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Relative excess risk due to interaction

Hien Tran, Jeongyeong Kim, Daeun Kim, Minyoung Choi, Minha Choi
Health effects related to air pollution are a major global concern. Related studies based on reliable exposure assessment methods would potentially enable policy makers to propose appropriate environmental management policies. In this study, integrated Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) and Principle Component Regression (PCR) were adopted to assess the severity of air pollution impacts on mortality related to circulatory, respiratory and skin diseases in 25 districts of Seoul, South Korea for the years 2005-2015...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
J R Zadro, T I L Nilsen, D Shirley, A B Amorim, P H Ferreira, P J Mork
BACKGROUND: Individuals experiencing chronic widespread pain (CWP) have greater disability and poorer quality-of-life compared to those with other chronic painful conditions; although research identifying risk factors for CWP is lacking. We aimed to investigate if parental CWP increases the risk of offspring CWP, and if offspring body mass index (BMI) and leisure-time physical activity modify this association. METHODS: We included 6,589 parent-offspring trios participating in the Norwegian HUNT Study in 1995-97 and 2006-08...
April 28, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
A L Mazul, N Shivappa, J R Hébert, S E Steck, N Rodriguez-Ormaza, M Weissler, A F Olshan, J P Zevallos
Diets high in fruits and vegetables and low in red meat intake have been associated with decreased risk of head and neck cancer. Additionally, chronic inflammation pathways and their association with cancer have been widely described. We hypothesized a pro-inflammatory diet, as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), is associated with increased risk of head and neck cancer. We used the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer (CHANCE) study, a population-based case-control study of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
T Zulfiqar, L Strazdins, C Banwell, H Dinh, C D'Este
Objective: Children of immigrants from low-and-middle-income countries show excess overweight/obesity risk relative to host populations, possibly due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study was conducted to estimate overweight/obesity prevalence and its association with the family socioeconomic-position in 2-11-year-old Australian-born children of immigrants and Australian-mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 10-year data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children was undertaken...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Anthony Nardone, Andreas M Neophytou, John Balmes, Neeta Thakur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given racial disparities in ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and asthma risk, this review offers an overview of the literature investigating the ambient air pollution-asthma relationship in children of color between 2013 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: AAP is likely a key contributor to the excess burden of asthma in children of color due to pervasive exposure before birth, at home, and in school. Recent findings suggest that psychosocial stressors may modify the relationship between AAP and asthma...
April 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Manne Munikumar, Vagolu Siva Krishna, Varikasuvu Seshadri Reddy, Bolla Rajeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram, Mendu Vishnuvardhana Rao
Excess adiposity in obese inhibits negatively impacts immune function and host defence. Obesity is characterized by a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation in addition to disturbed levels of circulating nutrients and metabolic hormones. The impact of metabolic abnormalities on obesity-related co-morbidities has undergone intense scrutiny over the past decades. Thus, treatment of obesity and its associated immune-mediated diseases is challenging due to impaired function of leptin system. These disorders are managed through antibiotics and by cytokines replacement...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Cecilia Tomori, Allison M McFall, Sunil S Solomon, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Santhanam Anand, P Balakrishnan, Shruti H Mehta, David D Celentano
Syndemic theory describes the clustering and synergistic interaction of disease driven by contextual and social factors, which worsen health outcomes for a population, and has been applied to men who have sex with men (MSM) and their risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Recent reviews, however, have critiqued prevailing approaches in syndemic studies that assess only additive associations without evaluation of synergy. Following these suggestions, we compared the traditional additive approach with a test for synergistic association of 5 syndemic conditions (alcohol dependence, illicit drug use, depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and childhood sexual abuse (CSA)) with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and active syphilis infection among 11,771 MSM recruited through respondent driven sampling from 12 cities in India...
March 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Lina Wang, Bo Yang, Shiyuan Zhou, Huafang Gao, Fengyu Wang, Jiping Zhou, Haili Wang, Yanli Wang
Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD), which involve congenital cardiovascular malformations that occur during an embryo stage, may be the result of a complex interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors. The homozygous 677 T/T MTHFR gene and potential factors have been associated with CHD. Our objective was to study associations between potential environmental risk factors and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in CHD. Methods: A total of 346 children with CHD and 237 healthy children were recruited...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Arvid Sjölander
Measures of causal effects play a central role in epidemiology. A wide range of measures exist, which are designed to give relevant answers to substantive epidemiological research questions. However, due to mathematical convenience and software limitations most studies only report odds ratios for binary outcomes and hazard ratios for time-to-event outcomes. In this paper we show how logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards regression models can be used to estimate a wide range of causal effect measures, with the R-package stdReg...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Jihye Kim, Peter Kraft, Kaitlin A Hagan, Laura B Harrington, Sara Lindstroem, Christopher Kabrhel
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable. Physical activity, physical inactivity and body mass index (BMI) are also risk factors, but evidence of interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors is limited. METHODS: Data on 2,134 VTE cases and 3,890 matched controls were obtained from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with VTE risk in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS)...
