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Relative excess risk due to interaction

Ji Li, Hong Lai, Shaoguang Chen, Hong Zhu, Shenghan Lai
AIMS: We examined interaction of sex steroid hormones and obesity with regard to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) by using nationally representative data from the US. METHODS: Data of 1461 men aged ≥20years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Multiplicative interaction was calculated by cross-product interaction terms in multivariable logistic regression models. Additive interaction was assessed by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Elisabeth Hahn, Martin Reuter, Frank M Spinath, Christian Montag
A growing body of research focuses on problematic behavior patterns related to the use of the Internet to identify contextual as well as individual risk factors of this new phenomenon called Internet addiction (IA). IA can be described as a multidimensional syndrome comprising aspects such as craving, development of tolerance, loss of control and negative consequences. Given that previous research on other addictive behaviors showed substantial heritability, it can be expected that the vulnerability to IA may also be due to a person's genetic predisposition...
February 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Yanfeng Ren, Nan Jin, Tianpei Hong, Yiming Mu, Lixin Guo, Qiuhe Ji, Qiang Li, Xilin Yang, Linong Ji
Serum uric acid (SUA) at high levels and bilirubin at low levels were potent antioxidant but it was uncertain that whether SUA and total bilirubin (TBIL) had additive interaction for the risk of CVD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 6713 inpatients with T2DM and admitted to 81 tertiary care hospitals. CVD was defined as having either prior coronary heart disease or stroke or peripheral arterial disease. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of SUA and TBIL for CVD...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
Meng Yang, Jinshao Ye, Huaming Qin, Yan Long, Yi Li
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has received an increasing attention in the agricultural and food industries due to its risk to human health. To facilitate the development of novel biomarkers of Escherichia coli against PFOA through multi-omics technologies, and to reveal the resistance mechanism of E. coli against PFOA at protein levels, the interactions among pollutant stress, protein expression and cell metabolism was investigated by using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. The results revealed that the 63 up-regulated proteins mainly involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis, whereas, the 69 down-regulated proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism and the cell cycle-caulobacter pathway, were also associated with the increase of membrane permeability, excessive expenditure of ATP, disruption of fatty acid biosynthesis under PFOA stress...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yubao Lv, Linuo Zhou, Zihui Tang, Jingcheng Dong
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the extent to which diabetes mellitus (DM) and SCN10A (rs7375036) and their interaction impact on cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) susceptibility in a Chinese Han sample. METHOD: We performed a study in a cross-sectional dataset that included 419 patients with DM and 1557 controls who were genotyped for the presence of the SCN10A rs7375036 polymorphisms. Genotyping was performed by iPLEX technology. The associations of rs7375036 and DM with CAN was assessed by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression controlling for confounders...
October 11, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Sang-Yong Eom, Seon-Mi Hong, Dong-Hyuk Yim, Hyo-Jin Kwon, Dae-Hoon Kim, Hyo-Yung Yun, Young-Jin Song, Sei-Jin Youn, Taisun Hyun, Joo-Seung Park, Byung Sik Kim, Yong-Dae Kim, Heon Kim
Although several studies reported genetic polymorphisms in protein kinase AMP-activated alpha 1 catalytic subunit (PRKAA1) and their associations with gastric cancer risk, few have evaluated associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and PRKAA1 gene-environment interactions. Here, we evaluated the effects of interactions between H. pylori infection and PRKAA1 polymorphisms on gastric cancer risk in Koreans. In this hospital-based case-control study, PRKAA1 genotypes were analyzed and H. pylori infection and CagA status were examined using a serologic method in 846 pairs of gastric cancer patients and controls matched for age and sex...
November 2016: Cancer Medicine
Tetyana Kendzerska, Richard S Leung, Andrea S Gershon, George Tomlinson, Najib Ayas
RATIONALE: The interrelationships between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity are complex and bidirectional; however, current evidence regarding their combined effect on cardiovascular risk is limited and conflicting. Animal studies suggest that obesity may exacerbate the cardiovascular consequences of intermittent hypoxemia. OBJECTIVES: In this historical observational study, we investigated whether obesity increases the effect of nocturnal hypoxemia on the incidence of cardiovascular events in adults with suspected OSA...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Katharine E Stahon, Chinthasagar Bastian, Shelby Griffith, Grahame J Kidd, Sylvain Brunet, Selva Baltan
UNLABELLED: The impact of aging on CNS white matter (WM) is of general interest because the global effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers are more complex and profound than those in cortical gray matter. It is important to distinguish between axonal changes created by normal aging and those caused by neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury. Using three-dimensional electron microscopy, we show that in mouse optic nerve, which is a pure and fully myelinated WM tract, aging axons are larger, have thicker myelin, and are characterized by longer and thicker mitochondria, which are associated with altered levels of mitochondrial shaping proteins...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Junhong Leng, Peng Wang, Ping Shao, Cuiping Zhang, Weiqin Li, Nan Li, Leishen Wang, Hairong Nan, Zhijie Yu, Gang Hu, Juliana Cn Chan, Xilin Yang
BACKGROUND: Passive smoking increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk but it is uncertain whether it also increased gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. We aimed to examine the association of passive smoking during pregnancy and its interaction with maternal obesity for GDM. METHODS: From 2010 to 2012, 12,786 Chinese women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 weeks of gestation and further underwent a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if the GCT result was ≥7...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Kjetil Bjørnevik, Trond Riise, Inger Bostrom, Llaria Casetta, Marianna Cortese, Enrico Granieri, Trygve Holmøy, Margitta T Kampman, Anne-Marie Landtblom, Sandra Magalhaes, Maura Pugliatti, Christina Wolfson, Kjell-Morten Myhr
BACKGROUND: Results from previous studies on a possible interaction between smoking and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To examine the interaction between smoking and infectious mononucleosis (IM) in the risk of MS. METHODS: Within the case-control study on Environmental Factors In Multiple Sclerosis (EnvIMS), 1904 MS patients and 3694 population-based frequency-matched healthy controls from Norway, Italy, and Sweden reported on prior exposure to smoking and history of IM...
