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Interaction Contrast Ratio

B P Abolins, R E Zillich, K B Whaley
The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ya Guo, Tianjun Sun, Yiming Gu, Xiaowei Liu, Quanli Ke, Shudong Wang
Zeolite FAU with tunable SiO₂/Al₂O₃ molar ratio has been successfully synthesized in the absence of organic structure-directing agents (OSDA). Specifically, the addition of zinc species contributes to the feasible and effective adjustment of the framework SiO₂/Al₂O₃ molar ratio between ca. 4 and ca. 6 depending on the amount of zinc species added in the batch composition. In contrast, typical OSDA such as tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) has a limited effect on the SiO₂/Al₂O₃ molar ratio of the zeolite...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Baoku Shi, Yunbo Wang, Bo Meng, Shangzhi Zhong, Wei Sun
It is not clear yet how extreme drought and nitrogen (N) deposition influence grassland ecosystem functions when they are considered together, especially in complex field conditions. To explore the response of the Leymus chinensis meadow ecosystem to manipulated extreme drought (45 days), N addition and their interaction, we measured leaf photosynthetic characteristics, aboveground phytomass on the community level and ecosystem C exchange in different treatments at the middle and the end of the drought period...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Joanna Kaluza, Holly Harris, Anders Linden, Alicja Wolk
PURPOSE: Limited studies have examined red meat consumption in relation to risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and none have examined the impact of long-term diet on COPD risk. We sought to investigate the association between long-term red meat consumption and risk of COPD. METHODS: The population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort included 34,053 women, aged 48-83 years, followed for the current analyses from 2002 to 2014. Unprocessed and processed red meat consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1987 and 1997...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Jan Klett
Lochmann-Schlosser superbases are formed by mixing alkyllithium with potassium alkoxides. These reagents could prove their synthetic usefulness and reliability in many reactions over five decades. However, despite many efforts the real source of the exceptional reactivity remained a secret. The seemingly manageable system of four components (lithium, potassium atoms, alkyl groups, and alkoxy groups) and their interaction is obscured by poor solubility and fierce reactivity. Recent progress was achieved by using neopentyllithium, leading to alkane soluble-aggregates with varying lithium/potassium content and a flexible alkyl/alkoxy ratio...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Johannes Rentzsch, Golo Kronenberg, Ada Stadtmann, Andres Neuhaus, Christiane Montag, Rainer Hellweg, Maria Christiane Jockers-Scherübl
BACKGROUND: Chronic cannabis use may cause neurocognitive deficits and increase the risk of psychosis. Nevertheless, the effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia have remained largely unspecified. METHODS: Here, we studied repetition suppression of auditory event-related responses in a paired-stimulus design in a mixed sample of schizophrenia patients (n = 34) and healthy control subjects (n = 45) with chronic heavy cannabis use and schizophrenia patients (n = 33) and healthy control subjects (n = 61) without cannabis use...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ammar A Y Almulathanon, Elisabetta Ranucci, Paolo Ferruti, Martin C Garnett, Cynthia Bosquillon
PURPOSE: This study aimed to further explore the mechanisms behind the ability of certain linear polyamidoamines (PAAs) to transfect cells with minimal cytotoxicity. METHODS: The transfection efficiency of DNA complexed with a PAA of a molecular weight over 10 kDa or 25 kDa branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) was compared in A549 cells using a luciferase reporter gene assay. The impact of endo/lysosomal escape on transgene expression was investigated by transfecting cells in presence of bafilomycin A1 or chloroquine...
March 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Jyrki K Virtanen, Jaakko Mursu, Sari Voutilainen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are concerns that high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may promote inflammation, because the end-product of n-6 PUFA metabolism, arachidonic acid, is a precursor for pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Our aim was to investigate cross-sectional associations of the serum n-6 PUFAs, objective biomarkers for exposure, with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a key inflammation marker. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 1287 generally healthy men aged 42-60 years from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, examined in 1984-1989...
March 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Y Azamoum, V Tcheremiskine, R Clady, A Ferré, L Charmasson, O Utéza, M Sentis
We present an extended experimental study of the absolute yield of Kα x-ray source (17.48 keV) produced by interaction of an ultrahigh intensity femtosecond laser with solid Mo target for temporal contrast ratios in the range of 1.7 × 107 -3.3 × 109 and on three decades of intensity 1016 -1019   W/cm². We demonstrate that for intensity I ≥ 2 × 1018   W/cm² Kα x-ray emission is independent of the value of contrast ratio. In addition, no saturation of the Kα photon number is measured and a value of ~2 × 1010 photons/sr/s is obtained at 10 Hz and I ~1019   W/cm²...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sampurna Datta, Subhamoy Chakraborty, Chiranjit Panja, Sanjay Ghosh
The biological outcome of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in regulating pro survival and pro death autophagic pathways still demand further investigation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nitrosative stress in K562 cells using NO donor compound DETA-NONOate, peroxynitrite and SIN-1. Exposure to NO, peroxynitrite and SIN-1 caused decrease in K562 cell survival. NO induced autophagy but not apoptosis or necrosis in K562 cells. In contrast, peroxynitrite and SIN-1 treatment induced apoptosis in K562 cells...
