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Luciano Rogério Braatz de Andrade, Roberto Fritsche Neto, Ítalo Stefanine Correia Granato, Gustavo César Sant'Ana, Pedro Patric Pinho Morais, Aluízio Borém
A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection...
2016: PloS One
Steven M Grodsky, Christopher E Moorman, Sarah R Fritts, Steven B Castleberry, T Bently Wigley
Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands...
2016: PloS One
Mohamed Osman, Rajesh Paleti, Sabyasachee Mishra, Mihalis M Golias
Work zones are critical parts of the transportation infrastructure renewal process consisting of rehabilitation of roadways, maintenance, and utility work. Given the specific nature of a work zone (complex arrangements of traffic control devices and signs, narrow lanes, duration) a number of crashes occur with varying severities involving different vehicle sizes. In this paper we attempt to investigate the causal factors contributing to injury severity of large truck crashes in work zones. Considering the discrete nature of injury severity categories, a number of comparable econometric models were developed including multinomial logit (MNL), nested logit (NL), ordered logit (ORL), and generalized ordered logit (GORL) models...
October 22, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
K E Hargan, N Michelutti, K Coleman, C Grooms, J M Blais, L E Kimpe, G Gilchrist, M Mallory, J P Smol
Seabirds that congregate in large numbers during the breeding season concentrate marine-derived nutrients to their terrestrial nesting sites, and these nutrients disperse and enhance production in nearby terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the Canadian Arctic, large seabird colonies (>100,000 breeding pairs) nest on cliff faces that drain directly in the ocean, ultimately returning the nutrients back to the marine environment from which they were derived. However, strong winds blowing up cliff faces could transport nutrients up in elevation and onto surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
David M Vock, Michael T Durheim, Wayne M Tsuang, C Ashley Finlen Copeland, Anastasios A Tsiatis, Marie Davidian, Megan L Neely, David J Lederer, Scott M Palmer
RATIONALE: Lung transplantation is an accepted and increasingly employed treatment for advanced lung diseases, but the anticipated survival benefit of lung transplantation is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether and for which patients lung transplantation confers a survival benefit in the modern era of US lung allocation. METHODS: Data on 13040 adults listed for lung transplantation between May 2005 and September 2011 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing...
October 25, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
B Joel Tjarks, Najwa Somani, Melissa Piliang, Wilma F Bergfeld
BACKGROUND: Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. METHODS: We conducted a search of our archives over a 24 year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric, AND melanoma. RESULTS: We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Saturnin Bertrand Nguenda Anya, Atanase Yene
This paper seeks to identify the determinants of the choice of treatment of pregnant women in Cameroon. Theoretically, the methodology is based on a discrete choice model with random utility. Empirically, the econometric specification is a Nested Multinomial Logit Model. The data used comes from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) organized in 2011 by the National Institute of Statistics. The results reveal that uneducated women or those having only a primary education prefer to meet the traditional midwives than seek modern maternal health services...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
Chimoné S Dalton, Karen van de Rakt, Åsa Fahlman, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Peter Neuhaus, Richard Popko, Susan Kutz, Frank van der Meer
Herpesviruses (HVs) have a wide range of hosts in the animal kingdom. The result of infection with HVs can vary from asymptomatic to fatal diseases depending on subtype, strain, and host. To date, little is known about HVs naturally circulating in wildlife species and the impact of these viruses on other species. In our study, we used genetic and comparative approaches to increase our understanding of circulating HVs in Canadian wildlife. Using nested polymerase chain reaction targeting a conserved region of the HV DNA polymerase gene, we analyzed material derived from wildlife of western and northern Canada collected between February 2009 and Sept 2014...
