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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221826/the-behavioral-type-of-a-top-predator-drives-the-short-term-dynamic-of-intraguild-predation
#1
Radek Michalko, Stano Pekár
Variation in behavior among individual top predators (i.e., the behavioral type) can strongly shape pest suppression in intraguild predation (IGP). However, the effect of a top predator's behavioral type-namely, foraging aggressiveness (number of killed divided by prey time) and prey choosiness (preference degree for certain prey type)-on the dynamic of IGP may interact with the relative abundances of top predator, mesopredator, and pest. We investigated the influence of the top predator's behavioral type on the dynamic of IGP in a three-species system with a top predator spider, a mesopredator spider, and a psyllid pest using a simulation model...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220487/sex-differences-and-allee-effects-shape-the-dynamics-of-sex-structured-invasions
#2
Allison K Shaw, Hanna Kokko, Michael G Neubert
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life history traits (e.g. growth, survival, dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216312/bone-marrow-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-hand-osteoarthritis-are-associated-with-pain-and-interact-with-synovitis
#3
R Liu, W Damman, M Reijnierse, J L Bloem, F R Rosendaal, M Kloppenburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and (teno)synovitis as assessed on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with pain in hand osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: In 105 consecutive primary hand OA patients (83% women, mean age 59 years), who were diagnosed by rheumatologists and included in the HOSTAS (Hand OSTeoArthritis in Secondary care) cohort, contrast-enhanced MR imaging of right distal and proximal interphalangeal joints were obtained...
February 12, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215085/peptide-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-as-a-stimuli-responsive-contrast-medium-in-multi-photon-microscopy
#4
Johan Borglin, Robert Selegård, Daniel Aili, Marica B Ericson
There is a need for biochemical contrast mediators with high signal to noise ratios enabling non-invasive biomedical sensing, e.g., for neural sensing, protein-protein interactions, in addition to cancer diagnostics. The translational challenge is to develop a biocompatible approach ensuring high biochemical contrast while avoiding a raise of the background signal. We here present a concept where gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be utilized as a stimuli responsive contrast medium by chemically triggering their ability to exhibit multiphoton induced luminescence (MIL) when performing multi-photon laser scanning microscopy (MPM)...
February 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214624/effect-of-cobalt-loading-on-the-solid-state-properties-and-ethyl-acetate-oxidation-performance-of-cobalt-cerium-mixed-oxides
#5
M Konsolakis, S A C Carabineiro, G E Marnellos, M F Asad, O S G P Soares, M F R Pereira, J J M Órfão, J L Figueiredo
Cobalt-cerium mixed oxides were prepared by the wet impregnation method and evaluated for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) abatement, using ethyl acetate (EtAc) as model molecule. The impact of Co content on the physicochemical characteristics of catalysts and EtAc conversion was investigated. The materials were characterized by various techniques, including N2 adsorption at -196°C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal the structure-activity relationship...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209335/impact-of-fluid-status-and-inflammation-and-their-interaction-on-survival-a-study-in-an-international-hemodialysis-patient-cohort
#6
Marijke J E Dekker, Daniele Marcelli, Bernard J Canaud, Paola Carioni, Yuedong Wang, Aileen Grassmann, Constantijn J A M Konings, Peter Kotanko, Karel M Leunissen, Nathan W Levin, Frank M van der Sande, Xiaoling Ye, Vaibhav Maheshwari, Len A Usvyat, Jeroen P Kooman
In hemodialysis patients extracellular fluid overload is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and a relation with inflammation has been reported in previous studies. The magnitude and nature of this interaction and the effects of moderate fluid overload and extracellular fluid depletion on survival are still unclear. We present the results of an international cohort study in 8883 hemodialysis patients from the European MONDO initiative database where, during a three-month baseline period, fluid status was assessed using bioimpedance and inflammation by C-reactive protein...
