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Interaction Contrast Ratio

Pernille Falberg Rønn, Michel Lucas, Elhadji A Laouan Sidi, Maria Tvermosegaard, Gregers Stig Andersen, Torsten Lauritzen, Ulla Toft, Bendix Carstensen, Dirk Lund Christensen, Marit Eika Jørgensen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inuit populations have lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for the same level of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) compared to Europeans in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to compare the longitudinal associations of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in Inuit and Europeans. METHODS: Using pooled data from three population-based studies in Canada, Greenland and Denmark, we conducted a cohort study of 10,033 adult participants (765 Nunavik Inuit, 2960 Greenlandic Inuit and 6308 Europeans)...
August 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
Xiaodong Wang, Zhi-Yi Zhang, Sujata Arora, Lorraine Hughes, Jing Wang, Daniel Powers, Jennifer Christensen, Sharon Lu, Vikram Kansra
Rolapitant is a selective and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved in an oral formulation in combination with other antiemetic agents for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. Four open-label phase 1 studies evaluated the safety and drug-drug interactions of a single dose of rolapitant given intravenously (166.5 mg) or orally (180 mg) with oral digoxin (0.5 mg) or sulfasalazine (500 mg), probe substrates for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), respectively...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Valeria Guglielmi, Alfonso Bellia, Elisa Bianchini, Gerardo Medea, Iacopo Cricelli, Paolo Sbraccia, Davide Lauro, Claudio Cricelli, Francesco Lapi
PURPOSE: Several medications may interact with levothyroxine (LT4) intestinal absorption or metabolism, thus reducing its bioavailability. We investigated the variability of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and prescribed daily dosages (PDDs) of LT4 before and during potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in users of tablets vs. oral liquid LT4 formulations. METHODS: By using the Italian general practice Health Search Database (HSD), we retrospectively selected adult patients with at least one LT4 prescription from 2012 to 2015 and at least 1 year of clinical history recorded...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine
Masatsugu Hariu, Yuhi Suda, Weishan Chang, Atsushi Myojoyama, Hidetoshi Saitoh
For patient setup of the IGRT technique, various imaging systems are currently available. MV portal imaging is performed in identical geometry with the treatment beam so that the portal image provides accurate geometric information. However, MV imaging suffers from poor image contrast due to larger Compton scatter photons. In this work, an original image processing algorithm is proposed to improve and enhance the image contrast without increasing the imaging dose. Scatter estimation was performed in detail by MC simulation based on patient CT data...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Qi Wang, Yi Kuang, Wei Song, Yi Qian, Xue Qiao, De-An Guo, Min Ye
Caco-2 cell monolayer model was used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of 42 bioactive compounds in the famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD). These compounds include alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, and coumarins. Their transportations across the cell monolayers in the forms of herb extract and formula extract were monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. Most alkaloids from Huang-Lian; flavonoid C-glycosides from Ge-Gen and Huang-Qin; O-glycosides from Ge-Gen, Huang-Qin and Gan-Cao; O-glucuronides from Huang-Qin; and coumarins from Gan-Cao exhibited favorable permeability...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sherelle L Casey, Nicholas Atwal, Christopher W Vaughan
Cannabis and its psychoactive constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have efficacy against neuropathic pain however, this is hampered by their side-effects. It has been suggested that co-administration with another major constituent cannabidiol (CBD) might enhance the analgesic actions of THC and minimise its deleterious side-effects. We examined the basis for this phytocannabinoid interaction in a mouse chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. Acute systemic administration of THC dose-dependently reduced CCI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia, but also produced motor incoordination, catalepsy and sedation...
September 1, 2017: Pain
Sudesh Raj Sharma, Shiva Raj Mishra, Kusum Wagle, Rachel Page, Anna Matheson, Danielle Lambrick, James Faulkner, David Lounsbury, Abhinav Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been increasing at a greater pace in developing countries and, in particular, the South Asia region. Various behavioral, social and environmental factors present in this region perpetuate common metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases. This study will identify social determinants of common metabolic risk factors of major non-communicable diseases in the context of the South Asian region and map their causal pathway. METHODS: A systematic review of selected articles will be carried out following Cochrane guidelines...
