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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228160/effect-of-financial-incentives-on-breastfeeding-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Clare Relton, Mark Strong, Kate J Thomas, Barbara Whelan, Stephen J Walters, Julia Burrows, Elaine Scott, Petter Viksveen, Maxine Johnson, Helen Baston, Julia Fox-Rushby, Nana Anokye, Darren Umney, Mary J Renfrew
Importance: Although breastfeeding has a positive effect on an infant's health and development, the prevalence is low in many communities. The effect of financial incentives to improve breastfeeding prevalence is unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of an area-level financial incentive for breastfeeding on breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nourishing Start for Health (NOSH) trial, a cluster randomized trial with 6 to 8 weeks follow-up, was conducted between April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016, in 92 electoral ward areas in England with baseline breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum less than 40%...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227900/exposures-to-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-birthweight-in-a-rural-urban-mother-child-cohort-in-tamil-nadu-india
#2
Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter <less than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter) related to ambient and household air pollution has been associated with low birthweight. Few of these studies, however, have been conducted in high exposure settings that are commonly encountered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether PM2.5 exposures during pregnancy were associated with birthweight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in the state of Tamil Nadu, India...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227853/joint-effect-of-education-and-age-at-childbirth-on-the-risk-of-caesarean-delivery-findings-from-germany-2008-2015
#3
L Castiglioni, C Schmiedeberg
OBJECTIVES: This article aims at assessing the joint effect of maternal age and education on the risk of having a caesarean delivery. As high maternal education is often associated with lower caesarean-birth rates, but high-educated women tend to postpone motherhood, these effects may offset each other in traditional analyses. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the data from the German Family Panel pairfam. METHODS: The interview-based data refer to 1020 births between 2008 and 2015...
December 8, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227690/effect-of-the-induction-of-transgenerational-obesity-on-maternal-fetal-parameters
#4
Thaigra Sousa Soares, Ana Paula Andreolla, Carolina Abreu Miranda, Eduardo Klöppel, Luhara Silva Rodrigues, Rafaianne Queiroz Moraes-Souza, Débora Cristina Damasceno, Gustavo Tadeu Volpato, Kleber Eduardo Campos
Maternal obesity can cause complications for both women and their offspring for generations. Therefore, we intended to verify the repercussions of induction of transgenerational obesity on biochemical parameters, reproductive performance, and congenital anomaly frequency in Wistar rats. Female rats were used from successive generations. The female rats of parental generation (F0, n=10) were mated to obtain their offspring (F1 generation). F1 female rats received a monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution to induce obesity (n=07) or vehicle (control, n=06) during the neonatal period...
December 11, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227133/prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-associated-factors-amongst-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-outapi-clinic-namibia-a-descriptive-survey
#5
Leonard T Bikinesi, Robert Mash, Kate Joyner
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant and largely hidden public health problem for all women and, during pregnancy, can have significant effects on the health of both mother and the unborn baby. Previous Namibian studies suggest rates of IPV as high as 36%, although few studies have been conducted in primary care. AIM: To determine the prevalence of IPV amongst women attending antenatal care. SETTING: Outapi primary care clinic, Namibia...
December 6, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226752/influence-of-time-of-delivery-on-risk-of-adverse-neonatal-outcome-in-different-size-of-delivery-units-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-finland
#6
Elina Karalis, Mika Gissler, Anna-Maija Tapper, Veli-Matti Ulander
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of time of birth on adverse neonatal outcome in singleton term hospital births. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical Birth Register Data in Finland from 2005 to 2009. Study population was all hospital births (n = 263 901), excluding multiple pregnancies, preterm births < 37 weeks, major congenital anomalies or birth defects, and antepartum stillbirths. Main outcome measures were either 1-minute Apgar score 0-3, 5-minute Apgar score 0-6, or umbilical artery pH < 7...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226484/family-conflict-is-associated-with-longitudinal-changes-in-insular-striatal-functional-connectivity-during-adolescent-risk-taking-under-maternal-influence
#7
João F Guassi Moreira, Eva H Telzer
