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Siham Bibi, Yanyan Zhang, Caroline Hugonin, Mallorie Depond Mangean, Liang He, Ghaith Wedeh, Jean-Marie Launay, Sjoerd Van Rijn, Thomas Würdinger, Fawzia Louache, Michel Arock
Systemic mastocytosis are rare neoplasms characterized by accumulation of mast cells in at least one internal organ. The majority of systemic mastocytosis patients carry KIT D816V mutation, which activates constitutively the KIT receptor. Patient with advanced forms of systemic mastocytosis, such as aggressive systemic mastocytosis or mast cell leukemia, are poorly treated to date. Unfortunately, the lack of in vivo models reflecting KIT D816V+ advanced disease hampers pathophysiological studies and preclinical development of new therapies for such patients...
October 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Liang Xiao, Bo Yang, Xiaoyu Liu, Yan Luo, Qiongmei Ji, Zhong Wen, Zhigang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Food allergy (FA) is an adverse immune response to certain innocent food. It is estimated about 2% to 6% of the general population suffer from FA. Symptoms of a food allergic reaction may involve the gastrointestinal tract or/and other organs. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in diet-induced health problems. Whether the changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota regulate allergic responses to food remains poorly understood. Thus, we created an FA animal model, sequenced the V4-V5 regions of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the genera abundance of gut microbiota...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Sinem Ilgın, Yusuf Özkay
Donepezil (DNP), an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, is one of the most preferred choices in Alzheimer diseases (AD) therapy. In the present study, 38 new DNP analogues were synthesized. Structures of the synthesized compounds (1-38) were elucidated by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Inhibitory potential of the compounds on cholinesterase enzymes was investigated. None of the compounds displayed significant activity on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Karolina A Majorek, Tomasz Osinski, David T Tran, Alina Revilla, Wayne F Anderson, Wladek Minor, Misty L Kuhn
Members of Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily catalyze the acetylation of a wide range of small molecule and protein substrates. Due to their abundance in all kingdoms of life and diversity of their functions, they are implicated in many aspects of eukaryotic and prokaryotic physiology. Although numerous GNATs have been identified thus far, many remain structurally and functionally uncharacterized. The elucidation of their structures and functions is critical for broadening our knowledge of this diverse and important superfamily...
October 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Andrea Fagagnini, Riccardo Montioli, Andra Caloiu, Marc Ribó, Douglas V Laurents, Giovanni Gotte
Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) is the monomeric prototype of the so-called secretory 'pancreatic-type' RNase super-family. Like the naturally domain-swapped dimeric bovine seminal variant, BS-RNase, and its glycosylated RNase B isoform, RNase A forms N- and C-terminal 3D domain-swapped oligomers after lyophilization from acid solutions, or if subjected to thermal denaturation at high protein concentration. All mentioned RNases can undergo deamidation at Asn67, forming Asp or isoAsp derivatives that modify the protein net charge and consequently its enzymatic activity...
October 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Lee Ling Tan, Shawn S Hoon, Fong T Wong
Over the last few years, a number of different protein assembly strategies have been developed, greatly expanding the toolbox for controlling macromolecular assembly. One of the most promising developments is a rapid protein ligation approach using a short polypeptide SpyTag and its partner, SpyCatcher derived from Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding protein, FbaB. To extend this technology, we have engineered and characterized a new Tag-Catcher pair from a related fibronectin-binding protein in Streptococcus dysgalactiae...
2016: PloS One
Henk J van Lingen, Caroline M Plugge, James G Fadel, Ermias Kebreab, André Bannink, Jan Dijkstra
Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes...
2016: PloS One
Motohiro Hirai, Shumpei Terada, Hiroaki Yoshida, Kenki Ebine, Tomoaki Hirata, Osamu Kitagawa
In the presence of (R)-DTBM-SEGPHOS-Pd(OAc)2 catalyst, treatment of various 3-(2,6-dibromophenyl)quinazolin-4-ones with NaBH4 gave optically active N-C axially chiral quinazolinone (mebroqualone) derivatives through reductive asymmetric desymmetrization (enantioselective monohydrodebromination) followed by kinetic resolution of the resulting monobromophenyl products (up to 99% ee). The enantioselectivity strongly depended on the substituent (R(2)) at the C4'position, amount of NaBH4, and reaction temperature...
October 26, 2016: Organic Letters
Samantha N Hood, Ivan Kassal
Although organic heterojunctions can separate charges with near-unity efficiency and on a sub-picosecond timescale, the full details of the charge-separation process remain unclear. In typical models, the Coulomb binding between the electron and the hole can exceed the thermal energy kT by an order of magnitude, suggesting that it is impossible for the charges to separate before recombining. Here, we consider the entropic contribution to charge separation in the presence of disorder and find that even modest amounts of disorder have a decisive effect, reducing the charge-separation barrier to about kT or eliminating it altogether...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Eileen K Jaffe
Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), also known as 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of all tetrapyrroles, which function in respiration, photosynthesis, and methanogenesis. Throughout evolution, PBGS adapted to a diversity of cellular niches and evolved to use an unusual variety of metal ions both for catalytic function and to control protein multimerization. With regard to the active site, some PBGSs require Zn(2+); a subset of those, including human PBGS, contain a constellation of cysteine residues that acts as a sink for the environmental toxin Pb(2+)...
