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Interaction Contrast Ratio

Cecily G Swinford, Shannon L Risacher, Arnaud Charil, Adam J Schwarz, Andrew J Saykin
Introduction: Relationship between self- and informant memory concerns and tau aggregation was assessed in adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Regional mean standardized uptake value ratios were extracted from [18 F]flortaucipir positron emission tomography (PET) scans of 82 at-risk adults in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Associations between self- and informant ECog memory scores and tau aggregation were analyzed on both regional and voxelwise bases...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Stefan Karlowsky, Angela Augusti, Johannes Ingrisch, Roland Hasibeder, Markus Lange, Sandra Lavorel, Michael Bahn, Gerd Gleixner
Mountain grasslands have recently been exposed to substantial changes in land use and climate and in the near future will likely face an increased frequency of extreme droughts. To date, how the drought responses of carbon (C) allocation, a key process in the C cycle, are affected by land-use changes in mountain grassland is not known.We performed an experimental summer drought on an abandoned grassland and a traditionally managed hay meadow and traced the fate of recent assimilates through the plant-soil continuum...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
Narendra Nath Dutta, Konrad Patkowski
We investigate the effect of adding midbond basis functions on the performance of various conventional and explicitly correlated (F12) estimates of complete basis set limit coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)/CBS) noncovalent interaction energies. In particular, we search for an improved "silver standard" of interaction energy calculations for systems where the CCSD(T) computation is feasible in a double-zeta basis but not in a triple-zeta one. We follow a recent study (Sirianni et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
T McHugh, H Drechsler, A D McAinsh, N J Carter, R A Cross
Kif15 is a kinesin-12 that contributes critically to bipolar spindle assembly in humans. Here we use force-ramp experiments in an optical trap to probe the mechanics of single Kif15 molecules under hindering or assisting loads and in a variety of nucleotide states. Whilst unloaded Kif15 is established to be highly processive, we find that under hindering loads, Kif15 takes <∼10 steps. As hindering load is increased, Kif15 forestep:backstep ratio decreases exponentially, with stall occurring at 6 pN. By contrast, under assisting loads, Kif15 detaches readily and rapidly, even from its AMPPNP state...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
D Salazar-Tortosa, J Castro, P Villar-Salvador, B Viñegla, L Matías, A Michelsen, R Rubio de Casas, J I Querejeta
Climatic dryness imposes limitations on vascular plant growth by reducing stomatal conductance, thereby decreasing CO2 uptake and transpiration. Given that transpiration-driven water flow is required for nutrient uptake, climatic stress-induced nutrient deficit could be a key mechanism for decreased plant performance under prolonged drought. We propose the existence of an "isohydric trap", a dryness-induced detrimental feedback leading to nutrient deficit and stoichiometry imbalance in strict isohydric species...
May 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
Chang-Hoon Kwak, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong-Yong Jeong, Ji-Won Yoon, Jun-Sik Kim, Jong-Heun Lee
The chemiresistive sensing characteristics of metal oxide gas sensors depend closely on ambient humidity. Herein, we report that gas sensors using Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres can be used for reliable acetone detection regardless of the variations in humidity. Pure SnO2 and Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres were prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and their chemiresistive sensing characteristics were studied. The sensor resistance and gas response of the pure SnO2 yolk-shell spheres significantly changed and deteriorated upon exposure to moisture...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ruisong Pei, Diana M DiMarco, Kelley K Putt, Derek A Martin, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Richard S Bruno, Bradley W Bolling
Background: Metabolic endotoxemia is associated with obesity and contributes to postprandial inflammation. Objective: We aimed to determine if low-fat yogurt consumption prevents postprandial inflammation and dysmetabolism in healthy women by inhibiting biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia. Methods: Premenopausal women defined as obese and nonobese [body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) 30-40 and 18.5-27, respectively, n = 120] were randomly assigned to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (YN, yogurt nonobese; YO, yogurt obese) or 324 g of soy pudding (CN, control nonobese; CO, control obese) for 9 wk (n = 30/group)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Joshua W Cates, Craig S Levin
Commercially available clinical positron emission tomography (PET) detectors employ scintillation crystals that are long (20 mm length) and narrow (4-5 mm width) optically coupled on their narrow end to a photosensor. The aspect ratio of this traditional crystal rod conguration and 511 keV photon attenuation properties yield signicant variances in scintillation light collection efficiency and transit time to the photodetector, due to variations in the 511 keV photon interaction depth in the crystal. These variances contribute significantly to coincidence time resolution degradation...
