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Nano medicine

Mattias Björnmalm, Kristofer J Thurecht, Michael Michael, Andrew M Scott, Frank Caruso
The interface of bio-nano science and cancer medicine is an area experiencing much progress but also beset with controversy. Core concepts of the field-e.g., the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, tumor targeting and accumulation, and even the purpose of "nano" in cancer medicine-are hotly debated. In parallel, considerable advances in neighboring fields are occurring rapidly, including the recent progress of "immuno-oncology" and the fundamental impact it is having on our understanding and the clinical treatment of the group of diseases collectively known as cancer...
September 19, 2017: ACS Nano
A Król, P Pomastowski, K Rafińska, V Railean-Plugaru, B Buszewski
Zinc oxide (ZnO), as a material with attractive properties, has attracted great interest worldwide, particularly owing to the implementation of the synthesis of nano-sized particles. High luminescent efficiency, a wide band gap (3.36eV), and a large exciton binding energy (60meV) has triggered intense research on the production of nanoparticles using different synthesis methods and on their future applications. ZnO nanomaterials can be used in industry as nano-optical and nano-electrical devices, in food packaging and in medicine as antimicrobial and antitumor agents...
August 26, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Nicolas R Chevalier
Characterizing the tribological properties of the hair-hair interface is important to quantify the manageability of hair and to assess the performance of hair care products. Audoly et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164301, 2007) derived an equation relating the self-friction coefficient of an elastic fiber to the dimensions of a simple, relaxed overhand knot made from this fiber. I experimentally tested and validated their equation using nylon thread and an independent measurement of its self-friction coefficient...
September 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
A Poma, A Forni, C Baldoli, P R Mussini, A Bossi
Square planar platinum complexes are an important class of compounds used in (nano)technology, optoelectronics, medicinal chemistry and catalysis. The major research interests in cyclometalated Pt(ii) complexes focus on the selective modulation of their electronic properties and the control of the (cis/trans) geometry. For the first time, we unveil and demonstrate that cis-trans isomers of Pt(ii) complexes can be obtained in a derivative carrying the 1-phenyl-pirazolate (Hppz) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphtyl-(N-phenyl)imine ligands...
September 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Bogdan C Simionescu, Mioara Drobota, Daniel Timpu, Tudor Vasiliu, Cristina Ana Constantinescu, Daniela Rebleanu, Manuela Calin, Geta David
Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), surface functionalized with linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), was used for the preparation of biocomposites in combination with biopolymers and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), by cryogelation technique, to yield biomimetic scaffolds with controlled interconnected macroporosity, mechanical stability, and predictable degradation behavior. The structural characteristics, swelling and degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) filled matrices were investigated as compared to the corresponding naked polymer 3D system...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Walter Brand, Cornelle W Noorlander, Christina Giannakou, Wim H De Jong, Myrna W Kooi, Margriet Vdz Park, Rob J Vandebriel, Irene Em Bosselaers, Joep Hg Scholl, Robert E Geertsma
Due to their specific properties and pharmacokinetics, nanomedicinal products (NMPs) may present different toxicity and side effects compared to non-nanoformulated, conventional medicines. To facilitate the safety assessment of NMPs, we aimed to gain insight into toxic effects specific for NMPs by systematically analyzing the available toxicity data on approved NMPs in the European Union. In addition, by comparing five sets of products with the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a conventional formulation versus a nanoformulation, we aimed to identify any side effects specific for the nano aspect of NMPs...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Saheli Pradhan, Damodhara Rao Mailapalli
Nanoparticles with their unique surface properties can modulate the physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical pathways, such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, and solute transport. In this context, researchers have developed a wide range of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for the improvement of growth and productivity by modulating the metabolic pathways in plants. This class of tailor-made materials can potentially lead to the development of a new group of agrochemical nanofertilizers...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Andras Polyak, Tobias L Ross
PET and SPECT imaging methods can be of excellent assistance for the development of new nanoparticle drug delivery systems, and at the same time, these investigations also offer the opportunity to produce exceptional new diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, as well. With a multifunctional, nano-scaled drug delivery system, the diagnostic (imaging) methods and the therapy (delivering drugs or beta-emitter radionuclides) can be carried out using the same biological and pharmacological mechanisms. By combining therapy and diagnostics in one method or in one specifically targeted nanoparticle system, we can product theranostic pharmaceuticals, and its applications are important elements of personalized medicine...
August 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Maria Nikolaou, Theodora Krasia-Christoforou
Electrospinning and electrospraying are two highly versatile and scalable electrohydrodynamic methods, which have attracted considerable attention during the last years towards the fabrication of polymer-based drug delivery systems. The latter may be obtained in the form of nano- or microfibers (via electrospinning) or as drug-loaded nano- and microparticles (via electrospraying). This review article begins with an introduction on the basic principles and the important influencing parameters governing the electrospinning/electrospraying processes, followed by an overview on their use for the development of nano/microfibers and nano/microparticles destined for use in pharmaceutical applications...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yu-Lan Wang, Ming He, Richard J Miron, Ao-Ying Chen, Yan-Bing Zhao, Yu-Feng Zhang
Treatment of bacterial infections due to the fast emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is a significant challenge faced in modern medicine. Here the authors report a drug-induced self-assembly nanoantibiotic for treating bacterial infection, with temperature/pH-sensitivity, synergistic antibacterial effect of silver and antibiotics, and immunoregulatory effect. In this nanoantibiotic, smart polymer p(N-isopropylacrylamide-b-acrylic acid) triblock polymer (PNA) utilized to encapsulate the drugs provides convenience in preparing this structure simply through drug-induced self-assembly and controllable release profile by changing the sequence of addition of different drugs...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
V Onesto, L Cancedda, M L Coluccio, M Nanni, M Pesce, N Malara, M Cesarelli, E Di Fabrizio, F Amato, F Gentile
Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can direct nerve cells assembly into computational efficient networks may provide new tools and criteria for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we used information theory approaches and functional multi calcium imaging (fMCI) techniques to examine how information flows in neural networks cultured on surfaces with controlled topography...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fatemeh Sadat Mahdavi, Abdolreza Salehi, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Horses with big bone fractures have low chance to live mainly due to the lake of a proper treatment strategy. We believe that further attempts in equine bone tissue engineering will probably be required to meet all the needs for the lesion therapies. Therefore in this study we aimed to investigate the osteogenic differentiation capacity of equine adipose-derived stem cells (e-ASCs) on nano-bioactive glass (nBGs) coated poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers scaffold (nBG-PLLA). Using electrospinning technique, PLLA scaffold was prepared successfully and coated with nBGs...
