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Maternal effects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454244/-keeping-birth-normal-exploratory-evaluation-of-a-training-package-for-midwives-in-an-inner-city-alongside-midwifery-unit
#1
Shawn Walker, Laura Batinelli, Lucia Rocca-Ihenacho, Christine McCourt
OBJECTIVES: to gain understanding about how participants perceived the value and effectiveness of 'Keeping Birth Normal' training, barriers to implementing it in an along-side midwifery unit, and how the training might be enhanced in future iterations. DESIGN: exploratory interpretive. SETTING: inner-city maternity service. PARTICIPANTS: 31 midwives attending a one-day training package on one of three occasions. METHODS: data were collected using semi-structured observation of the training, a short feedback form (23/31 participants), and focus groups (28/31 participants)...
February 2, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453467/loading-dose-only-versus-standard-dose-magnesium-sulfate-seizure-prophylaxis-in-severe-pre-eclamptic-women
#2
Surya Prasad Rimal, Pappu Rijal, Rabindra Bhatt, Kriti Thapa
INTRODUCTION: Magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for prevention of seizures in the pre-eclamptic woman. There is no agreement in the published randomized trials regarding the optimal time to initiate magnesium sulfate, the dose to use (both loading and maintenance) as well as the duration of therapy. The objective of this study is to determine whether magnesium sulfate prophylaxis is needed for up to 24 hours postpartum in all patients with severe pre-eclampsia for the prevention of seizure...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453435/evidence-of-a-gene-environment-interaction-of-nodal-variants-and-inflammation-in-preterm-birth
#3
Lisa M Starr, Taghreed Heba, Daniel Dufort
OBJECTIVE: NODAL has been implicated in timing of parturition and immune regulation. We investigated the relationship between NODAL polymorphisms, infection/inflammation, and preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: For this secondary analysis, 613 women (189 preterm and 424 term) from the Montreal Prematurity Study were genotyped for NODAL polymorphisms and assessed for bacterial vaginosis and placental inflammation. RESULT: NODAL polymorphisms were not associated with preterm birth...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453134/a-dose-dependent-relationship-between-copper-burden-in-female-urchin-gonads-and-developmental-impairment-of-their-offspring
#4
Nicole E Phillips, Agnes M Rouchon
We examined transgenerational effects of exposure to copper on early development of offspring in the urchin Evechinus chloroticus, and whether parental exposure mediated offspring response to a further low level exposure to copper during early development. Month-long exposure to elevated copper (25 μgL -1 ) in the laboratory increased copper in gonads of both males and females and reduced gonad size by almost half. There was a negative relationship between adult size and copper burden. Normal larval development and larval size four days after fertilization were both strongly, negatively related to the amount of copper in female gonads in a dose-dependent manner, but fertilization success was unaffected...