May 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Sajad Yazdani, Raana Kashfi-Sadabad, Huan Doan Tran, Mayra Daniela Morales-Acosta, Michael Thompson Pettes
The presence of oxygen vacancy sites fundamentally affects physical and chemical properties of materials. In this study, a dipole-containing interaction between poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) PDDA and α-MoO3 is found to enable high-concentrations of surface oxygen vacancies. Thermal annealing under Ar resulted in negligible reduction of MoO3 to MoO3- x with x = 0.03 at 600°C. In contrast, we show that thermochemical reaction with PDDA polyelectrolyte under Ar can significantly reduce MoO3 to MoO3- x with x = 0...
May 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yizhi Zhang, Hélène Launay, Fan Liu, Régine Lebrun, Brigitte Gontero
The critical and ubiquitous enzyme adenylate kinase (ADK) catalyzes the nucleotide phosphoryl exchange reaction: 2ADP ↔ ATP + AMP. The ADK3 in the chloroplasts of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, bears an unusual C-terminal extension that is similar to the C-terminal end of the intrinsically disordered protein CP12. In this study, we report that this enzyme, when oxidized but not when reduced, is able to interact with the chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) forming a stable complex as shown by native electrophoresis and mass spectrometry...
May 4, 2018: FEBS Journal
Gyeong Woo Kim, Raju Lampande, Dong Cheol Choe, Ik Jang Ko, Jin Hwan Park, Ramchandra Pode, Jang Hyuk Kwon
Transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED) have widespread applications in the next-generation display devices particularly in the large size transparent window and interactive displays. Herein, we report high performance and stable attractive smart window displays using facile process. Advanced smart window display is realized by integrating the high performance light blocking screen and highly transparent white OLED panel. The full smart window display reveals a maximum transmittance as high as 64...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
Féline P B Kroon, Sjoerd van Beest, Selime Ermurat, Marion C Kortekaas, Johan L Bloem, Monique Reijnierse, Frits R Rosendaal, Margreet Kloppenburg
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis in thumb base joints (first carpometacarpal (CMC-1), scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT)) is prevalent and disabling, yet focussed studies are scarce. Our aim was to investigate associations between ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inflammatory features, radiographic osteophytes, and thumb base pain in hand osteoarthritis patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in cohorts with MRI (n=202) and ultrasound measurements (n=87)...
April 27, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Jinny Wu Yang, Wenxue Wu, Chih-Ching Chung, Kuo-Ping Chiang, Gwo-Ching Gong, Chih-Hao Hsieh
The importance of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning across trophic levels, especially via predatory-prey interactions, is receiving increased recognition. However, this topic has rarely been explored for marine microbes, even though microbial biodiversity contributes significantly to marine ecosystem function and energy flows. Here we examined diversity and biomass of bacteria (prey) and nanoflagellates (predators), as well as their effects on trophic transfer efficiency in the East China Sea. Specifically, we investigated: (i) predator diversity effects on prey biomass and trophic transfer efficiency (using the biomass ratio of predator/prey as a proxy), (ii) prey diversity effects on predator biomass and trophic transfer efficiency, and (iii) the relationship between predator and prey diversity...
June 2018: ISME Journal
Lotta-Katrin Pries, Sinan Guloksuz, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Nicole Gunther, Christian Rauschenberg, Ulrich Reininghaus, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Maarten Bak, Bart P F Rutten, Jim van Os
Background: The observed link between positive psychotic experiences (PE) and psychosis spectrum disorder (PSD) may be stronger depending on concomitant presence of PE with other dimensions of psychopathology. We examined whether the effect of common risk factors for PSD on PE is additive and whether the impact of risk factors on the occurrence of PE depends on the co-occurrence of other symptom dimensions (affective dysregulation, negative symptoms, and cognitive alteration). Method: Data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study 2 were used...