July 20, 2017: Tissue & Cell
Christoph Edlinger, Tomaz Einfalt, Mariana Spulber, Anja Car, Wolfgang Meier, Cornelia G Palivan
We describe an innovative strategy to generate catalytic compartments with triggered functionality at the nanoscale level by combining pH-reversible biovalves and enzyme-loaded synthetic compartments. The biovalve has been engineered by the attachment of stimuli-responsive peptides to a genetically modified channel porin, enabling a reversible change of the molecular flow through the pores of the porin in response to a pH change in the local environment. The biovalve functionality triggers the reaction inside the cavity of the enzyme-loaded compartments by switching the in situ activity of the enzymes on/off based on a reversible change of the permeability of the membrane, which blocks or allows the passage of substrates and products...
September 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Yuan Wang, Tao Wu, Yun Zhou, Chuanmin Meng, Wenjun Zhu, Lixin Liu
Gas sensors based on titanium dioxide (TiO₂) have attracted much public attention during the past decades due to their excellent potential for applications in environmental pollution remediation, transportation industries, personal safety, biology, and medicine. Numerous efforts have therefore been devoted to improving the sensing performance of TiO₂. In those effects, the construct of nanoheterostructures is a promising tactic in gas sensing modification, which shows superior sensing performance to that of the single component-based sensors...
August 27, 2017: Sensors
Ahmed A Abd-Rabou, Aboelfetoh M Abdalla, Naglaa A Ali, Khairy MA Zoheir
Medicinal plants are important elements of indigenous medical system that have persisted in developing countries. Many of the botanical chemo-preventions currently used as potent anticancer agents. However, some important anticancer agents are still extracted from plants because they cannot be synthesized chemically on a commercial scale due to their complex structures that often contain several chiral centers. The aim of this study was to test different extracts from the Moringa oleifera leaves (ML), its PLGA-CS-PEG nanocomposites (MLn), as well as root core (Rc) and outer (Ro) parts for activity against hepatocarcinoma HepG2, breast MCF7, and colorectal HCT 116/ Caco-2 cells in vitro...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Soroush Moasses Ghafary, Maryam Nikkhah, Shadie Hatamie, Saman Hosseinkhani
Designing suitable nano-carriers for simultaneous gene delivery and tracking is in the research priorities of the molecular medicine. Non-toxic graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two different (green and red) emission colors are synthesized by Hummer's method and characterized by UV-Vis, Photoluminescence (PL), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The GQDs are conjugated with MPG-2H1 chimeric peptide and plasmid DNA (pDNA) by non-covalent interactions...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhaoyan Zeng, Xiangzhou Li, Sheng Zhang, Dan Huang
BACKGROUND: Nano bamboo charcoal is being widely used as sustained release carrier for chemicals for its high specific surface area, sound biocompatibility, and nontoxicity; however, there have been no reports on nano bamboo charcoal as sustained release carrier for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of nano bamboo charcoal in absorbing and sustained releasing Eucommia ulmoides extract (EUE) and to verify the in vitro anticancer effect of the sustained release liquid, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of nano bamboo charcoal as TCM sustained-release preparation...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Betty R Liu, Yue-Wern Huang, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Shih-Yen Lo, Robert S Aronstam, Han-Jung Lee
BACKGROUND: Development of effective drug delivery systems (DDS) is a critical issue in health care and medicine. Advances in molecular biology and nanotechnology have allowed the introduction of nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can form the basis of drug delivery systems by virtue of their ability to support the transport of cargoes into the cell. Potential cargoes include proteins, DNA, RNA, liposomes, and nanomaterials. These cargoes generally retain their bioactivities upon entering cells...
August 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Tamer M Sakr, Mohamed F Nawar, T W Fasih, S El-Bayoumy, H A Abd El-Rehim
Nanostructured materials attracted considerable attention because of its high surface area to volume ratio resulting from their nano-scale dimensions. This class of sorbents is expected to have a potential impact on enhancement the efficacy of radioisotope generators for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. This review provides a summary on the importance of nanostructured materials as effective sorbents for the development of clinical-scale radioisotope generators and outlining the assessment of recent developments, key challenges and promising access to the near future...
August 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Shiva Sharif, Jafar Ai, Mahmoud Azami, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Ali Atlasi, Sadegh Shirian, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) are known as an attractive source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. hEnSCs are easily isolated and are capable of repairing uterine through their strong ability of creating new capillaries. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen scaffold was fabricated and characterized in order to be applied as a new approach for skin reconstruction. Furthermore, the behavior of hEnSCs on this scaffold was investigated. First, a PCL 3D scaffold was constructed using electrospinning technique...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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