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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747689/niches-and-interspecific-associations-of-dominant-populations-in-three-changed-stages-of-natural-secondary-forests-on-loess-plateau-p-r-china
#1
Li Gu, Zhi-Wen Gong, Wei-Zhong Li
Ecological niches remain central to explaining community structure, and niche-based studies have helped us to better understand species interactions, distributions, coexistence and associated mechanisms. Quercus wutaishansea populations on Loess Plateau are currently expanding their dominance in natural secondary forest types. In the present paper, we focused on the dynamic changes of niches and interspecific association among different changed stages. The overall interspecies association of the three communities exhibited positive association for Variance Ratio (VR) >1; the value of χ(2) significance test further revealed that the overall association had reached the level of significant association...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742456/dietary-fat-intake-and-lung-cancer-risk-a-pooled-analysis
#2
Jae Jeong Yang, Danxia Yu, Yumie Takata, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, William Blot, Emily White, Kim Robien, Yikyung Park, Yong-Bing Xiang, Rashmi Sinha, DeAnn Lazovich, Meir Stampfer, Rosario Tumino, Dagfinn Aune, Kim Overvad, Linda Liao, Xuehong Zhang, Yu-Tang Gao, Mattias Johansson, Walter Willett, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu
Purpose Dietary fat may play a role in lung carcinogenesis. Findings from epidemiologic studies, however, remain inconsistent. In this pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia, we evaluated the associations of total and specific types of dietary fat with lung cancer risk. Methods Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs in each cohort. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled by random- or fixed-effects meta-analysis. The first 2 years of follow-up were excluded to address potential influence of preclinical dietary changes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741582/prevalence-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-the-era-of-hiv-integrase-inhibitors-a-retrospective-clinical-study
#3
C Baecke, I C Gyssens, L Decoutere, J C H van der Hilst, P Messiaen
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral agents pose a high risk for drug-drug interactions (DDIs), mainly but not limited to being a substrate, inducer or inhibitor of P450 cytochrome enzymes. In part metabolised by other pathways, integrase inhibitors might show a more favourable profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DDIs in daily clinical practice for patients starting different antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens. METHODS: All patients starting ART in our centre from January 2009 to April 2016 were included...
July 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738531/surface-complexation-modeling-of-cu-ii-sorption-to-montmorillonite-bacteria-composites
#4
Chengcheng Qu, Mingkai Ma, Wenli Chen, Peng Cai, Qiaoyun Huang
Surface complexation modeling, isothermal titration calorimetry, and batch adsorption were employed to characterize the adsorption of Cu onto montmorillonite, Pseudomonas putida X4, and their composites at mass ratios of 2:1, 6:1, and 12:1, respectively. Different enthalpy values were found for Cu adsorption to permanent (-6.43kJ/mol) and variable charge sites (8.51kJ/mol) on montmorillonite. The component additivity (CA) method was used to predict the adsorption of Cu on the composites by combining end member models for montmorillonite and P...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736310/non-bold-contrast-for-laminar-fmri-in-humans-cbf-cbv-and-cmr02
#5
REVIEW
Laurentius Huber, Kâmil Uludağ, Harald E Möller
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast indirectly probes neuronal activity changes via evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMR02) changes. The gradient-echo BOLD signal is mostly sensitive to ascending veins in the tissue and to pial veins. Thereby, the achievable spatial specificity to neuronal activation is limited. Furthermore, the non-linear interaction of CBF, CBV and CMR02 can hamper quantitative interpretations of the BOLD signal across cortical depths with different baseline physiology...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735243/interactions-between-pteris-vittata-l-genotypes-and-a-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-pah-degrading-bacterium-alcaligenes-sp-in-arsenic-uptake-and-pah-dissipation
#6
Lu Sun, Ganghui Zhu, Xiaoyong Liao, Xiulan Yan
The effects of two Pteris vittata L. accessions and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium (Alcaligenes sp.) on arsenic (As) uptake and phenanthrene dissipation were studied. The Alcaligenes sp. survived in the rhizosphere and improved soil As bioavailability with co-exposure. However, bacterial inoculation altered Pteris vittata L. stress tolerance, and substantially affected the As distribution in the rhizosphere of the two P. vittata accessions. Bacterial inoculation was beneficial to protect the Guangxi accession against the toxic effects, and significantly increased plant As and phenanthrene removal ratios by 27...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733616/capturing-3d-water-flow-in-rooted-soil-by-ultra-fast-neutron-tomography
#7
Christian Tötzke, Nikolay Kardjilov, Ingo Manke, Sascha E Oswald
Water infiltration in soil is not only affected by the inherent heterogeneities of soil, but even more by the interaction with plant roots and their water uptake. Neutron tomography is a unique non-invasive 3D tool to visualize plant root systems together with the soil water distribution in situ. So far, acquisition times in the range of hours have been the major limitation for imaging 3D water dynamics. Implementing an alternative acquisition procedure we boosted the speed of acquisition capturing an entire tomogram within 10 s...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732242/the-depression-and-marital-status-relationship-is-modified-by-both-age-and-gender
#8
Andrew G M Bulloch, Jeanne V A Williams, Dina H Lavorato, Scott B Patten
BACKGROUND: Marital status is associated with major depression prevalence, however, the strength of association may be modified by age and gender. METHODS: The data sources were a series of cross sectional national health surveys of the Canadian population carried out by Statistics Canada during 1996-2013. These were cross-sectional files from the National Population Health Survey of 1996, together with the Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2013; the respondents were 18 years and older...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711355/characterization-of-the-foxl2-proximal-promoter-and-coding-sequence-from-the-common-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina
#9
Lei Guo, Turk Rhen
Sex is determined by temperature during embryogenesis in snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. Previous studies in this species show that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces ovarian development at temperatures that normally produce males or mixed sex ratios. The feminizing effect of DHT is associated with increased expression of FoxL2, suggesting that androgens regulate transcription of FoxL2. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the proximal promoter (1.6kb) and coding sequence for snapping turtle FoxL2 (tFoxL2) in frame with mCherry to produce a fluorescent reporter...