February 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201921/generalized-spin-ratio-scaled-mp2-method-for-accurate-prediction-of-intermolecular-interactions-for-neutral-and-ionic-species
#7
Samuel Tan, Santiago Barrera Acevedo, Ekaterina I Izgorodina
The accurate calculation of intermolecular interactions is important to our understanding of properties in large molecular systems. The high computational cost of the current "gold standard" method, coupled cluster with singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T), limits its application to small- to medium-sized systems. Second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) theory is a cheaper alternative for larger systems, although at the expense of its decreased accuracy, especially when treating van der Waals complexes...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196918/m1-macrophages-are-required-for-murine-cerebral-aneurysm-formation
#8
Kamil W Nowicki, Koji Hosaka, Frank J Walch, Edward W Scott, Brian L Hoh
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages and neutrophils have been separately implicated in cerebral aneurysm formation. The interactions between different myeloid subsets and the contributions of macrophage phenotypes in these lesions over time are not known. The purpose of the study was to examine macrophage phenotypic changes in cerebral aneurysms. METHODS: We induced aneurysm formation in C57BL/6 mice and quantified contributions of M1 and M2 macrophages in aneurysm specimens with or without neutrophil blockade...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193064/vapor-pressure-isotope-effects-in-halogenated-organic-compounds-and-alcohols-dissolved-in-water
#9
Axel Horst, Georges Lacrampe-Couloume, Barbara Sherwood Lollar
Volatilization causes changes in the isotopic composition of organic compounds as a result of different vapor pressures of molecules containing heavy and light isotopes. Both normal and inverse vapor pressure isotope effects (VPIE) have been observed, depending on molecular interactions in the liquid phase and the investigated element. Previous studies have focused mostly on pure compound volatilization or on compounds dissolved in organic liquids. Environmentally relevant scenarios, such as isotope fractionation during volatilization of organics from open water surfaces, have largely been neglected...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185293/assessing-frost-damages-using-dynamic-models-in-walnut-trees-exposure-rather-than-vulnerability-controls-frost-risks
#10
Guillaume Charrier, Isabelle Chuine, Marc Bonhomme, Thierry Améglio
Frost damages develop when exposure overtakes frost vulnerability. Frost risk assessment therefore needs dynamic simulation of frost hardiness using temperature and photoperiod in interaction with developmental stage. Two models, including or not the effect of photoperiod were calibrated using five years of frost hardiness monitoring (2007-2012), in two locations (low and high elevation) for three walnut genotypes with contrasted phenology and maximum hardiness (Juglans regia cv Franquette, Juglans regia x nigra 'Early' and 'Late')...
February 9, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178782/formation-of-aab-type-collagen-heterotrimers-from-designed-cationic-and-aromatic-collagen-mimetic-peptides-evaluation-of-the-c-terminal-cation-%C3%AF-interactions
#11
Chu-Harn Chiang, Yi-Hsuan Fu, Jia-Cherng Horng
Most of natural collagens are heterotrimers composed of two (AAB) or three (ABC) different peptide chains, and thus heterotrimeric constructs are preferable to mimic natural collagens. Exploring the forces to assemble synthetic collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) into heterotrimers has been an attractive topic in preparing collagen-related biomaterials. Here we designed and synthesized two cationic CMPs (CR and CK) in which multiple Arg or Lys residues are installed in their C-terminal region, and one aromatic CMP (CF) whose C-terminal end contains multiple Phe residues...
February 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178781/effects-of-surface-charges-on-the-bactericide-activity-of-cdte-zns-quantum-dots-a-cell-membrane-disruption-perspective
#12
Lu Lai, Sheng-Jin Li, Jing Feng, Ping Mei, Zhao-Hua Ren, Yan-Ling Chang, Yi Liu
The inhibitory effects of CdTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) modified with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (negatively charged) or cysteamine (positively charged) on the metabolic activity of Escherichia coli were investigated using biological microcalorimetry. Results show that the inhibitory ratio of positive QDs is higher than that of negative QDs. Transmission electron microscopy images indicate that QDs are prone to be adsorbed on the surface of E. coli. This condition disturbs the membrane structure and function of E...
February 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159790/the-effects-of-sulfate-reduction-on-tce-dechlorination-by-dehalococcoides-containing-microbial-communities
#13
Xinwei Mao, Alexandra Polasko, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen
: In order to elucidate interactions between sulfate reduction and dechlorination, we systematically evaluated the effects of different concentrations of sulfate and sulfide on reductive dechlorination by isolates, constructed consortia and enrichments containing Dehalococcoides sp. Sulfate (up to 5 mM) did not inhibit growth or metabolism of pure cultures of dechlorinator Dehalococcoides mccartyi 195, sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) or syntroph Syntrophomonas wolfei (S...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154246/steering-of-carcinoma-progression-by-the-yin-yang-interaction-of-stat1-stat3
#14
Karlheinz Friedrich, Helmut Dolznig, Xiaonan Han, Richard Moriggl
STAT1/STAT3 transcription factors are important regulators for development of normal, infected or inflammed cells. They are also critically involved in the progression of various malignant tumours, including epithelial-derived carcinomas. Here, we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) insights for STAT1/3, where controversial functions for STAT3 were reported. For a long time STAT3 has been regarded as a driver of tumour malignancy and its activation was associated with negative clinical outcome. In contrast, STAT1 was generally viewed as an independent tumour suppressor and positive prognostic marker...