February 1, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453082/potential-roles-for-transposable-elements-in-creating-imprinted-expression
#5
REVIEW
Sarah N Anderson, Nathan M Springer
Changes in gene expression can have profound effects on phenotype. Nature has provided many complex patterns of gene regulation such as imprinting. Imprinted genes exhibit differences in the expression of the maternal and paternal alleles, even though they reside in the same nucleus with access to the same trans-acting factors. Significant attention has been focused on the potential reasons that imprinted expression could be beneficial and stabilized by selection. However, less attention has focused on understanding how imprinted expression might arise or decay...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453011/emotional-availability-in-mothers-with-borderline-personality-disorder-and-mothers-with-remitted-major-depression-is-differently-associated-with-psychopathology-among-school-aged-children
#6
Dorothea Kluczniok, Katja Boedeker, Catherine Hindi Attar, Charlotte Jaite, Anna-Lena Bierbaum, Daniel Fuehrer, Luisa Paetz, Katja Dittrich, Sabine C Herpertz, Romuald Brunner, Sibylle Winter, Andreas Heinz, Stefan Roepke, Christine Heim, Felix Bermpohl
BACKGROUND: Both, maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) and maternal major depressive disorder (MDD) are often associated with adverse consequences for children, including increased risk for child behavior problems. Reduced maternal emotional availability might play a critical role in transmitting maternal psychopathology on the child. Our aim was to investigate the association between emotional availability and maternal BPD and MDD in remission (rMDD), and if this interrelatedness mediates the association between maternal mental disorders and child behavior problems...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452586/the-role-of-glucocorticoid-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-antioxidants-in-prenatal-stress-effects-on-embryonic-microglia
#7
Jada Bittle, Hanna E Stevens
Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. Resident immune cells of the brain, microglia, may be mediators of prenatal stress and altered neurodevelopment. Here, we demonstrate that neither the exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nor the glucocorticoid hormone, corticosterone, recapitulated the full effects of prenatal stress on the morphology of microglial cells in the cortical plate of embryonic mice; IL-1β effects showed greater similarity to prenatal stress effects on microglia...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452361/iui-review-and-systematic-assessment-of-the-evidence-that-supports-global-recommendations
#8
Ben Cohlen, Aartjan Bijkerk, Sheryl Van der Poel, Willem Ombelet
BACKGROUND: IUI with or without ovarian stimulation (OS) has become a first-line treatment option for many infertile couples, worldwide. The appropriate treatment modality for couples and their clinical management through IUI or IUI/OS cycles must consider maternal and perinatal outcomes, most notably the clinical complication of higher-order multiple pregnancies associated with IUI-OS. With a current global emphasis to continue to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization (WHO) had established a multi-year project to review the evidence for the establishment of normative guidance for the implementation of IUI as a treatment to address fertility problems, and to consider its cost-effectiveness for lower resource settings...
February 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#9
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
February 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452244/does-saline-enema-during-the-first-stage-of-labour-reduce-the-incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-neonates-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Adel M Nada, Reham A Mohsen, Yosra M Hassan, Amira Sabry, Noha S Soliman
BACKGROUND: Maternal rectal enemas may reduce neonatal bacterial exposure during labour; this may reduce the risk of neonatal colonization with Clostridium difficile. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a saline enema during the first stage of labour in reducing neonatal colonization with C. difficile. METHODS: The study was conducted in Cairo University Hospital from January 2016 to July 2016. Asymptomatic mothers with uncomplicated vaginal delivery and their neonates without diarrhea were included...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451831/high-dose-perinatal-folic-acid-supplementation-alters-insulin-sensitivity-in-sprague-dawley-rats-and-diminishes-the-expression-of-adiponectin
#11
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Funmileyi Olubajo Awobajo, Gabriel Olorunleke Oludare, Adekunle Mofolorunso
The possible intake of folate in excess of the recommended upper levels is a matter of critical importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal high folic acid supplementation (FAS) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and expression of adiponectin in rats. The study included 20 female rats divided into two groups: control group and FAS group (receiving high folic acid supplemented diet). Both groups of female rats were mated and pregnancy confirmed...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451716/improving-growth-for-infants-%C3%A2-1250-grams-receiving-an-exclusive-human-milk-diet
#12
Robert K Huston, Andrea M Markell, Elizabeth A McCulley, Stuart K Gardiner, Sean L Sweeney
BACKGROUND: An exclusive human milk diet (EHM) fortified with human milk-based fortifier decreases necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared to maternal milk supplemented with preterm formula and bovine fortifier (PTF). Growth has been less with EHM and also maternal milk supplemented with donor human milk and bovine fortifier (HMBF). The objective was to evaluate the effect of a standardized feeding protocol on the growth of infants ≤1250 g birth weight supported with EHM and HMBF. The effect on the incidence of NEC was also evaluated...