July 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704576/psychosis-an-autoimmune-disease
#10
REVIEW
Adam Aj Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Sarosh R Irani, Belinda R Lennox
Psychotic disorders are common and disabling. Overlaps in clinical course in addition to epidemiological and genetic associations raise the possibility that autoimmune mechanisms may underlie some psychoses, potentially offering novel therapeutic approaches. Several immune loci including the major histocompatibility complex and B-cell markers CD19 and CD20 achieve genome-wide significance in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests a potential role via neurodevelopment in addition to classical immune pathways...
July 13, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701247/the-effect-of-dietary-addition-of-nitrate-or-increase-in-lipid-concentrations-alone-or-in-combination-on-performance-and-methane-emissions-of-beef-cattle
#11
C-A Duthie, S M Troy, J J Hyslop, D W Ross, R Roehe, J A Rooke
Adding nitrate to or increasing the concentration of lipid in the diet are established strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions, but their effectiveness when used in combination has been largely unexplored. This study investigated the effect of dietary nitrate and increased lipid included alone or together on CH4 emissions and performance traits of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a 2×4 factorial design comprising two breeds (cross-bred Aberdeen Angus (AAx) and cross-bred Limousin (LIMx) steers) and four dietary treatments (each based on 550 g forage : 450 g concentrate/kg dry matter (DM))...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686941/diffusion-and-sorption-of-organic-micropollutants-in-biofilms-with-varying-thicknesses
#12
Elena Torresi, Fabio Polesel, Kai Bester, Magnus Christensson, Barth F Smets, Stefan Trapp, Henrik R Andersen, Benedek Gy Plósz
Solid-liquid partitioning is one of the main fate processes determining the removal of micropollutants in wastewater. Little is known on the sorption of micropollutants in biofilms, where molecular diffusion may significantly influence partitioning kinetics. In this study, the diffusion and the sorption of 23 micropollutants were investigated in novel moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers with controlled biofilm thickness (50, 200 and 500 μm) using targeted batch experiments (initial concentration = 1 μg L(-1), for X-ray contrast media 15 μg L(-1)) and mathematical modelling...
June 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686202/coinage-metal-complexes-of-the-carbenic-tautomer-of-a-conjugated-mesomeric-betaine-akin-to-nitron
#13
Charlotte Thie, Clemens Bruhn, Michael Leibold, Ulrich Siemeling
This study was motivated by our recent observation that the analytical reagent Nitron (2) is an "instant carbene", whose reaction with coinage metal salts MX afforded complexes of its carbenic tautomer 1,4-diphenyl-3-phenylamino-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (2'). Our aim was to establish an alkyl homologue of 2 in order to achieve a carbenic tautomer of higher donicity. For this purpose 1-tert-butyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-3-tert-butylaminide (6) was synthesized. Its reactions with MX afforded complexes of the carbenic tautomer 1-tert-butyl-3-tert-butylamino-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (6')...
