important need for new treatments with new working mechanisms. Potential new uses in both psychiatry and addiction medicine of several drugs that have already been registered for other indications are currently under study...
May 2, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020409/can-the-impact-of-topiramate-on-memory-processes-be-related-to-its-antialcoholic-activity-a-preclinical-study
#14
Ewa Zwierzynska, Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Agnieszka Wiesner, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Topiramate causes the inhibition of alcohol consumption in addicts but the mechanism of this action has not been fully understood yet. Nowadays, it seems that memory may have a role in the development of dependence. In this study, the impact of topiramate and ethanol on the bioelectric activity of the brain in rabbits and on spatial memory in rats was evaluated. Short summary: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of co-administration of topiramate and ethanol on bioelectric activity of the rabbits' brain and on spatial memory in rats...
July 18, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020398/p3-component-as-a-potential-endophenotype-for-control-inhibition-in-offspring-of-alcoholics
#15
Domínguez-Centeno I, R Jurado-Barba, A Sion, A Martinez-Maldonado, G Castillo-Parra, F López-Muñoz, G Rubio, Martinez-Gras I
Aims: To assess inhibitory processes and the ongoing event-related potential (ERP) activity of offspring of alcoholics (OA) during a Go/No-Go task, with the purpose of characterizing possible psychophysiological endophenotypes for alcohol-dependent vulnerability. Short summary: EEG recordings and ERP measurements of young adults with positive and negative family history of alcoholism where obtained while they performed a Go/No-Go task to assess inhibitory processes...
July 18, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020206/social-anxiety-and-benign-and-toxic-online-self-disclosures-an-investigation-into-the-role-of-rejection-sensitivity-self-regulation-and-internet-addiction-in-college-students
#16
Parviz Molavi, Niloofar Mikaeili, Mohammad Ali Ghaseminejad, Zhila Kazemi, Misagh Pourdonya
This work aimed to explore the relationship between social anxiety with benign and toxic online self-disclosures with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction. In this study, 358 students who were active members of social networks at the Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Iran were evaluated in the form of a structural equation model. The results substantiated that social anxiety could explain 47% of the variance in benign online self-disclosure and 27% of toxic online self-disclosure with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020020/medical-adherence-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-germany-predictors-and-reasons-for-non-adherence-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-lula-cohort
#17
G Chehab, G M Sauer, J G Richter, R Brinks, R Willers, R Fischer-Betz, B Winkler-Rohlfing, M Schneider
Objective Adherence to medication has a major impact on treatment control and success especially in chronic diseases but often remains unrecognized. Besides clinical, socioeconomic, disease-related and treatment-related parameters, general and personal health beliefs, as well as perception of health, can affect adherence. Our aim was to investigate the adherence to lupus-specific medications in German lupus patients and to assess influencing factors including detrimental or beneficial effects of health perceptions and beliefs...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019966/rationale-for-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#18
Kirsten C Morley, Andrew Baillie, Wim van den Brink, Kate Chitty, Kathleen Brady, Sudie Back, Greg Sutherland, Devanshi Seth, Lorenzo Leggio, Paul S Haber
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the leading cause of alcohol-related death and one of the most common forms of liver disease. Abstinence from alcohol is crucial to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. However, there are few treatments for sustaining abstinence suitable for those with significant liver disease. Areas Covered: This paper presents a rationale for the use of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to promote abstinence or reduce heavy alcohol consumption for patients with an alcohol use disorder, particularly in the presence of liver disease...
July 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019545/mitf-and-uv-responses-in-skin-from-pigmentation-to-addiction
#19
REVIEW
Nhu T Nguyen, David E Fisher
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has numerous effects on skin, including DNA damage, tanning, vitamin D synthesis, carcinogenesis, and immunomodulation. Keratinocytes containing damaged DNA secrete both α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates pigment production by melanocytes, and the opioid β-endorphin, which can trigger addiction-like responses to UVR. The pigmentation (tanning) response is an adaptation that provides some delayed protection against further DNA damage and carcinogenesis, while the opioid response may be an evolutionary adaptation for promoting sun-seeking behavior to prevent vitamin D deficiency...
July 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018999/infectious-diseases-physicians-perspectives-regarding-injection-drug-use-and-related-infections-united-states-2017
#20
Alison B Rapoport, Leah S Fischer, Scott Santibanez, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Christopher F Rowley
Background: In the context of the opioid epidemic, injection drug use (IDU)-related infections are an escalating health issue for infectious diseases (ID) physicians in the United States. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods survey of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network between February and April 2017 to evaluate perspectives relating to care of persons who inject drugs (PWID). Topics included the frequency of and management strategies for IDU-related infection, the availability of addiction services, and the evolving role of ID physicians in substance use disorder (SUD) management...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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