October 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
Benoît Geslin, Violette Le Féon, Morgane Folschweiller, Floriane Flacher, David Carmignac, Eric Motard, Samuel Perret, Isabelle Dajoz
Given the predicted expansion of cities throughout the world, understanding the effect of urbanization on bee fauna is a major issue for the conservation of bees. The aim of this study was to understand how urbanization affects wild bee assemblages along a gradient of impervious surfaces and to determine the influence of landscape composition and floral resource availability on these assemblages. We chose 12 sites with a proportion of impervious surfaces (soil covered by parking, roads, and buildings) ranging from 0...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Leila Sabrina Ullmann, Ramiro das Neves Dias-Neto, Didier Quevedo Cagnini, Ricardo Seiti Yamatogi, Jose Paes Oliveira-Filho, Viviane Nemer, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira, Alexander Welker Biondo, João Pessoa Araújo
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium is an important zoonotic agent with companion, livestock and wildlife animals reportedly playing a role as reservoirs. Although its association with reptiles has been described, the disease cycle remains to be fully established, particularly in snakes. Accordingly, this study aimed to report the occurrence of mycobacteriosis with clinical pneumonia in one exotic python snake (Python molurus) and one native green snake (Philodryas olfersii) from the Sorocaba Zoo, São Paulo state, Brazil...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Pooja Negi, Archana N Rai, Penna Suprasanna
The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eric K S Shim, Gleen F Chandra, S Pedireddy, Soo-Y Lee
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is made from the glutinous salivary secretion of highly concentrated mucin glycoprotein by swiftlets (genus Aerodramus or Collocalia) native to the Indo-Pacific region. The unique Raman spectrum of EBN has vibrational lines that can be assigned to peptides and saccharides in the glycoprotein, and it can be used to screen for adulteration. The common edible adulterants classified into two types. Type I adulterants, such as fish bladder, pork skin, karaya gum, coralline seaweed, agar strips, and tremella fungus, were solids which adhered externally on the surface of the EBN cement...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Chao Gong, Xuehan Liu, Xiangming Huang, Li Xiao, Ruoxuan Zhao, Wuyou Wang, Fan Feng, Yue Zhang, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Min He, Yue Zhang, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent causative species of diarrhea and enteric diseases in various hosts. E. bieneusi has been identified in humans, mammals, birds, rodents and reptiles in China, but few studies have reported E. bieneusi in horses. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, molecular characteristics and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. FINDINGS: Three hundred and thirty-three fecal specimens were collected from horses on five farms in the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of southwestern China...
October 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mei Chung, Alice M Tang, Zhuxuan Fu, Ding Ding Wang, Sydne Jennifer Newberry
Background: Conflicting evidence exists regarding potential cardiovascular risks associated with high levels of calcium intake. Purpose: To update and reanalyze 2 systematic reviews to examine the effects of calcium intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among generally healthy adults. Data Sources: MEDLINE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Scopus, including EMBASE; and previous evidence reports from English-language publications from 1966 to July 2016...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Sapna M Amin, Alexandra M Haugh, Christina Y Lee, Bin Zhang, Jeffrey A Bubley, Emily A Merkel, Anna Elisa Verzì, Pedram Gerami
Recent studies have identified translocations involving the kinase domains of ALK, NTRK1, BRAF, RET, and ROS in spitzoid neoplasms. Subsequent studies have also characterized morphologic features corresponding to ALK and NTRK1 translocations. In this study, we sought to further compare morphologic features across a range of 49 genetically defined spitzoid neoplasms with ALK, NTRK1, BRAF, or RET fusions to determine discriminating features. We also compared them with a group of 22 spitzoid neoplasms, which were confirmed to be negative for fusions in ALK, NTRK1, BRAF, and RET...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Kerry Ard, Cynthia Colen, Marisol Becerra, Thelma Velez
This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elie A Saade, Nuntra Suwantarat, Trina F Zabarsky, Brigid Wilson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an increasingly common complication of transrectal biopsy of the prostate (TBP) in the United States. A better understanding of the magnitude and scope of these infections is needed to guide prevention efforts. Our objective is to determine whether the incidence of infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after TBP has increased nationwide in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and to identify risk factors for infection...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
V Reyes-García, A L Balbo, E Gomez-Baggethun, M Gueze, A Mesoudi, P Richerson, X Rubio-Campillo, I Ruiz-Mallén, S Shennan
Cultural adaptation has become central in the context of accelerated global change with authors increasingly acknowledging the importance of understanding multilevel processes that operate as adaptation takes place. We explore the importance of multilevel processes in explaining cultural adaptation by describing how processes leading to cultural (mis)adaptation are linked through a complex nested hierarchy, where the lower levels combine into new units with new organizations, functions, and emergent properties or collective behaviours...
December 2016: Ecology and Society: a Journal of Integrative Science for Resilience and Sustainability
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Ping Li, Chuang Liu, Li Zhang, Shili Zheng, Yi Zhang
MgO nanosheets with high adsorption performance were fabricated by an ultrasonic method. It was revealed that, nest-like MgO was formed from the magnesium salt solution precipitation and further calcination. Then the nest-like MgO was exfoliated by ultrasonic waves to obtain MgO nanosheets with approximately a lateral of 200-600nm and a thickness of 10nm. Adjusting the ultrasonic time and power, the specific surface areas of MgO nanosheets could be tuned in a range of 79-168m(2)/g. The synthesized MgO nanosheets were used as adsorbents to remove boron from aqueous solution, and the maximum boron adsorption capacity of these MgO nanosheets reached 87mgg(-1)...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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