July 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683104/rna-stores-tau-reversibly-in-complex-coacervates
#14
Xuemei Zhang, Yanxian Lin, Neil A Eschmann, Hongjun Zhou, Jennifer N Rauch, Israel Hernandez, Elmer Guzman, Kenneth S Kosik, Songi Han
Nonmembrane-bound organelles that behave like liquid droplets are widespread among eukaryotic cells. Their dysregulation appears to be a critical step in several neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we report that tau protein, the primary constituent of Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles, can form liquid droplets and therefore has the necessary biophysical properties to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in cells. Consonant with the factors that induce LLPS, tau is an intrinsically disordered protein that complexes with RNA to form droplets...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674307/effects-of-teicoplanin-on-the-pt-inr-controlled-by-warfarin-in-infection-patients
#15
Takafumi Nakano, Tomomi Nakamura, Yoshihio Nakamura, Keiichi Irie, Keisuke Sato, Kohichi Matsuo, Osamu Imakyure, Kentaro Ogata, Kenichi Mishima, Hidetoshi Kamimura
 Warfarin (WF) shows a number of interactions with other drugs, which alter its anticoagulant effects. The albumin binding interaction is one such pharmacokinetic mechanism of drug interaction with WF, which induces a rise in the free WF concentration and thus increases the risk of WF toxicity. Teicoplanin (TEIC) is an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drug, which also binds strongly to albumin in the plasma. Therefore, co-administration of TEIC may displace WF from the albumin binding site, and possibly result in a toxicity...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668545/increased-production-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-from-sputum-cells-of-copd-relationship-with-airway-obstruction
#16
Laurent Godinas, Jean-Louis Corhay, Monique Henket, Julien Guiot, Renaud Louis, Catherine Moermans
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway disease characterized by a profound airway remodelling that leads to airway obstruction. A role for transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has been proposed in airway remodelling of COPD. Regarding the TGF-β1 production at local level, the results seemed to be controversial. In this study, an original model of sputum cell culture thought to maintain important cells interactions, was used. We investigated the production of TGF-β1 from sputum cell culture in 33 COPD encompassing the whole severity spectrum and compared the results with those found in 39 healthy controls...
June 29, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665109/role-of-site-specific-asparagine-deamidation-in-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-amyloidogenesis-key-contributions-of-residues-14-and-21
#17
Phuong Trang Nguyen, Ximena Zottig, Mathew Sebastiao, Steve Bourgault
Deamidation of an asparagine residue is a spontaneous non-enzymatic post-translational modification that results in the conversion of asparagine into a mixture of aspartic acid and isoaspartic acid. This chemical conversion modulates protein conformation and physicochemical properties, which could lead to protein misfolding and aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effects of site-specific Asn deamidation on the amyloidogenicity of the aggregation-prone peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). IAPP is a 37-residue peptidic hormone whose deposition as insoluble amyloid fibrils is closely associated with type 2 diabetes...
July 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654290/effect-of-surface-crowding-and-surface-hydrophilicity-on-the-activity-stability-and-molecular-orientation-of-a-covalently-tethered-enzyme
#18
McKenna M Schroeder, Qiuming Wang, Somayesadat Badieyan, Zhan Chen, E Neil G Marsh
We have investigated two surface properties that are generally thought to have an important influence of enzyme activity and stability: surface hydrophobicity and surface crowding. Here two variants of an engineered bacterial nitro-reductase were covalently tethered to orient the protein's pseudo-2-fold symmetry axis either parallel or perpendicular to the surface. The surface hydrophobicity was systematically varied by changing the ratio of methyl- to hydroxyl-groups displayed on the SAM surface, and the effects on enzyme activity, thermal stability, and structure investigated...
July 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648864/impact-of-plasma-protein-binding-on-cargo-release-by-thermosensitive-liposomes-probed-by-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy
#19
Judith J Mittag, Barbara Kneidl, Tobias Preiß, Martin Hossann, Gerhard Winter, Stefan Wuttke, Hanna Engelke, Joachim O Rädler
Thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) whose phase-transition temperature (Tm) lies slightly above body temperature are ideal candidates for controlled drug release via local hyperthermia. Recent studies, however, have revealed disruptive shifts in the release temperature Tr in mouse plasma, which are attributed to undefined interactions with blood proteins. Here, we study the effects of four major plasma proteins - serum albumin (SA), transferrin (Tf), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and fibrinogen (Fib) - on the temperature-dependent release of fluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) from TSLs...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647285/contrasting-patterns-of-energy-metabolism-in-northern-vs-southern-peripheral-european-flounder-populations-exposed-to-temperature-rising-and-hypoxia
#20
Nicolas Pédron, Jessy Le Du, Grégory Charrier, José-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Nicolas Le Bayon, Rita P Vasconcelos, Vanessa F Fonseca, Fabienne Le Grand, Jean Laroche
A two months common garden experiment was carried out to explore the potential differences of energy metabolism in northern core (France, 50°N and 47°N) vs southern peripheral (Portugal, 41°N) populations of European flounder Platichthys flesus, submitted to cold condition (CC: water temperature = 10 °C) and to warm and hypoxic condition (WHC: water temperature = 22 °C, and moderate hypoxia with O2 saturation = 40% during the last 6 days). Convergent growth rates (in length) were observed in the different populations and conditions, when the southern peripheral population of Portugal did not grow under cold conditions...
June 15, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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