September 23, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Colinda C J M Simons, Leo J Schouten, Roger W Godschalk, Manon van Engeland, Piet A van den Brandt, Frederik J van Schooten, Matty P Weijenberg
The energy restriction (ER)-colorectal cancer (CRC) association is inconsistent in literature. To strengthen the biological plausibility of the ER-CRC association, we investigated whether genetic variation in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway, a putative underlying mechanism, modulated this association in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants completed a questionnaire (n = 120,852) and provided toenail clippings for DNA (∼75%) at baseline. Individuals living in a Western city during the Hunger Winter (1944-45) or Western rural versus non-Western area were exposed to (severe) ER at young age...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Guangyun Mao, Rebecca Massa Nachman, Qi Sun, Xingyou Zhang, Kirsten Koehler, Zhu Chen, Xiumei Hong, Guoying Wang, Deanna Caruso, Geng Zong, Colleen Pearson, Hongkai Ji, Shyam Biswal, Barry Zuckerman, Marsha Wills-Karp, Xiaobin Wang
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies suggest that exposure to traffic-related pollution during childhood increases risk of childhood overweight or obesity (COWO), the role of early-life exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 micrometers, PM2.5) and its joint effect with mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (MPBMI) on COWO remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to examine the individual and joint effects of ambient PM2...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
V DE Lastours, R Malosh, K Ramadugu, U Srinivasan, S Dawid, S Ohmit, B Foxman
Pneumonia due to either Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) or Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) accounts for most mortality after influenza and acute respiratory illness (ARI). Because carriage precedes infection, we estimated Sp and Sa carriage to examine the co-colonization dynamics between Sp, Sa and respiratory viruses in the presence of ARI in the oropharynx. We tested oropharyngeal specimens of community subjects (aged ⩾2 years) with ARI for the presence of influenza A and B, 11 other common respiratory viruses, Sp and Sa, using real-time PCR...
August 18, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Nianquan Sun, Peian Lou, Yan Shang, Pan Zhang, Jian Wang, Guiqiu Chang, Chunlei Shi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression and to assess their impact on glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: 893 Chinese men and women aged 18-84 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. METHODS: People with type 2 diabetes completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales...
2016: BMJ Open
Olga V Gran, Erin N Smith, Sigrid K Brækkan, Hilde Jensvoll, Terry Solomon, Kristian Hindberg, Tom Wilsgaard, Frits R Rosendaal, Kelly A Frazer, John-Bjarne Hansen
Venous thromboembolism occurs frequently in cancer patients. Two variants in the factor 5 gene (F5), rs6025 encoding for the factor V Leiden mutation R506Q, and rs4524 encoding K858R, have been found to be associated with venous thromboembolism. We assessed the joint effect of active cancer and these two F5 variants on venous thromboembolism risk in a case-cohort study. Cases with a first venous thromboembolism (n=609) and a randomly selected age-weighted cohort (n=1,691) were sampled from the general population in Tromsø, Norway...
September 2016: Haematologica
M Smith, A E Williamson, D Walsh, G McCartney
BACKGROUND: Scotland has a persistently high mortality rate that is not solely due to the effects of socio-economic deprivation. This "excess" mortality is observed across the entire country, but is greatest in and around the post-industrial conurbation of West Central Scotland. Despite systematic investigation, the causes of the excess mortality remain the subject of ongoing debate. DISCUSSION: Attachment processes are a fundamental part of human development, and have a profound influence on adult personality and behaviour, especially in response to stressors...
2016: BMC Public Health
J Zhao, X-L Li, K Han, Z-Q Tao, Z-M Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the interaction of sleep quality and depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: With multistage cluster sampling, the living quality of all participants was investigated. The indicator of interaction was calculated according to the delta method and non-conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS: There were 944 residents involved in the final analysis including 365 males and 579 females...
July 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Fangfang Zeng, Linuo Zhou, Zihui Tang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association and interaction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and estrogen receptor alpha 1 (ESR1) gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: A large-scale, population-based study was conducted to analyze the interaction of MetS and ESR1 gene polymorphisms to CAN, including a total of 1977 Chinese subjects. The most common studied single nucleotide polymorphism of ESR1 gene-rs9340799, was genotyped...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
H X Wen, F Zhang, T Wang, B Wang, X F Wang, X X Xu, Z D Fu, J Guo, L R Zhang, Y Gao, B Wang, S P Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between HBeAg status, mode of delivery and intrauterine transmission of the HBsAg-positive mothers as well as their interactions. METHODS: A total of 344 HBsAg-positive pregnant women and their infants were enrolled in this study. The mothers were recruited from the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan, from July 2011 to January 2013. Serum HBV-M and HBV DNA were measured using the electro-chemiluminescence immune-assay (ECLIA) kits and fluorescene quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) assay, respectively...
June 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Raffaele Piccolo, Anna Franzone, Konstantinos C Koskinas, Lorenz Räber, Thomas Pilgrim, Marco Valgimigli, Stefan Stortecky, Julie Rat-Wirtzler, Sigmund Silber, Patrick W Serruys, Peter Jüni, Dik Heg, Stephan Windecker
Few data are available on the timing of adverse events in relation to the status of diabetes mellitus and the type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated this issue in diabetic and nondiabetic patients admitted with a diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Patient-level data from 6 studies (n = 16,601) were pooled and only patients with ACS are included (n = 9,492). Early (0 to 30 days), late (31 to 365 days), and overall (0 to 365 days) events were analyzed...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
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