Maternal presence has marked effects on adolescent neurocognition during risk taking, influencing teenagers to make safer decisions. However, it is currently unknown whether maternal buffering changes over the course of adolescence itself, and whether its effects are robust to individual differences in family relationship quality. In the current longitudinal study, 23 adolescents completed a risk-taking task under maternal presence during an fMRI scan before and after the transition to high school. Behavioral results reveal that adolescent risk taking increased under maternal presence across a one-year period...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225951/is-governance-gross-domestic-product-inequality-population-size-or-country-surface-area-associated-with-coverage-and-equity-of-health-interventions-ecological-analyses-of-cross-sectional-surveys-from-80-countries
#8
Fernando C Wehrmeister, Inácio Crochemore M da Silva, Aluisio J D Barros, Cesar G Victora
Objective: To assess associations between national characteristics, including governance indicators, with a proxy for universal health coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). Design: Ecological analysis based on data from national standardised cross-sectional surveys. Setting: Low-income and middle-income countries with a Demographic and Health Survey or a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey since 2005. Participants: 1 246 710 mothers and 2 129 212 children from 80 national surveys...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225949/improving-postpartum-care-delivery-and-uptake-by-implementing-context-specific-interventions-in-four-countries-in-africa-a-realist-evaluation-of-the-missed-opportunities-in-maternal-and-infant-health-momi-project
#9
Nehla Djellouli, Sue Mann, Bejoy Nambiar, Paula Meireles, Diana Miranda, Henrique Barros, Fadima Y Bocoum, W Maurice E Yaméogo, Clarisse Yaméogo, Sylvie Belemkoabga, Halima Tougri, Abou Coulibaly, Seni Kouanda, Vernon Mochache, Omar K Mwakusema, Eunice Irungu, Peter Gichangi, Zione Dembo, Angela Kadzakumanja, Charles Vidonji Makwenda, Judite Timóteo, Misete G Cossa, Malica de Melo, Sally Griffin, Nafissa B Osman, Severiano Foia, Emilomo Ogbe, Els Duysburgh, Tim Colbourn
Postpartum care (PPC) has remained relatively neglected in many interventions designed to improve maternal and neonatal health in sub-Saharan Africa. The Missed Opportunities in Maternal and Infant Health project developed and implemented a context-specific package of health system strengthening and demand generation in four African countries, aiming to improve access and quality of PPC. A realist evaluation was conducted to enable nuanced understanding of the influence of different contextual factors on both the implementation and impacts of the interventions...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225770/sex-determination-mode-does-not-affect-body-or-genital-development-of-the-central-bearded-dragon-pogona-vitticeps
#10
Sarah L Whiteley, Clare E Holleley, Wendy A Ruscoe, Meghan Castelli, Darryl L Whitehead, Juan Lei, Arthur Georges, Vera Weisbecker
Background: The development of male- or female-specific phenotypes in squamates is typically controlled by either temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) or chromosome-based genetic sex determination (GSD). However, while sex determination is a major switch in individual phenotypic development, it is unknownhow evolutionary transitions between GSD and TSD might impact on the evolution of squamate phenotypes, particularly the fast-evolving and diverse genitalia. Here, we take the unique opportunity of studying the impact of both sex determination mechanisms on the embryological development of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225689/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-at-an-early-age-reviewing-the-interaction-between-pesticide-exposure-and-kmt2a-rerrangments
#11
REVIEW
Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Francianne Gomes Andrade, Gisele Dallapicola Brisson, Filipe Vicente Dos Santos Bueno, Ingrid Sardou Cezar, Elda Pereira Noronha
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in early childhood is characterised by a high frequency of recurrent genomic aberrations associated with distinct myeloid subtypes, clinical outcomes and pathogenesis. Genomic instability is the first step of pathogenic mechanism in early childhood AML. A sum of adverse events is necessary to the development of infant AML (i-AML), which includes latency of biochemical-molecular and cellular effects. Inherited genetic susceptibility associated with exposures to biotransformation substances can modulate the risk of DNA damage and it is a very important piece in the pathogenic puzzle...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225683/concurrent-maternal-and-fetal-tachyarrhythmia-in-pregnancy
#12
Nadia Gabarin, Edgar T Jaeggi, Danna A Spears, Mathew Sermer, Candice K Silversides, Catriona J Bhagra
The occurrence of a maternal and fetal tachyarrhythmia together in pregnancy is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a persistent fetal atrial ectopic tachycardia occurring in conjunction with a maternal atrial tachycardia with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Amiodarone was effective in treating both maternal and fetal arrhythmias.
