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Neonatal pain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106669/translational-studies-identify-long-term-impact-of-prior-neonatal-pain-experience
#1
Suellen M Walker
Pain sensitivity and risk of chronic pain can be influenced by past experience. Childhood stress/adversity has been associated with chronic pain, mood disorders, and altered disease vulnerability decades later. As the rate of preterm birth and survival at earlier gestational ages increases, and advances in peri-operative care and surgery allow more complex surgical interventions to be performed in neonates, evaluation of treatment 'success' must extend beyond acute morbidity and mortality to encompass effects on subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome, and also sensory, cognitive and behavioral responses to pain in later life...
January 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103319/an-hsv-2-trivalent-vaccine-is-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques-and-highly-efficacious-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S Veazey, Harvey M Friedman
A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101779/randomized-controlled-trial-of-topical-emla-and-vapocoolant-spray-for-reducing-pain-during-wdpt-vaccination
#3
Navratan Kumar Gupta, Amit Upadhyay, Ajeet Kumar Dwivedi, Astha Agarwal, Vijay Jaiswal, Abhishek Singh
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular vaccination is among the most common source of iatrogenic pain in infants. Vapocoolant sprays are rapid-acting alternative to topical anesthetics. They provide transient anesthesia via evaporation induced skin cooling, and reduce pain due to vaccine injection in children and adults. The objective was to compare the synergistic analgesic effect of eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) with breastfeeding (EB group) and vapocoolant spay with breastfeeding (VB group) to that of only breastfeeding (BO group) during whole cell diptheria, pertussis and tetanus (wDPT) vaccination...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093274/a-direct-quantitative-pcr-based-measurement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-susceptibility-to-antiviral-drugs-and-neutralizing-antibodies
#4
Dezső P Virók, Ildikó Eszik, Tímea Mosolygó, Kamil Önder, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. HSV growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for quantitation of HSV DNA related to virus replication; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, namely the requirement of purification of DNA from the infected cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092724/the-pediatric-rome-iv-criteria-what-s-new
#5
Ilan J N Koppen, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Marc A Benninga
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children of all ages and comprise of a wide range of conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be attributed to structural or biochemical abnormalities. FGIDs are diagnosed according to the symptom-based Rome criteria. Areas covered: In 2016, the revised pediatric Rome IV criteria were published, these revised criteria are discussed in this review article. For the youngest age group (neonates/toddlers), the criteria for infant colic have undergone the most notable revisions...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052282/changes-in-intestinal-motility-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-a-rat-stress-model
#6
Takaaki Murakami, Kazuhiro Kamada, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuki Higashimura, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes chronic abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements. The etiology involves complicated interactions among visceral hypersensitivity, disorders related to bowel movements, and stress. Changes in the microbiota affect the IBS pathophysiology. We investigated changes in colorectal motility, structure, and microbiota in response to stress due to maternal separation (MS) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administration in rats. SUMMARY: Neonatal rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND14...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051876/efficacy-of-breastfeeding-on-babies-pain-during-vaccinations
#7
Münevver Erkul, Emine Efe
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled experimental study was to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on the pain of babies during vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample of the study consisted of 100 babies who complied with the sampling criteria between July and November 2012. The babies breastfed from their mothers 5 minutes before, during, and after the vaccine injections. The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), duration of crying, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were evaluated before, during, and after the vaccine injections...
January 4, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051052/acute-neonatal-parotid-abscess-a-rare-case-report
#8
Shreesh Kolekar, Tejas S Chincholi, Ashok Kshirsagar, Narendra Porwal
Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment.
October 2016: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050912/conflicts-of-conscience-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Natalie J Ford, Wendy Austin
BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge of the experiences of conflicts of conscience found in nursing literature. OBJECTIVES: To explore the individual experiences of a conflict of conscience for neonatal nurses in Alberta. RESEARCH DESIGN: Interpretive description was selected to help situate the findings in a meaningful clinical context. Participants and research context: Five interviews with neonatal nurses working in Neonatal Intensive Care Units throughout Alberta...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049028/morphine-exposure-during-early-life-alters-thermal-and-mechanical-thresholds-in-rats
#10
Ellen A Nunes, Liciane Fernandes Medeiros, Joice Soares de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Macedo, Jonnsin Kuo, Andressa de Souza, Joanna Rippol Rozisky, Wolnei Caumo, Iraci L S Torres
BACKGROUND: Morphine is an opioid analgesic used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain, including pain in neonates at the intensive care unit. In our previous study, we showed that repeated morphine exposure during early life could trigger long-lasting implications on the developing nervous system, such as long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations in adult rats. AIMS: The aim of our study was to determine the short-, intermediate-, and long-term effects of repeated morphine administration during early life on the thermal and mechanical thresholds and on the central levels (cerebral cortex and brainstem) of neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]) and cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-10)...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005272/prophylactic-versus-selective-blood-transfusion-for-sickle-cell-disease-in-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
Babasola O Okusanya, Olufemi T Oladapo
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with sickle cell disease (HbSS, HbSC and HbSβThal) may require blood transfusion to prevent severe anaemia or to manage potential medical complications. Preventive blood transfusion in the absence of complications starting from the early weeks of pregnancy or blood transfusion only for medical or obstetric indications have been used as management policies. There is currently no consensus on the blood transfusion policy that guarantees optimal clinical benefits with minimal risks for such women and their babies...
22, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999970/oral-30-glucose-provides-sufficient-sedation-in-newborns-during-mri
#12
H Evren Eker, Oya Yalcin Cok, Bilin Çetinkaya, Anis Aribogan
PURPOSE: Newborns are often sedated during MRI but sedation itself creates adverse events and management is more challenging in this environment. Oral glucose/sucrose administration has been studied in newborns during painful procedures; however, its effectiveness in keeping newborns sleepy and motionlessness during painless procedures has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to describe effectiveness of oral 30% glucose administration by comparing with intravenous midazolam sedation for newborns during MRI...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989326/pediatric-pain-measurement-assessment-and-evaluation
#13
REVIEW
Renee C B Manworren, Jennifer Stinson
Assessment provides the foundation for diagnosis, selection of treatments, and evaluation of treatment effectiveness for pediatric patients with acute, recurrent, and chronic pain. Extensive research has resulted in the availability of a number of valid, reliable, and recommended tools for assessing children's pain. Yet, evidence suggests children's pain is still not optimally measured or treated. In this article, we provide an overview of pain evaluation for premature neonates to adolescents. The difference between pain assessment and measurement is highlighted; and the key steps to follow are identified...
August 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987366/when-alternative-female-kangaroo-care-is-provided-by-other-immediate-postpartum-mothers-it-reduces-post-procedural-pain-in-preterm-babies-more-than-swaddling
#14
Jitendranath Murmu, Kannan Venkatnarayan, Rajeev Kumar Thapar, Shubash Chandra Shaw, Shamsher Singh Dalal
AIM: Research on alternative female Kangaroo care (KC) has been hampered by high maternal refusal rates. We assessed the efficacy of Kangaroo mother care (KMC), alternative KC provided by other postpartum mothers and swaddling for post procedural pain relief in preterm babies. METHODS: The study was carried out in a tertiary armed forces hospital, where mothers did not have support from other female relatives and other postpartum mothers agreed to act as alternative female KC providers...
December 17, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986905/sweet-solutions-to-reduce-procedural-pain-in-neonates-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Denise Harrison, Catherine Larocque, Mariana Bueno, Yehudis Stokes, Lucy Turner, Brian Hutton, Bonnie Stevens
CONTEXT: Abundant evidence of sweet taste analgesia in neonates exists, yet placebo-controlled trials continue to be conducted. OBJECTIVE: To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes. DATA SOURCES: (1) Data from 2 systematic reviews of sweet solutions for newborns; (2) searches ending 2015 of CINAHL, Medline, Embase, and psychINFO. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors screened studies for inclusion, conducted risk-of-bias ratings, and extracted behavioral outcome data for CMAs...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984250/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-music-use-during-epidural-catheter-placement-on-laboring-parturient-anxiety-pain-and-satisfaction
#16
Dan M Drzymalski, Lawrence C Tsen, Arvind Palanisamy, Jie Zhou, Chuan-Chin Huang, Bhavani S Kodali
BACKGROUND: Although music is frequently used to promote a relaxing environment during labor and delivery, the effect of its use during the placement of neuraxial techniques is unknown. Our study sought to determine the effects of music use on laboring parturients during epidural catheter placement, with the hypothesis that music use would result in lower anxiety, lower pain, and greater patient satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of laboring parturients undergoing epidural catheter placement with or without music...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977013/acupuncture-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-using-ancient-medicine-to-help-today-s-babies-a-review
#17
K L Chen, I Quah-Smith, G M Schmölzer, R Niemtzow, J L Oei
Acupuncture has been used for thousands of years in Eastern medicine for a variety of conditions and illnesses, including pain. Neonatal intensive care, on the other hand, is a relatively new branch of medicine that has emerged as the pivotal influence in increasing survival of critically ill newborn infants only within the last 50 years. Unfortunately, pain is an inevitable part of treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The control and prevention of pain remains a major issue for clinicians despite recognition and understanding of the myriad of short- and long-term problems that are associated with both pain and its treatment within the NICU environment...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976523/neonatal-maternal-deprivation-enhances-presynaptic-p2x7-receptor-transmission-in-insular-cortex-in-an-adult-rat-model-of-visceral-hypersensitivity
#18
Ping-An Zhang, Qiya Xu, Lu Xue, Hang Zheng, Jun Yan, Ying Xiao, Guang-Yin Xu
AIMS: Insular cortex (IC) is involved in processing the information of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate roles and mechanisms of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in IC in development of visceral hypersensitivity of adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD). METHODS: Visceral hypersensitivity was quantified by abdominal withdrawal reflex threshold to colorectal distension (CRD). Expression of P2X7Rs was determined by qPCR and Western blot. Synaptic transmission in IC was recorded by patch-clamp recording...
December 15, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969048/oral-glucose-efficacy-on-neonate-s-pain-responses-at-the-nicu-a-quasi-experimental-trial-of-two-clinical-procedures
#19
Eman M Matar, Diana H Arabiat, Mandie J Foster
AIM: This research was undertaken with the purpose of testing two research hypotheses regarding the efficacy of 10% oral glucose solution on procedural pain associated with venepuncture and nasopharyngeal suctioning within three neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The hypotheses were formulated from previous conclusions reached by other researchers highlighting the efficacy of sucrose solutions on neonates' pain responses during minor painful procedures. METHOD: A quasi-experimental trial utilising a time series design with one group was used...
November 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966656/neonatal-repetitive-pain-in-rats-leads-to-impaired-spatial-learning-and-dysregulated-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-in-later-life
#20
Mengying Chen, Dongqing Xia, Cuiting Min, Xiaoke Zhao, Yinhua Chen, Li Liu, Xiaonan Li
Preterm birth is a major health issue. As part of their life-saving care, most preterm infants require hospitalization and are inevitably exposed to repetitive skin-breaking procedures. The long-term effects of neonatal repetitive pain on cognitive and emotional behaviors involving hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in young and adult rats are unknown. From P8 to P85, mechanical hypersensitivity of the bilateral hindpaws was observed in the Needle group (P < 0.001). Compared with the Tactile group, the Needle group took longer to find the platform on P30 than on P29 (P = 0...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
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