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Interaction Contrast Ratio

Phyllis E Mann, Kevin Huynh, Giovanni Widmer
The biological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal include shifts in hormonal regulation in preparation for parturition and lactation, and changes in energy metabolism. In women, studies have also shown that during pregnancy there is a reduction in bacterial species richness in the gut. In the current experiment rats were used to model the interaction of diet, reproductive status, and intestinal bacterial microbiota during pregnancy and lactation. In Experiment 1 rats were exposed to either standard chow or high-fat chow (60%) and were divided into two groups: unmated (NULL) or mated (RE)...
November 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
Shiva Abbaszadeh, Garry Chinn, Craig S Levin
The kinematics of Compton scatter can be used to estimate the interaction sequence of inter-crystal scatter interactions in 3-D position-sensitive cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. However, in the case of intra-crystal scatter in a "cross-strip" CZT detector slab, multiple anode and cathode strips may be triggered, creating position ambiguity due to uncertainty in possible combinations of anode-cathode pairings. As a consequence, methods such as energy-weighted centroid are not applicable to position the interactions...
November 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Steven D Weisbord, Martin Gallagher, Hani Jneid, Santiago Garcia, Alan Cass, Soe-Soe Thwin, Todd A Conner, Glenn M Chertow, Deepak L Bhatt, Kendrick Shunk, Chirag R Parikh, Edward O McFalls, Mary Brophy, Ryan Ferguson, Hongsheng Wu, Maria Androsenko, John Myles, James Kaufman, Paul M Palevsky
Background Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral acetylcysteine are widely used to prevent acute kidney injury and associated adverse outcomes after angiography without definitive evidence of their efficacy. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 5177 patients at high risk for renal complications who were scheduled for angiography to receive intravenous 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or oral placebo; of these patients, 4993 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis...
November 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
J de Souza, C L Preseault, A L Lock
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of varying the ratio of dietary palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and oleic (cis-9 C18:1) acids in basal diets containing soyhulls or whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production response of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Holstein cows were used in a split-plot Latin square design. Cows were allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, n = 12) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, n = 12) that was fed throughout the experiment...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Santiago Rodríguez-Jiménez, Sally Brooker
A new family of mononuclear [Fe(II)(Rdpt)2(NCE)2] complexes (E = S, Se, or BH3) is formed by 1:2 reaction of [Fe(II)(pyridine)4(NCE)2] with the monotopic pyridyl triazole ligand 4-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(2-pyridinyl)-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole (tolpyph). The three complexes are obtained as six different solvatomorphs: [Fe(II)(tolpyph)2(NCS)2]·H2O (1·H2O), 1·1.5CH3OH·0.5H2O, [Fe(II)(tolpyph)2(NCSe)2] (2), 2·1.5H2O, [Fe(II)(tolpyph)2(NCBH3)2] (3), and 3·H2O. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1·1...
November 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Aleksandra Kurowska, Pawel Zassowski, Anastasia S Kostyuchenko, Tatyana Yu Zheleznova, Kseniya V Andryukhova, Alexander S Fisyuk, Adam Pron, Wojciech Domagala
A structure-property study across a series of donor-acceptor-donor structures composed of mono- and bi-(1,3,4-oxadiazole) units symmetrically substituted with alkyl functionalized bi-, ter- and quaterthiophene segments is presented. Synthetically tailoring the ratio of electron-withdrawing 1,3,4-oxadiazole to electron-releasing thiophene units and their alkyl grafting pattern permitted us to scrutinize the impact of these structural factors on the redox, absorptive and emissive properties of these push-pull molecules...
November 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Emi J Yoshida, Michael Luu, John M David, Sungjin Kim, Alain Mita, Kevin Scher, Stephen L Shiao, Mourad Tighiouart, Nancy Y Lee, Allen S Ho, Zachary S Zumsteg
INTRODUCTION: Definitive treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is challenging owing to its rarity, complicated regional anatomy, and the intensity of therapy. In contrast to other head and neck cancers, the effect of facility volume has not been well described for NPC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with stage II-IVB NPC diagnosed from 2004 to 2014 and treated with definitive radiation. Patients with incomplete staging, unknown receipt or timing of treatment, unknown follow-up duration, incomplete socioeconomic information, or treatment outside the reporting facility were excluded...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hannah N Phillips, Bradley J Heins, Kathleen Delate, Robert Turnbull
Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10)...
2017: PloS One
Katharine B Simmons, Narender Kumar, Marlena Plagianos, Kevin Roberts, Elena Hoskin, Leo Han, Mohcine Alami, George Creasy, Bruce Variano, Ruth Merkatz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of concurrent administration of three vaginal miconazole nitrate formulations on the absorption and exposure of Nestorone® (segesterone acetate) and ethinyl estradiol from a novel contraceptive vaginal ring (NES/EE CVR). STUDY DESIGN: This was an open-label, randomized, crossover, drug-drug interaction study conducted over three menstrual cycles in healthy women with regular menses. We compared systemic exposure to NES and EE by determining area under the curve (AUC8-21d) with CVR-only and CVR with each miconazole treatment...
