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Relative excess risk due to interaction

Arvid Sjölander
Measures of causal effects play a central role in epidemiology. A wide range of measures exist, which are designed to give relevant answers to substantive epidemiological research questions. However, due to mathematical convenience and software limitations most studies only report odds ratios for binary outcomes and hazard ratios for time-to-event outcomes. In this paper we show how logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards regression models can be used to estimate a wide range of causal effect measures, with the R-package stdReg...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Jihye Kim, Peter Kraft, Kaitlin A Hagan, Laura B Harrington, Sara Lindstroem, Christopher Kabrhel
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable. Physical activity, physical inactivity and body mass index (BMI) are also risk factors, but evidence of interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors is limited. METHODS: Data on 2,134 VTE cases and 3,890 matched controls were obtained from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with VTE risk in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS)...
March 8, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anping Cai, Jiawei Zhang, Rui Wang, Jiyan Chen, Bixia Huang, Yingling Zhou, Ling Wang
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and resistant hypertension (RHTN) are two major risk factors of chronic heart failure (CHF) and limited information is available about the joint effects of OSA and RHTN on CHF. METHODS: Baseline data of participants who had completed polysomnography were used in the current study. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) were calculated, and RERI >0 or AP >0 indicates joint effect of OSA and RHTN on CHF is greater than the sum of estimated effects of OSA alone and RHTN alone...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Shinje Moon, Hyung-Joon Yoo, You-Hern Ahn, Gheun-Ho Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Joon-Sung Park
The association of mild increase in urinary albumin excretion with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in clinical studies is controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between increased glycemic exposure and mild increase in urinary albumin excretion on risk of DR.Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012. Overall, data from 953 participants without microalbuminuria (477 men and 476 women) were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was constructed to evaluate the association between DR and related clinical parameters, including urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR, mg/g creatinine)...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
J Hermansson, J Hallqvist, B Karlsson, A Knutsson, K Gillander Gådin
Background: Shift work has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is a need for more studies to determine whether there is an interaction between shift work and other risk factors of CVD, thereby increasing the risk of CVD in shift workers. Aims: To discern whether shift work and parental mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) or sudden cardiac death (SCD) interact to increase the risk of MI in men. Methods: A case-control dataset was used to assess interaction between shift work and parental history of CVD, using death from MI or SCD, or death before age 65, on an additive scale...
February 10, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Sander K R van Zon, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Peter J van der Most, Morris A Swertz, Ute Bültmann, Harold Snieder
OBJECTIVE: A strong genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may aggravate the negative effects of low socioeconomic position (SEP) in the etiology of the disorder. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations and interactions of a genetic risk score (GRS) and SEP with T2DM, and to investigate whether clinical and behavioral risk factors can explain these associations and interactions. METHODS: We used data from 13,027 genotyped participants from the Lifelines study...
January 29, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Ganga S Bey, Molly E Waring, Bill M Jesdale, Sharina D Person
Chronic stress stemming from social inequity has long been recognized as a risk factor for poor physical and psychological health, yet challenges remain in uncovering the mechanisms through which such exposures affect health outcomes and lead to racial and gender health disparities. Examination of sociocultural influences on group identity, coping, and the expression of stress may yield relevant insight into potential pathways of inequity's effect on risk for chronic disease. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic stress as measured by allostatic load (AL) and depression by gendered race group...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The potential interactive or combined association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and dietary behavior with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has yet to be explored in a representative sample of US adults. Thus, the study aim was to examine the association of MVPA and dietary behavior on AIP, with potential mediation considerations by central adiposity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2701 adults aged 20-85 years)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K C Prakash, Subas Neupane, Päivi Leino-Arjas, Mikaela B von Bonsdorff, Taina Rantanen, Monika E von Bonsdorff, Jorma Seitsamo, Juhani Ilmarinen, Clas-Håkan Nygård
We investigated how work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predicted back and degenerative musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs). A total of 6,257 employees participated in the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Aging Municipal Employees (FLAME) in 1981 and were followed up for 28 years. Risk ratios and the relative excessive risk due to interaction and 95% confidence intervals were modeled for separate and joint prediction estimates, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, job strain predicted degenerative MSDs among women after 4 and 11 years of follow-up...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Seong-Sik Cho, Young-Su Ju, Domyung Paek, Hyunjoo Kim, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. METHODS: We analyzed employees' data obtained from the 3rd Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and post-estimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Akihito Hagihara, Daisuke Onozuka, Junko Ono, Takashi Nagata, Manabu Hasegawa
AIM: Early biphasic defibrillation is effective in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases. In the resuscitation of patients with OHCA, it is not clear how the defibrillation waveform interacts with the time to defibrillation to influence patient survival. The second, and any subsequent, shocks need to be administered by an on-line physician in Japan. Thus, we investigated the interaction between the defibrillation waveform and time to or the number of defibrillation on resuscitation outcomes...