September 7, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Hiroyuki Masaoka, Keitaro Matsuo, Norie Sawada, Taiki Yamaji, Atsushi Goto, Taichi Shimazu, Motoki Iwasaki, Manami Inoue, Masatoshi Eto, Shoichiro Tsugane
The association between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer risk has been insufficiently investigated in East Asian populations, who frequently have the inactive enzyme for metabolizing acetaldehyde. Given that acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is assessed as a carcinogen, consideration of differences in acetaldehyde exposure would aid accuracy in assessing the bladder cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Here, we conducted a population-based cohort study in Japan to examine this association, including information on the flushing response as a surrogate marker of the capacity of acetaldehyde metabolism...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rashtrapal Zine, Mukty Sinha
The purpose of wound management is to prevent wound from infection, increase the fibroblast cell growth, and preserve cellular function. The polymeric electrospun nanofiber scaffold made up of natural and/or synthetic polymer provides an extracellular matrix for support and initiates the growth, proliferation and differentiation of fibroblast cells. The present study deals with the development of poly3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid (PHBV) nanofibrous scaffold imbedded with graphene oxide (GO), and collagen...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Elisabetta Moscarella, Giosafat Spitaleri, Salvatore Brugaletta, Sara Sentí Farrarons, Alberto Pernigotti, Luis Ortega-Paz, Angel Cequier, Andrés Iñiguez, Antonio Serra, Pilar Jiménez-Quevedo, Vicente Mainar, Gianluca Campo, Maurizio Tespili, Peter den Heijer, Armando Bethencourt, Nicolás Vazquez, Marco Valgimigli, Patrick W Serruys, Manel Sabaté
Patients with high body mass index (BMI) seem to have better outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention than normal-weight patients. However, contrasting results have been reported on the "obesity paradox" in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of BMI on mortality in the population enrolled in the Evaluation of the Xience-V stent in Acute Myocardial INfArcTION (EXAMINATION) trial. The EXAMINATION trial randomized 1,498 patients with STEMI to a bare-metal stent or an everolimus-eluting stent...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
Hao Jiang, Florian Müller-Plathe, Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos
We propose a method to calculate the equilibrium contact angle of heterogeneous 3-phase solid/fluid/fluid systems using molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed method, which combines the phantom-wall method [F. Leroy and F. Müller-Plathe, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 044110 (2010)] and Bennett's acceptance ratio approach [C. H. Bennett, J. Comput. Phys. 22, 245 (1976)], is able to calculate the solid/fluid surface tension relative to the solid surface energy. The calculated relative surface tensions can then be used in Young's equation to estimate the equilibrium contact angle...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chaoqiang Xu, Yande Que, Yuan Zhuang, Zhijun Lin, Xuefeng Wu, Kedong Wang, Xudong Xiao
The growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular coronene film on various substrates and the subsequent doping of potassium under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions have been systematically investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). The crystalline structures and molecular orientations of coronene thin films are both thickness-dependent and substrate-sensitive due to the competition between molecule-substrate interaction and intermolecular interaction...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hye Jin Yang, Ji Hwan Bang, Jungmee Kim, Young Hwa Lee, YooJin Park, In Sil Huh, Sun Mi Shin, Cho Ryok Kang, Min Hui Seong, Gyu Dae Kim, Hea Sook Hong, Sung-Ii Cho, Myoung-Don Oh, Eung Soo Hwang, Jong-Koo Lee
This study examined factors associated with the intention to take an HIV test among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Korea. An internet website-based survey was conducted among users of the only and largest online MSM website between 20 July 2016, and 20 August 2016. A total of 2915 participants completed the survey and answered questions related to sociodemographic information, health behaviors, sexual behaviors, and HIV testing history. Of these, 2587 (88.7%) participants responded as having an intention to take an HIV test...