October 26, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Anders Lundgren, Björn Agnarsson, Ronald Zirbs, Vladimir P Zhdanov, Erik Reimhult, Fredrik Höök
Emerging biomedical applications such as molecular imaging and drug delivery often require directed binding of nanoparticles to cell-membrane receptors. The specific apparent affinity of such ligand-functionalized particles is size-dependent, an observation so far solely attributed to multivalent receptor-ligand interaction. We question the universality of this explanation by demonstrating that the binding kinetics also depends on weak, attractive colloidal-type interaction between nanoparticles and a lipid membrane...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Philip R Nicovich, Miro Janco, Tom Sobey, Mehul Gajwani, Peyman Obeidy, Renee Whan, Katharina Gaus, Peter Gunning, Adelle Cf Coster, Till Böcking
Reconstitution of actin filaments on surfaces for observation of filament-associated protein dynamics by fluorescence microscopy is currently an exciting field in biophysics. Here we examine the effects of attaching actin filaments to surfaces on the binding and dissociation kinetics of a fluorescence-labelled tropomyosin, a rod-shaped protein that forms continuous strands wrapping around the actin filament. Two attachment modalities of the actin to the surface are explored: where the actin filament is attached to the surface at multiple points along its length; and where the actin filament is attached at one end and aligned parallel to the surface by buffer flow...
October 26, 2016: Cytoskeleton
Pooja Arora, Monika Malik, Ruchi Sachdeva, Latika Saxena, Joy Das, Vishnampettai G Ramachandran, Rahul Pal
While apoptotic debris is believed to constitute the original antigenic insult in lupus (which is characterized by a time-dependent diversification of autoreactivity), whether such debris and autoantibodies specifically recognizing its constituents, mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in lupus-prone mice is currently unknown. Apoptotic blebs (as opposed to cellular lysate), preferentially enhanced the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) from bone marrow precursors drawn from lupus-prone mice...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
I P Shabalkin, E Yu Grigor'eva, M V Gudkova, Yu V Stukalov, A S Mas'ko
Using the autoradiographic method, we studied the kinetics of DNA synthesis over the mitotic cycle in mouse corneal epithelium cells in delayed periods after γ-irradiation in different points of the S phase of the first mitotic cycle. The index labeled cells during 1-3 periods of DNA synthesis most adequately reflects quantitative changes in the cell population composition after cell exposure during the first S period. The relative number of labeled S phase cells in the second mitotic cycle in experiments where the cells were irradiated in the S1 phase of the first S period was 4-fold lower than in experiments where the cells were exposed during S2 phase...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sana El-Kacemi, Hicham Zazou, Nihal Oturan, Matthias Dietze, Mohamed Hamdani, Mohammed Es-Souni, Mehmet A Oturan
Electrochemical oxidative degradation of diazo dye Amido black 10B (AB10B) as model pollutant in water has been studied using nanostructured ZnO-TiO2 thin films deposited on graphite felt (GrF) substrate as anode. The influence of various operating parameters, namely the current intensity, the nature and concentration of catalyst, the nature of electrode materials (anode/cathode), and the adsorption of dye and ambient light were investigated. It was found that the oxidative degradation of AB10B followed pseudo first-order kinetics...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S E Abd Elhafez, H A Hamad, A A Zaatout, G F Malash
In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wang Heping, Geng Xingguo, Li Xiaoguang, Zang Duyang
This paper presents an exploration of the separation behavior and pattern formation in a shear binary fluid with dynamic temperature after slow cooling via coupled lattice Boltzmann method. The phase separation procedure can be divided into three different stages: spinodal decomposition, domain growth, and domain stretch. The effect of thermal diffusion was observed to be more significant than that of shear convection in the spinodal decomposition stage, while the opposite was observed in the domain growth stage...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Li Li, Zhiyuan Zhang
The emergence of bioorthogonal reactions has greatly broadened the scope of biomolecule labeling and detecting. Of all the bioorthogonal reactions that have been developed, the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) is the most widely applied one, mainly because of its relatively fast kinetics and high efficiency. However, the introduction of copper species to in vivo systems raises the issue of potential toxicity. In order to reduce the copper-induced toxicity and further improve the reaction kinetics and efficiency, different strategies have been adopted, including the development of diverse copper chelating ligands to assist the catalytic cycle and the development of chelating azides as reagents...
October 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Keming Zhou, Yishi Jin
Presynaptic ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) have long been proposed to affect neurotransmitter release and to tune neural circuit activity. However, the understanding of their in vivo physiological action remains limited, partly due to the complexity in channel types and scarcity of genetic models. Here we report that C. elegans LGC-46, a member of the Cys-loop acetylcholine (ACh)-gated chloride (ACC) channel family, localizes to presynaptic terminals of cholinergic motor neurons and regulates synaptic vesicle (SV) release kinetics upon evoked release of acetylcholine...
October 26, 2016: ELife
Soodabeh Iranpour, Vahid Nejati, Nowruz Delirezh, Pouria Biparva, Sadegh Shirian
BACKGROUND: Developing safe and effective cancer vaccine formulations is a primary focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DC) are currently employed as cellular vaccine in clinical trials of tumor immunotherapy. Recognizing the critical role of DCs in initiating anti-tumor immunity has resulted in the development of several strategies that target vaccine antigens to DCs to trigger anti-tumor T cell responses. To increase the efficiency of antigen delivery systems for anti-tumor vaccines, encapsulation of tumor-associated antigens in polymer nanoparticles (NPs) has been established...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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