January 2018: Resuscitation
Kangmin Yang, Han-Bing Deng, Andy W C Man, Erfei Song, Jialiang Zhang, Cuiting Luo, Bernard M Y Cheung, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Pia Søndergaard Jensen, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Atlanta G I M Elie, Paul M Vanhoutte, Aimin Xu, Jo G R De Mey, Yu Wang
AIMS: Lipocalin-2 is a pro-inflammatory molecule characterized by a highly diversified pattern of expression and structure-functional relationships. In vivo, this molecule exists as multiple variants due to post-translational modifications and/or protein-protein interactions. Lipocalin-2 is modified by polyamination, which enhances the clearance of this protein from the circulation and prevents its excessive accumulation in tissues. On the other hand, animal studies suggest that non-polyaminated lipocalin-2 (npLcn2) plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated medical complications...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
Maxwell M Tran, Diana L Lefebvre, Christoffer Dharma, David Dai, Wendy Y W Lou, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears
BACKGROUND: The atopic march describes the progression from atopic dermatitis during infancy to asthma and allergic rhinitis in later childhood. In a Canadian birth cohort we investigated whether concomitant allergic sensitization enhances subsequent development of these allergic diseases at age 3 years. METHODS: Children completed skin prick testing at age 1 year. Children were considered sensitized if they produced a wheal 2 mm or larger than that elicited by the negative control to any of 10 inhalant or food allergens...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Xiaoyu Tian, Cuili Wang, Xiaoxia Qiao, Na Liu, Lijuan Dong, Mary Butler, Huaxin Si, Yaru Jin
Pain and frailty are both prevalent and have severe health impacts among older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study to examine the association between pain and frailty, and depression as a mediator and its interaction with pain on frailty among 1788 Chinese community-dwelling older adults. Physical frailty, pain intensity and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Frailty Phenotype, the revised Faces Pain Scale (FPS-R), and the 5-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5), respectively...
November 13, 2017: Pain
Yuan Zhou, Ming Chen, Steve Simpson, Robyn M Lucas, Jac C Charlesworth, Nicholas Blackburn, Ingrid van der Mei, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Bruce V Taylor
Despite extensive studies focusing on the changes in expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to healthy controls, few studies have evaluated the association of genetic variants of miRNAs with MS clinical course. We investigated whether a functional polymorphism in the MS associated miR-146a gene predicted clinical course (hazard of conversion to MS and of relapse, and annualized change in disability), using a longitudinal cohort study of persons with a first demyelinating event followed up to their 5-year review...
November 10, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Yanfeng Ren, Qian Ren, Juming Lu, Xiaohui Guo, Xiaoxu Huo, Linong Ji, Xilin Yang
BACKGROUND: There are inconsistent findings regarding associations between triglyceride levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to test whether the association between triglycerides and CVD depends upon duration of diabetes. METHODS: From April 1, 2012, to June 30, 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 223 612 patients with T2DM from 630 hospitals in China. Cardiovascular disease was defined as having either prior coronary heart disease or stroke, or diabetic foot...
February 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Jing Li, Yingying Luo, Xiaohui Guo, Xiaoxu Huo, Juming Lu, Yanfeng Ren, Linong Ji, Xilin Yang
AIMS: To investigate the risk of Chinese females versus males for non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) due to long exposure to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: 223,612 Chinese patients with T2DM were recruited from China in 2012. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) of females versus males for non-fatal CHD. Additive interaction was used to test whether female gender and long exposure to T2DM (≥15 years) had a synergistic effect for non-fatal CHD...
October 29, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Thomas Burgoine, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Nita G Forouhi, Simon J Griffin, Søren Brage, Nicholas J Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
U.S. policy initiatives have sought to improve health through attracting neighborhood supermarket investment. Little evidence exists to suggest that these policies will be effective, in particular where there are socioeconomic barriers to healthy eating. We measured the independent associations and combined interplay of supermarket access and socioeconomic status with obesity. Using data on 9702 UK adults, we employed adjusted regression analyses to estimate measured BMI (kg/m²), overweight (25 ≥ BMI < 30) and obesity (≥30), across participants' highest educational attainment (three groups) and tertiles of street network distance (km) from home location to nearest supermarket...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Frank G Shellock, Armaan Zare, Brian M Ilfeld, John Chae, Robert B Strother
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an FDA-cleared pain treatment. Occasionally, fragments of the lead (MicroLead, SPR Therapeutics, LLC, Cleveland, OH, USA) may be retained following lead removal. Since the lead is metallic, there are associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) risks. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate MRI-related issues (i.e., magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts) for various lead fragments. METHODS: Testing was conducted using standardized techniques on lead fragments of different lengths (i...
October 23, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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