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Nano medicine

Carlos Cardoso-Palacios, Ingela Lanekoff
Counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs imply an increasing threat to the global public health. It is necessary to have systems to control the products that reach the market and to detect falsified medicines. In this work, molecules in several pharmaceutical tablets were directly analyzed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS). Nano-DESI is an ambient surface sampling technique which enables sampling of molecules directly from the surface of the tablets without any sample pretreatment...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Anandram Venkatasubramanian, Vincent T K Sauer, Swapan K Roy, Mike Xia, David S Wishart, Wayne K Hiebert
Micro-Gas Chromatography (GC) is promising for portable chemical analysis. We demonstrate a nano-optomechanical system (NOMS) as an ultrasensitive mass detector in gas chromatography. Bare, native oxide, silicon surfaces are sensitive enough to monitor volatile organic compounds at ppm levels, while simultaneously demonstrating chemical selectivity. The NOMS is able to sense GC peaks from derivatized metabolites at physiological concentrations. This is an important milestone for small-molecule quantitation assays in next generation metabolite analyses for applications such as disease diagnosis and personalized medicine...
October 17, 2016: Nano Letters
Kevin M Koo, Eugene J H Wee, Paul N Mainwaring, Yuling Wang, Matt Trau
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease which manifests as different molecular subtypes due to the complex nature of tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The concept of precision medicine aims to exploit this cancer heterogeneity by incorporating diagnostic technology to characterize each cancer patient's molecular subtype for tailored treatments. To characterize cancer molecular subtypes accurately, a suite of multiplexed bioassays have currently been developed to detect multiple oncogenic biomarkers. Despite the reliability of current multiplexed detection techniques, novel strategies are still needed to resolve limitations such as long assay time, complex protocols, and difficulty in interpreting broad overlapping spectral peaks of conventional fluorescence readouts...
September 26, 2016: Small
Cherie R Kagan, Laura E Fernandez, Yury Gogotsi, Paula T Hammond, Mark C Hersam, André E Nel, Reginald M Penner, C Grant Willson, Paul S Weiss
Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to contribute to a wide range of fields, from health and medicine to electronics, energy, security, and more. These contributions come both directly in the form of new materials, interfaces, tools, and even properties as well as indirectly by connecting fields together. We celebrate how far we have come, and here, we look at what is to come over the next decade that will leverage the strong and growing base that we have built in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
October 7, 2016: ACS Nano
Farah H Amro, Hind N Moussa, Olaide A Ashimi, Baha M Sibai
Hypertensive disorders have become increasingly prevalent and complicate an increasing number of pregnancies. Therefore it is essential that the medications used to treat these disorders be well understood. Furthermore the management is complicated by special consideration needed for the physiologic changes of pregnancy as well as the consideration for possible adverse fetal effects. Areas covered: We performed a review of the scientific literature of medications used to treat hypertensive disorders in pregnancy...
October 11, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Narendran Rajendran, Shankar Subramaniam, Mamilla R Charan Raja, Pemaiah Brindha, Santanu Kar Mahapatra, Aravind Sivasubramanian
The present study portrays the isolation of four phenylpropanoids - ferulic acid (FA), sinapic acid (SA), caffeic acid (CA), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) from the water extract of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort, a phytochemically less explored Indian medicinal plant. Further, synthesis and characterization of silver and gold nanoparticles using the isolated phenylpropanoids were done. The silver nanoparticles synthesized from S. maritima water extract along with silver nano-conjugated forms of the isolated compounds exhibited appreciable anti-leukemic activity against K562 cells (human myeloid leukemia)...