March 8, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anping Cai, Jiawei Zhang, Rui Wang, Jiyan Chen, Bixia Huang, Yingling Zhou, Ling Wang
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and resistant hypertension (RHTN) are two major risk factors of chronic heart failure (CHF) and limited information is available about the joint effects of OSA and RHTN on CHF. METHODS: Baseline data of participants who had completed polysomnography were used in the current study. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) were calculated, and RERI >0 or AP >0 indicates joint effect of OSA and RHTN on CHF is greater than the sum of estimated effects of OSA alone and RHTN alone...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Shinje Moon, Hyung-Joon Yoo, You-Hern Ahn, Gheun-Ho Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Joon-Sung Park
The association of mild increase in urinary albumin excretion with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in clinical studies is controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between increased glycemic exposure and mild increase in urinary albumin excretion on risk of DR.Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012. Overall, data from 953 participants without microalbuminuria (477 men and 476 women) were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was constructed to evaluate the association between DR and related clinical parameters, including urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR, mg/g creatinine)...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
J Hermansson, J Hallqvist, B Karlsson, A Knutsson, K Gillander Gådin
Background: Shift work has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is a need for more studies to determine whether there is an interaction between shift work and other risk factors of CVD, thereby increasing the risk of CVD in shift workers. Aims: To discern whether shift work and parental mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) or sudden cardiac death (SCD) interact to increase the risk of MI in men. Methods: A case-control dataset was used to assess interaction between shift work and parental history of CVD, using death from MI or SCD, or death before age 65, on an additive scale...
March 27, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Sander K R van Zon, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Peter J van der Most, Morris A Swertz, Ute Bültmann, Harold Snieder
OBJECTIVE: A strong genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may aggravate the negative effects of low socioeconomic position (SEP) in the etiology of the disorder. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations and interactions of a genetic risk score (GRS) and SEP with T2DM and to investigate whether clinical and behavioral risk factors can explain these associations and interactions. METHODS: We used data from 13,027 genotyped participants from the Lifelines study...
April 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Ganga S Bey, Molly E Waring, Bill M Jesdale, Sharina D Person
Chronic stress stemming from social inequity has long been recognized as a risk factor for poor physical and psychological health, yet challenges remain in uncovering the mechanisms through which such exposures affect health outcomes and lead to racial and gender health disparities. Examination of sociocultural influences on group identity, coping, and the expression of stress may yield relevant insight into potential pathways of inequity's effect on risk for chronic disease. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic stress as measured by allostatic load (AL) and depression by gendered race group...
2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The potential interactive or combined association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and dietary behavior with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has yet to be explored in a representative sample of US adults. Thus, the study aim was to examine the association of MVPA and dietary behavior on AIP, with potential mediation considerations by central adiposity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2701 adults aged 20-85 years)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K C Prakash, Subas Neupane, Päivi Leino-Arjas, Mikaela B von Bonsdorff, Taina Rantanen, Monika E von Bonsdorff, Jorma Seitsamo, Juhani Ilmarinen, Clas-Håkan Nygård
We investigated how work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predicted back and degenerative musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs). A total of 6,257 employees participated in the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Aging Municipal Employees (FLAME) in 1981 and were followed up for 28 years. Risk ratios and the relative excessive risk due to interaction and 95% confidence intervals were modeled for separate and joint prediction estimates, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, job strain predicted degenerative MSDs among women after 4 and 11 years of follow-up...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Seong-Sik Cho, Young-Su Ju, Domyung Paek, Hyunjoo Kim, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. METHODS: We analyzed employees' data obtained from the 3rd Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and post-estimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Akihito Hagihara, Daisuke Onozuka, Junko Ono, Takashi Nagata, Manabu Hasegawa
AIM: Early biphasic defibrillation is effective in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases. In the resuscitation of patients with OHCA, it is not clear how the defibrillation waveform interacts with the time to defibrillation to influence patient survival. The second, and any subsequent, shocks need to be administered by an on-line physician in Japan. Thus, we investigated the interaction between the defibrillation waveform and time to or the number of defibrillation on resuscitation outcomes...
January 2018: Resuscitation
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