February 2, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144662/potato-virus-x-a-filamentous-plant-viral-nanoparticle-for-doxorubicin-delivery-in-cancer-therapy
#15
Duc H T Le, Karin L Lee, Sourabh Shukla, Ulrich Commandeur, Nicole F Steinmetz
Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are a novel class of nanocarriers with implications for drug delivery in cancer therapy. VNPs are characterized by their highly symmetrical nanoscale structures. Furthermore, plant VNPs are biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-infectious in mammals. VNPs provide a proteinaceous platform technology that can be readily engineered to carry contrast agents and therapies using chemical and genetic modifications. Of particular interest are high aspect ratio, elongated filaments such as the ones formed by potato virus X (PVX, measuring 515 × 13 nm)...
February 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139369/coincident-alcohol-dependence-and-depression-increases-risk-of-suicidal-ideation-among-army-national-guard-soldiers
#16
Gregory H Cohen, David S Fink, Laura Sampson, Marijo Tamburrino, Israel Liberzon, Joseph R Calabrese, Sandro Galea
PURPOSE: Suicide rates among military service members have risen dramatically, while drivers remain poorly understood. We examined the relationship between coincident alcohol dependence and depression in shaping risk of suicidal ideation among National Guard forces. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal analysis using a randomly selected, population-based sample of Ohio Army National Guard soldiers. Telephone-based surveys of 1582 soldiers who participated in both wave 1 (2008-2009) and wave 2 (2009-2010) were analyzed...
December 14, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130295/differential-attachment-of-salmonella-enterica-and-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-to-alfalfa-fenugreek-lettuce-and-tomato-seeds
#17
Yue Cui, Ronald Walcott, Jinru Chen
: Vegetable seeds have the potential to disseminate and transmit foodborne bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to assess the abilities of selected Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains to attach to fungicide-treated vs untreated, and intact vs mechanically-damaged seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato. Surface-sanitized seeds (2 g) were exposed to 4 individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC at 20°C for 5 h. Contaminated seeds were rinsed twice, each with 10 ml of sterilized water before being soaked overnight in 5 ml of phosphate buffered saline at 4 °C...
January 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125730/the-influence-of-braf-and-kras-mutation-status-on-the-association-between-aspirin-use-and-survival-after-colon-cancer-diagnosis
#18
Martine A Frouws, Marlies S Reimers, Marloes Swets, Esther Bastiaannet, Bianca Prinse, Ronald van Eijk, Valery E P P Lemmens, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Tom van Wezel, Peter J K Kuppen, Hans Morreau, Cornelis J H van de Velde, Gerrit-Jan Liefers
BACKGROUND: Use of aspirin after diagnosis of colon cancer has been associated with improved survival. Identification of cancer subtypes that respond to aspirin treatment may help develop personalized treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of BRAF and KRAS mutation status on the association between aspirin use and overall survival after colon cancer diagnosis. METHODS: A random selection of 599 patients with colon cancer were analyzed, selected from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry, and BRAF and KRAS mutation status was determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122337/prognostic-value-of-the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-the-arq-197-215-second-line-study-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Nicola Personeni, Laura Giordano, Giovanni Abbadessa, Camillo Porta, Ivan Borbath, Bruno Daniele, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Jörg Trojan, Enrico N De Toni, Antonio Gasbarrini, Monica Lencioni, Maria E Lamar, Yunxia Wang, Dale Shuster, Brian Schwartz, Armando Santoro, Lorenza Rimassa
The ARQ 197-215 study randomized patients to tivantinib or placebo and pre-specified efficacy analyses indicated the predictive value of MET expression as a marker of benefit from tivantinib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to explore the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in 98 ARQ 197-215 patients with available absolute neutrophil count and absolute lymphocyte count at baseline. The cut-off value used to define high versus low NLR was 3.0. In univariate analysis, high NLR was associated with hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival (OS) of 1...
January 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115385/freshwater-cyanobacterial-interactions-with-bacterial-antagonists
#20
Omneya Ahmed Osman, Sara Beier, Manfred Grabherr, Stefan Bertilsson
: Cyanobacterial and algal mass development or "blooms" have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden, and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong to moderate lytic activity...
January 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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