September 28, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
H Ashrafi, M Shariyat
INTRODUCTION: Nano-indentation has recently been employed as a powerful tool for determining the mechanical properties of biological tissues on nano and micro scales. A majority of soft biological tissues such as ligaments and tendons exhibit viscoelastic or time-dependent behaviors. The constitutive characterization of soft tissues is among very important subjects in clinical medicine and especially, biomechanics fields. Periodontal ligament plays an important role in initiating tooth movement when loads are applied to teeth with orthodontic appliances...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
May Griffith, Mohammad M Islam, Joel Edin, Georgia Papapavlou, Oleksiy Buznyk, Hirak K Patra
Biomaterials are now being used or evaluated clinically as implants to supplement the severe shortage of available human donor organs. To date, however, such implants have mainly been developed as scaffolds to promote the regeneration of failing organs due to old age or congenital malformations. In the real world, however, infection or immunological issues often compromise patients. For example, bacterial and viral infections can result in uncontrolled immunopathological damage and lead to organ failure. Hence, there is a need for biomaterials and implants that not only promote regeneration but also address issues that are specific to compromised patients, such as infection and inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Dong-Mei Zhang, Li-Xing Feng, Lu Li, Miao Liu, Bao-Hong Jiang, Min Yang, Guo-Qiang Li, Wan-Ying Wu, De-An Guo, Xuan Liu
The sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as male impotency. To gain a comprehensive insight into the protein components of the sea dragon, shotgun proteomic analysis of its protein expression profiling was conducted in the present study. Proteins were extracted from dried sea dragon using a trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation method and then separated by SDS-PAGE. The protein bands were cut from the gel and digested by trypsin to generate peptide mixture...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Amit Alexander, Ajazuddin, Ravish J Patel, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf
Application of pharmaceutical nanotechnology (nanomedicines) for plant actives and extracts, is gaining a tremendous growth and interest among the scientists. This emerging herbal revolution has headed towards the development of another approaches for the delivery of poorly soluble herbal bioactives and plant extracts for enhancing their bioavailability and efficacy. In the same context, a majority of pharmaceutical nanotechnologies and targeting strategies including phytosomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, microspheres, transferosomes and ethosomes, self nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS), self micro emulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) has been applied for the delivery of bioactives and plant extracts and were identified and explored...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Enrique A Daza, Santosh K Misra, Aaron S Schwartz-Duval, Ayako Ohoka, Callie Miller, Dipanjan Pan
The use of cesium chloride (CsCl) for cancer therapy ("high pH therapy") has been theorized to produce anticancer properties by raising intracellular pH to induce apoptosis. Although considered as "alternative medicine", little scientific evidence supports this theory. Alternatively, cells have no cesium ion (Cs(+)) mediated channels for clearance. Thus, such unstable electrochemical distributions have the severe potential to disrupt electrochemical dependent cellular processes, such as glucose cotransporters...
October 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chiara Lico, Paola Giardullo, Mariateresa Mancuso, Eugenio Benvenuto, Luca Santi, Selene Baschieri
Self-assembling plant virus nanoparticles (pVNPs) have started to be explored as nanometre-sized objects for biomedical applications, such as vaccine or drug delivery and imaging. Plant VNPs may be ideal tools in terms of biocompatibility and biodegradability endowed with a wide diversity of symmetries and dimensions, easy chemical/biological engineering, and rapid production in plants. Recently, we defined that icosahedral Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and filamentous Potato virus X (PVX) are neither toxic nor teratogenic...
September 14, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Wei Zhang, Sanjay Garg, Preethi Eldi, Fiona Huan-Huan Zhou, Ian R D Johnson, Doug A Brooks, Frankie Lam, Grigori Rychkov, John Hayball, Hugo Albrecht
In recent years G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as crucial tumorigenic factors that drive aberrant cancer growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Consequently, a number of GPCRs are strongly expressed in cancer derived cell lines and tissue samples. Therefore a rational anti-cancer strategy is the design of nano-medicines that specifically target GPCRs to bind and internalise cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells. Herein, we report the genetic engineering of a self-assembling nanoparticle based on elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), which has been fused with gastrin releasing peptide (GRP)...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Baiyan Sui, Gaoren Zhong, Jiao Sun
Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) nanospheres with excellent drug loading property have attracted significant attention in the field of nano-medicine. However, systemic metabolism and biosafety of MBG nanospheres which are crucial issues for clinical application are yet to be fully understood. Isotope quantitative tracing combined with biochemical parameters and histopatological changes were used to analyze biodistribution, excretion path and the effect on metabolism and major organs, and then we focused on the hepatocellular location and damaging effect of MBG...