April 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Rituparna Samanta, Venkat Ganesan
We study the structural characteristics of a system of charged nanoparticles in a neutral polymer solution while accounting for the differences in the dielectric constant between the particles, polymer and the solvent. We use a hybrid computational methodology involving a combination of single chain in mean-field simulations and the solution of the Poisson's equation for the electrostatic field. We quantify the resulting particle structural features in terms of radial distribution function among particles as a function of the dielectric contrast, particle charge, particle volume fraction and polymer concentration...
April 27, 2018: Soft Matter
Petr Lazar, Eva Otyepková, Martin Pykal, Klára Čépe, Michal Otyepka
Nanomaterials have a high surface-to-mass ratio and their surface properties significantly affect their features and application potential. Phosphorene, a single layer of black phosphorus (BP), was the first homoatomic two-dimensional material to be prepared after the discovery of graphene. The structure of phosphorene resembles the honeycomb arrangement of graphene, but its layers are buckled and highly anisotropic. We studied how this difference affects the surface properties of BP, namely the free surface energy and adsorption affinity of various organic molecules...
April 25, 2018: Nanoscale
Karim D Mahmoud, Sanjit S Jolly, Stefan James, Vladimír Džavík, John A Cairns, Goran K Olivecrona, Henrik Renlund, Peggy Gao, Bo Lagerqvist, Ashraf Alazzoni, Sasko Kedev, Goran Stankovic, Brandi Meeks, Ole Frøbert, Felix Zijlstra
Aims: Preliminary studies suggest that direct stenting (DS) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may reduce microvascular obstruction and improve clinical outcome. Thrombus aspiration may facilitate DS. We assessed the impact of DS on clinical outcome and myocardial reperfusion and its interaction with thrombus aspiration among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing PCI. Methods and results: Patient-level data from the three largest randomized trials on routine manual thrombus aspiration vs...
April 21, 2018: European Heart Journal
James E Russell, Leonard Nunney, Michael Saum, Richard Stouthamer
The fitness effects associated with Wolbachia infection have wide-ranging ecological and evolutionary consequences for host species. How these effects are modulated by the relative influence of host and Wolbachia genomes has been described as a balancing act of genomic cooperation and conflict. For vertically transmitted symbionts, like cytoplasmic Wolbachia , concordant host-symbiont fitness interests would seem to select for genomic cooperation. However, Wolbachia 's ability to manipulate host reproductive systems and distort offspring sex ratios presents an evolutionary conflict of interest with infected hosts...
2018: PeerJ
Yasunori Sato, Hideki Ueno, Tatsuya Ioka, Shinichi Ohkawa, Masafumi Ikeda, Tomotaka Shimamura, Akihito Tsuji, Yoshiaki Tsuchiya, Junji Furuse, Hiroshi Ishii, Ken Furuya, Haruo Iguchi, Yoshihiro Saito, Nahoko Kaniwa, Jun-Ichi Sawada, Hiromi Sakamoto, Akihiro Sekine, Takuji Okusaka, Teruhiko Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on advanced pancreatic cancer risk and overall survival (OS) in a candidate-gene approach. METHODS: Overall, 5438 SNPs in 219 candidate genes encoding several drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters were analyzed. In the screening study, 3 SNPs were found associated with OS (P ≤ 0.0005). We validated these SNPs as part of the randomized phase 3 study (GEST study)...
April 19, 2018: Pancreas
Sebastian Heck, François Daubeuf, Duc Dung Le, Martina Sester, Dominique Bonnet, Robert Bals, Nelly Frossard, Quoc Thai Dinh
OBJECTIVE: The chemokine CXCL12 interacting with the CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been reported to play a role in the development and progression of bronchial asthma, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the CXCL12 neutraligand chalcone 4 on the migration of dendritic cells (DCs) in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: A 21-day ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic-airway TH2 inflammation model in BALB/c mice was used...
April 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
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