March 6, 2018: Free Radical Research
Zhiping Jiang, Jessica D Flynn, Walter E Teague, Klaus Gawrisch, Jennifer C Lee
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a presynaptic protein that is accumulated in its amyloid form in the brains of Parkinson's patients. Although its biological function remains unclear, α-syn has been suggested to bind to synaptic vesicles and facilitate neurotransmitter release. Recently, studies have found that α-syn induces membrane tubulation, highlighting a potential mechanism for α-syn to stabilize highly curved membrane structures which could have both functional and dysfunctional consequences. To understand how membrane remodeling by α-syn affects amyloid formation, we have studied the α-syn aggregation process in the presence of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) micellar tubules, which were the first reported example of membrane tubulation by α-syn...
March 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Birgit-Christiane Zyriax, Vettorazzi Eik, Hamuda Ahmad, Eberhard Windler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease particularly in women. The risk may be aggravated by dietary habits, though. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Coronary Risk for Atherosclerosis Study (CORA) compares dietary, lifestyle, biochemical, and clinical factors in 200 consecutive pre- and postmenopausal women with incident coronary heart disease to those of 255 age-matched population-based controls. A mixed logistic regression model was used to assess the possible interactions between smoking habits and dietary patterns...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Aaron D Mueller, Landobasa Y M Tobing, Dao Hua Zhang
Strong interactions between localized surface plasmons and nanoscale objects have led to the development of highly sensitive biochemical sensing in planar metallic nanostructures with sensing performance mainly dependent on the interaction volume and the local electric field. However, the sensitivity and the interaction volume of these planar structures have been limited by the achievable aspect ratios based on the standard lift-off process. We propose a new technique which involves cold sonicated development and pulsed electrodeposition to overcome this limitation, and demonstrate robust gold square dimers with sub-10 nm gaps and a gap aspect ratio of ∼8...
March 2, 2018: Nanoscale
Katharina Wolf, Markus Hupp, Susanne Friedl, Reto Sutter, Markus Klarhöfer, Patrick Grabher, Patrick Freund, Armin Curt
STUDY DESIGN: Level-, age-, and gender-matched controlled cross-sectional cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate alterations of spinal cord (SC) motion within cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) across the cervical spinal segments and its relation to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-flow, anatomic conditions, and clinical parameters. SETTING: University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich, Switzerland. METHODS: Overall, 12 patients suffering from CSM at level C5 and 12 controls underwent cardiac-gated 2D phase-contrast-MRI at level C2 and C5 and standard MRI sequences...
March 1, 2018: Spinal Cord
Christopher Hernandez, Lenitza Nieves, Al C de Leon, Rigoberto Advincula, Agata A Exner
Shell-stabilized gas nanobubbles have recently captured the interest of the research community for their potential application as ultrasound contrast agents for molecular imaging and therapy of cancer. However, the very existence of sub-micron gas bubbles (especially uncoated bubbles) has been a subject of controversy in part due to their predicted Laplace overpressure reaching several atmospheres, making them supposedly thermodynamically unstable. In addition, the backscatter resulting from ultrasound interaction with nanoparticles should not be readily detectable at clinically-relevant frequencies...
March 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qisong Li, Jun Chen, Linkun Wu, Xiaomian Luo, Na Li, Yasir Arafat, Sheng Lin, Wenxiong Lin
Intercropping has been widely used to control disease and improve yield in agriculture. In this study, maize and peanut were used for non-separation intercropping (NS), semi-separation intercropping (SS) using a nylon net, and complete separation intercropping (CS) using a plastic sheet. In field experiments, two-year land equivalent ratios (LERs) showed yield advantages due to belowground interactions when using NS and SS patterns as compared to monoculture. In contrast, intercropping without belowground interactions (CS) showed a yield disadvantage...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jennifer Kollmer, Thorsten Kästel, Johann M E Jende, Martin Bendszus, Sabine Heiland
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetization transfer contrast imaging provides indirect information on the concentration of "bound" water protons and their interactions with "free" water molecules. The purpose of this study is to analyze location- and age-dependent changes in the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of lower extremity nerves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten younger (20-32 years) and 5 older (50-63 years) healthy volunteers underwent magnetization transfer contrast imaging at 3 Tesla Two 3-dimensional gradient echo sequences with and without an off-resonance saturation pulse (repetition time: 58 milliseconds; echo time: 2...
February 21, 2018: Investigative Radiology
A B Ozer, E Bolat, O L Erhan, M Kilinc, I Demirel, G Caglar Toprak
Context: Sugammadex has steroid-encapsulating effect. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess whether the clinical efficacy of sugammadex was altered by the administration of steroids. Setting and Design: Sixty patients between 18 and 60 years of age with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I-IV and undergoing elective direct laryngoscopy/biopsy were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Patients were assigned to two groups based on the intraoperative steroid use: those who received steroid (Group S) and who did not (Group C)...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
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