2016: Scientific Reports
Harivardhan Reddy Lakkireddy, Didier Bazile
The design of the first polymeric nanoparticles could be traced back to the 1970s, and has thereafter received considerable attention, as evidenced by the significant increase of articles and patents. This review article is an attempt to take advantage of the existing literature on the clinically tested and commercialized biodegradable PLA(G)A-PEG nanotechnology as a model to propose quality building and outline translation and development principles (quality by design) for polymeric nano-medicines. We built such an approach from various building blocks including material design, nano-assembly - i...
September 1, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Jayan Ozhikandathil, Simona Badilescu, Muthukumaran Packirisamy
Lab-on-chip technology is attracting great interest due to its potential as miniaturized devices that can automate and integrate many sample-handling steps, minimize consumption of reagent and samples, have short processing time and enable multiplexed analysis. Microfluidic devices have demonstrated their potential for a broad range of applications in life sciences, including point-of-care diagnostics and personalized medicine, based on the routine diagnosis of levels of hormones, cancer markers, and various metabolic products in blood, serum, etc...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Altaf H Basta, Houssni El-Saied, Mervat M El-Deftar, Ahmed A El-Henawy, Hussein H El-Sheikh, Essam H Abdel-Shakour, Mohamed S Hasanin
The present study deals with synthesizing novel cellulose derivative, from modifying the carboxymethyl cellulose with amino phenylpropanoic acid (CMC-APP). The synthesized CMC-APP was evaluated as biological and anti-cancer active compound. The molecular structures of this active compound were built using the HyperChem program 7.5, together with conventional analysis (nitrogen content, FT-IR, and non-isothermal TGA analysis). Optimizing the CMC/APPA ratio was carried out as preliminary assessment step, via undetected antimicrobial activity measurement...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ekaterina Igorevna Shishatskaya, Dragana Nikitovic, Alexander Shabanov Vasilievich, George N Tzanakakis, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Natalia Gennadievna Menzianova
We studied the feasibility of using a short-term culture of monocytes, isolated from peripheral donor blood, to assess the biological activity of different types of bionanomaterials (BNM): biodegradable polimeric particles, fiber and film substrates of micro- and nano-dimensions, fullerenes (F) and nanodiamonds (ND), which are either currently in use and/or potentially applicable in medicine. Additionally, the effect of creating a protein corona on ND and F particles was investigated. The cellular reduction of (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) is a well-established tool for assessing the viability/metabolic activity of cells...
October 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jigar A Makawana, Chetan B Sangani, Yong-Fang Yao, Yong-Tao Duan, Peng-Cheng Lv, Hai-Liang Zhu
Recently, various nanomaterials have been used in many organic transformations as efficient catalysts. The development of new catalysts by nano-scale design has emerged as a fertile field for research and innovation. The ability of nanotechnology to enhance catalytic activity opens the potential to replace expensive catalysts with lower amounts of inexpensive nanocatalysts. Besides, development of efficient and environmentally friendly synthetic methodologies for the synthesis of compound libraries of medicinal scaffolds is an attractive area of research in both academic and pharmaceutical industry...
August 23, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Silvia Gabriella Ciappellano, Erik Tedesco, Marco Venturini, Federico Benetti
The fascinating properties of nanomaterials opened new frontiers in medicine. Nanocarriers are useful systems in transporting drugs to site-specific targets. The unique physico-chemical characteristics making nanocarriers promising devices to treat diseases may also be responsible for potential adverse effects. In order to develop functional nano-based drug delivery systems, efficacy and safety should be carefully evaluated. To date, no common testing strategy to address nanomaterial toxicological challenges has been generated...
August 17, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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