February 16, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451152/different-effects-of-pravastatin-on-preeclampsia-like-symptoms-in-different-mouse-models
#13
Jing Huai, Zi Yang, Yan-Hong Yi, Guang-Jiao Wang
Background: Pravastatin (Pra) exerts protective effects on preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a multifactorial and pathogenic pathway syndrome. The present study compared the effects of Pra on clinical manifestations of preeclampsia in different pathogenic pathways. Methods: Two different preeclampsia-like mouse models used in this study were generated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from day 7 of gestation, respectively...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449541/long-noncoding-rna-meg3-suppresses-liver-cancer-cells-growth-through-inhibiting-%C3%AE-catenin-by-activating-pkm2-and-inactivating-pten
#14
Qidi Zheng, Zhuojia Lin, Jie Xu, Yanan Lu, Qiuyu Meng, Chen Wang, Yuxin Yang, Xiaoru Xin, Xiaonan Li, Hu Pu, Xin Gui, Tianming Li, Wujun Xiong, Dongdong Lu
Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) encodes an lncRNA which is suggested to function as a tumor suppressor and has been showed to involve in a variety of cancers. Herein, our findings demonstrate that MEG3 inhibits the malignant progression of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, MEG3 promotes the expression and maturition of miR122 which targets PKM2. Therefore, MEG3 decreases the expression and nuclear location of PKM2 dependent on miR122. Furthermore, MEG3 also inhibits CyclinD1 and C-Myc via PKM2 in liver cancer cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449122/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-improving-postpartum-maternal-sleep-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Sawayra Owais, Cheryl H T Chow, Melissa Furtado, Benicio N Frey, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Evidence suggests that poor postpartum sleep quality is a risk factor for the development of postpartum depression. As such, non-pharmacological interventions have been developed to help improve sleep in the postpartum period. The primary aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine if non-pharmacological interventions improved maternal sleep and to compare the effectiveness of different intervention types. Secondary aims included examining effects on maternal mood and infant sleep. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from their inceptions to September 2017 and found 15 eligible studies...
January 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448186/cognitive-development-in-children-of-adolescent-mothers-the-impact-of-socioeconomic-risk-and-maternal-sensitivity
#16
Christine Firk, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Wolfgang Scharke, Brigitte Dahmen
BACKGROUND: Adolescent motherhood is accompanied by a constellation of risk factors that translate into developmental risk for the off-spring. Socioeconomic risk that is associated with adolescent motherhood as well as maternal interactive behaviors may contribute to the impact of adolescent motherhood on children's developmental outcome. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate differences in children's cognitive development between children of adolescent and adult mothers in their first two years of life and to examine whether socioeconomic risk (e...
February 12, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447847/perinatal-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-ssri-effects-on-body-weight-at-birth-and-beyond-a-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#17
REVIEW
Sarah M Hutchison, Louise C Mâsse, Jodi L Pawluski, Tim F Oberlander
The long-term impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment during pregnancy and postpartum on offspring outcomes is still not clear. Specifically, perinatal SSRI exposure may have long-term consequences for body weight and related health outcomes in the newborn period and beyond. This review focuses on the impact of perinatal SSRI exposure on weight using human and animal findings. The impact of maternal mood is also explored. We propose potential mechanisms for weight changes, including how early alterations in serotonin signaling may have implications for weight via changes in metabolism and motor development...
February 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447718/no-240-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pregnancy
#18
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447406/using-structural-equation-modelling-to-jointly-estimate-maternal-and-fetal-effects-on-birthweight-in-the-uk-biobank
#19
Nicole M Warrington, Rachel M Freathy, Michael C Neale, David M Evans
Background: To date, 60 genetic variants have been robustly associated with birthweight. It is unclear whether these associations represent the effect of an individual's own genotype on their birthweight, their mother's genotype, or both. Methods: We demonstrate how structural equation modelling (SEM) can be used to estimate both maternal and fetal effects when phenotype information is present for individuals in two generations and genotype information is available on the older individual...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447380/sirtuins-in-gamete-biology-and-reproductive-physiology-emerging-roles-and-therapeutic-potential-in-female-and-male-infertility
#20
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
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