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225598/innovative-approaches-for-immune-tolerance-to-factor-viii-in-the-treatment-of-hemophilia-a
#13
REVIEW
Alexandra Sherman, Moanaro Biswas, Roland W Herzog
Hemophilia A (coagulation factor VIII deficiency) is a debilitating genetic disorder that is primarily treated with intravenous replacement therapy. Despite a variety of factor VIII protein formulations available, the risk of developing anti-dug antibodies ("inhibitors") remains. Overall, 20-30% of patients with severe disease develop inhibitors. Current clinical immune tolerance induction protocols to eliminate inhibitors are not effective in all patients, and there are no prophylactic protocols to prevent the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225576/vitamin-d-enhances-efficacy-of-oral-nifedipine-in-treating-preeclampsia-with-severe-features-a-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-and-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Dan-Dan Shi, Yong Wang, Jun-Jun Guo, Ling Zhou, Na Wang
Vitamin D (VD) has exhibited immunomodulatory role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We hypothesize VD potentiate nifedipine treatment for preeclampsia by shortened the time to control blood pressure and prolong time before subsequent hypertensive crisis. We conduct a randomized trial of 683 primigravid women with preeclampsia, who were assigned to different treatment groups, either nifedipine+placebo or nifedipine+VD orally, by random after screening. Primary endpoints include time to control hypertension and time before another hypertensive crisis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225350/maternal-by-environment-but-not-genotype-by-environment-interactions-in-a-fish-without-parental-care
#15
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Loeske E B Kruuk
The impact of environmental conditions on the expression of genetic variance and on maternal effects variance remains an important question in evolutionary quantitative genetics. We investigate here the effects of early environment on variation in seven adult life history, morphological, and secondary sexual traits (including sperm characteristics) in a viviparous poeciliid fish, the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. Specifically, we manipulated food availability during early development and then assessed additive genetic and maternal effects contributions to the overall phenotypic variance in adults...
December 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225195/strengthening-integration-of-clinical-and-public-health-systems-to-prevent-maternal-child-obesity-in-the-first-1-000days-a-collective-impact-approach
#16
Tiffany Blake-Lamb, Alexy Arauz Boudreau, Sarah Matathia, Etna Tiburcio, Meghan E Perkins, Brianna Roche, Milton Kotelchuck, Derri Shtasel, Sarah N Price, Elsie M Taveras
INTRODUCTION: Obesity interventions may be most effective if they begin in the earliest stages of life, support changes across family, clinical, and public health systems, and address socio-contextual factors. METHODS: The First 1000Days is a systematic program starting in early pregnancy lasting through the first 24months of infancy to prevent obesity among low-income mother-infant pairs in three community health centers in Massachusetts. The program uses a Collective Impact approach to create the infrastructure for sustained, system-wide changes for obesity prevention across early life clinical and public health services, including Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Adult Medicine, Behavioral Health, Nutrition, Community Health, the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program, and the Maternal, Infant and Childhood Home Visiting program...
December 7, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225141/effects-of-healthcare-professional-delivered-early-feeding-interventions-on-feeding-practices-and-dietary-intake-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Elaine Toomey, Lisa Delaney, Janas Harrington, Molly Byrne, Patricia M Kearney
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a global public health challenge. Parental feeding practices, such as responsive feeding, are implicated in the etiology of childhood obesity. PURPOSE: This systematic review aimed to examine of effects of healthcare professional-delivered early feeding interventions, on parental feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes for children up to 2 years. The role of responsive feeding interventions was also specifically examined...
December 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225039/a-massively-parallel-reporter-assay-of-3-utr-sequences-identifies-in%C3%A2-vivo-rules-for-mrna-degradation
#18
Michal Rabani, Lindsey Pieper, Guo-Liang Chew, Alexander F Schier
The stability of mRNAs is regulated by signals within their sequences, but a systematic and predictive understanding of the underlying sequence rules remains elusive. Here we introduce UTR-seq, a combination of massively parallel reporter assays and regression models, to survey the dynamics of tens of thousands of 3' UTR sequences during early zebrafish embryogenesis. UTR-seq revealed two temporal degradation programs: a maternally encoded early-onset program and a late-onset program that accelerated degradation after zygotic genome activation...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224660/postpartum-hemorrhage
#19
Janice Newsome, Jonathan G Martin, Zachary Bercu, Jay Shah, Haris Shekhani, Gail Peters
Interventional radiologists are often called for emergent control of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding, even heavy bleeding as a result of uterine fibroids is not a common emergent procedure; instead, pregnancy and pregnancy related conditions, trauma and malignancy associated with bleeding can be the source of many interventional radiology on call events or procedures. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause, and is defined as blood loss of 500mL after vaginal delivery or 1000mL after cesarean section...
December 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224585/long-term-implications-of-feed-energy-source-in-different-genetic-types-of-reproductive-rabbit-females-i-resource-acquisition-and-allocation
#20
A Arnau-Bonachera, C Cervera, E Blas, T Larsen, E Martínez-Paredes, L Ródenas, J J Pascual
To achieve functional but also productive females, we hypothesised that it is possible to modulate acquisition and allocation of animals from different genetic types by varying the main energy source of the diet. To test this hypothesis, we used 203 rabbit females belonging to three genetic types: H (n=66), a maternal line characterised by hyper-prolificacy; LP (n=67), a maternal line characterised by functional hyper-longevity; R (n=79), a paternal line characterised by growth rate. Females were fed with two isoenergetic and isoprotein diets differing in energy source: animal fat (AF) enhancing milk yield; cereal starch (CS) promoting body reserves recovery...
December 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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