August 31, 2017: AIDS Care
Jiayue Yan, Laura Gangoso, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits-in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior-and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community...
August 30, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Bo-Han Wu, Ya-Wen Chuang, Yi-Hsin Chen, Jr-Chiun Yu, Ming-Shien Chang, Ite A Yu
Combination of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) effect and Rydberg-state atoms has attracted great attention recently due to its potential application in the photon-photon interaction or qubit operation. In this work, we studied the Rydberg-EIT spectra with room-temperature (87)Rb atoms. Spectroscopic data under various experimental parameters all showed that the contrast of EIT transparency as a function of the probe field intensity is initially enhanced, reaches a maximum value and then decays gradually...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sun Kyoung Lee, Kwang-Kyun Park, Hyun-Jeong Kim, Junhee Park, Seung Hwa Son, Ki Rim Kim, Won-Yoon Chung
Breast cancer mainly spreads to bone, causing decreased survival of patient. Human antigen R (HuR) and chemokines are important molecules associated with mRNA stability and cell-cell interaction in cancer biology. Here, HuR knockdown inhibited bone metastasis and osteolysis of metastatic breast cancer cells in mice and HuR expression promoted the metastatic ability of cancer cells via CCL20 and GM-CSF. In contrast with the findings for GM-CSF, ELAVL1 and CCL20 expressions were markedly increased in breast tumor tissues and ELAVL1 expression showed a strong positive correlation with CCL20 expression in breast cancer subtypes, particularly the basal-like subtype...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Arun Kumar Somavarapu, Kasper P Kepp
γ-Secretase produces β-amyloid (Aβ) within its presenilin (PS1) subunit, mutations in which cause Alzheimer's disease, and current therapies thus seek to modulate its activity. While the general structure is known from recent electron microscopy studies, direct loop and membrane interactions and explicit dynamics relevant to substrate processing remain unknown. We report a modeled structure utilizing the optimal multitemplate information available, including loops and missing side chains, account of maturation cleavage, and explicit all-atom molecular dynamics in the membrane...
August 25, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Benjamin M Ford, Lirit N Franks, Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi, Edward L Stahl, Michael D Berquist, Christian V Cabanlong, Catheryn D Wilson, Narsimha R Penthala, Peter A Crooks, Paul L Prather
The human cannabinoid subtype 1 receptor (hCB1R) is highly expressed in the CNS and serves as a therapeutic target for endogenous ligands as well as plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids. Unfortunately, acute use of hCB1R agonists produces unwanted psychotropic effects and chronic administration results in development of tolerance and dependence, limiting the potential clinical use of these ligands. Studies in β-arrestin knockout mice suggest that interaction of certain GPCRs, including μ-, δ-, κ-opioid and hCB1Rs, with β-arrestins might be responsible for several adverse effects produced by agonists acting at these receptors...
August 21, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Hannah Carliner, Dahsan Gary, Katie A McLaughlin, Katherine M Keyes
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to violence and other forms of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are common among youths with externalizing psychopathology. These associations likely reflect both heightened risk for the onset of externalizing problems in youth exposed to PTEs and elevated risk for experiencing PTEs among youth with externalizing disorders. In this study, we disaggregate the associations between exposure to PTEs and externalizing disorder onset in a population-representative sample of adolescents...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Xiaojing Li, Na Ji, Man Li, Shuangling Zhang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
Starch nanoparticles were potential texture modifiers. However, they have strong tendency to aggregate and poor water dispersibility, which limited their application. The interaction between glucan (prepared from starch by enzymatic modification) and protein could significantly improve the dispersity of starch nanoparticles and, thus, enhance the rheological properties of food gels. In this work, glucan/protein hybrid nanoparticles were successfully developed for the first time using short linear glucan (SLG) and edible proteins [soy protein isolate (SPI), rice protein (RP), and whey protein isolate (WPI)]...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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