October 30, 2017: Contraception
Isabel Drake, George Hindy, Ulrika Ericson, Marju Orho-Melander
Background: The solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) encodes a zinc transporter in the pancreatic beta cells and the major C-allele of a missense variant (rs13266634; C/T; R325W) in SLC30A8 is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that the association between zinc intake and T2D may be modified by the SLC30A8 genotype. Results: We carried out a prospective study among subjects with no history cardio-metabolic diseases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort (N = 26,132, 38% men; 86% with genotype data)...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
Kari L Hanson, Caroline H Lew, Branka Hrvoj-Mihic, Kimberly M Groeniger, Eric Halgren, Ursula Bellugi, Katerina Semendeferi
Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-described, known genetic etiology. In contrast to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), WS has a unique phenotype characterized by global reductions in IQ and visuospatial ability, with relatively preserved language function, enhanced reactivity to social stimuli and music, and an unusual eagerness to interact socially with strangers. A duplication of the deleted region in WS has been implicated in a subset of ASD cases, defining a spectrum of genetic and behavioral variation at this locus defined by these opposite extremes in social behavior...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Dragos Vinereanu, Renato D Lopes, Hillary Mulder, Bernard J Gersh, Michael Hanna, Pedro G M de Barros E Silva, Dan Atar, Lars Wallentin, Christopher B Granger, John H Alexander
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few data exist on the long-term outcomes of patients with spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), left atrial/left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus, and complex aortic plaque (CAP), in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation. We explored the relationship between these 3 echocardiographic findings and clinical outcomes, and the comparative efficacy and safety of apixaban and warfarin for each finding. METHODS: Patients from the ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) with SEC, LA/LAA thrombus, or CAP diagnosed by either transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography were compared with patients with none of these findings on transesophageal echocardiography...
October 31, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Caroline L Gross, Joshua D Whitehead, Camila Silveira de Souza, David Mackay
The extent of self-compatibility and reliance on pollinators for seed set are critical determinants of reproductive success in invasive plant species. Seed herbivores are commonly used as biocontrol agents but may also act as flower visitors, potentially resulting in pollination. However, such contrasting or potentially counterproductive interaction effects are rarely considered or evaluated for biological control programs. We investigated the breeding system and pollinators of Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Toshinari Ezawa, Yutaka Inoue, Isamu Murata, Koichi Takao, Yoshiaki Sugita, Ikuo Kanamoto
In this study, the physicochemical properties and solubility of inclusion complexes of ground mixtures (GMs) of piperine (PP), a pungent ingredient of pepper, with α- and γ-cyclodextrin (CD) were studied. From the solubility results, the PP/αCD inclusion molar ratio was determined to be 1/2, while that of PP/γCD was 1/1, according to the AP-type phase diagram of PP/αCD and the BS-type one of PP/γCD. The powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses confirmed the formation of GM complexes with molar ratios of PP/αCD = 1/2 and PP/γCD = 1/1...
October 25, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Henning Stockmann, Viktor Todorovic, Paul L Richardson, Violeta Marin, Victoria Scott, Clare Gerstein, Marc Lake, Leyu Wang, Ramkrishna Sadhukhan, Anil Vasudevan
Ligand-binding assays are the linchpin of drug discovery and medicinal chemistry. Cell-surface receptors and their ligands have traditionally been characterized by radioligand-binding assays, which have low temporal and spatial resolution and entail safety risks. Here, we report a powerful alternative (GlycoFRET), where terbium-labeled fluorescent reporters are irreversibly attached to receptors by metabolic glycan engineering. For the first time, we show time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer between receptor glycans and fluorescently labeled ligands...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ying-Hua Li, Hai-Bo Li, Xin-Yang Xu, Si-Yao Xiao, Si-Qi Wang, Shu-Cong Xu
In this field study, the impacts of influent loadings and drying-wetting cycles on N2O emission in a subsurface wastewater infiltration (SWI) system were investigated. N2O emitted under different operation conditions were quantified using static chamber and gas chromatograph techniques. N2O conversion rate decreased from 6.6 ± 0.1% to 2.7 ± 0.1% with an increase in hydraulic loading (HL) from 0.08 to 0.24 m(3)/m(2)·d. By contrast, N2O conversion rate increased with increasing pollutant loading (PL) up to 8...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Xicheng Yan, Tao Wang, Shuyuan Xiao, Tingting Liu, Haowen Hou, Le Cheng, Xiaoyun Jiang
Novel hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials featuring dynamically controllable single, double and multiple plasmon induced transparency (PIT) windows are numerically explored in the terahertz (THz) regime. The designed plasmonic metamaterials composed of a strip and a ring with graphene integration generate a novel PIT window. Once the ring is divided into pairs of asymmetrical arcs, double PIT windows both with the spectral contrast ratio 100% are obtained, where one originates from the destructive interference between bright-dark modes, and the other is based on the interaction of bright-bright modes...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiadong Xiao, Qingzhen Han, Yongbing Xie, Jin Yang, Qiaozhi Su, Yue Chen, Hongbin Cao
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key oxidants for the degradation of organic pollutants in sunlight-driven photocatalytic water treatment, but their interaction with the photocatalyst is easily ignored and, hence, is comparatively poorly understood. Here we show that graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4, a famous visible-light responsive photocatalyst) is chemically stable towards ozone and superoxide radical, in contrast to which hydroxyl radical (•OH) can tear the heptazine unit directly from C3N4 to form cyameluric acid and further release nitrates into aqueous environment...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
M Angeles Cerezo, Purificación Sierra-García, Gemma Pons-Salvador, Rosa M Trenado
This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant's gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Lisa Peterhans, Elisa Alloa, Yauhen Sheima, Laurent Vannay, Mario Leclerc, Clémence Corminboeuf, Sophia C Hayes, Natalie Banerji
We report here the photophysical properties of a water-soluble conjugated polythiophene with cationic side-chains. When dissolved in aqueous buffer solution (PBS, phosphate buffered saline), there is ordering of the polymer chains due to the presence of the salts, in contrast to pure water, where a random-coil conformation is adopted at room temperature. The ordering leads to a pronounced colour change of the solution (the absorption maximum shifts from 400 nm to 525 nm). Combining resonance Raman spectroscopy with density functional theory computations, we show a significant backbone planarization in the ordered phase...
November 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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