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Hirotaka Iijima, Kanako Shimoura, Tomoki Aoyama, Masaki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Stair climbing was suggested to be the first affected task in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). RESEARCH QUESTION: This review aimed to identify consistent kinematic, kinetic, and spatiotemporal alterations of stair climbing exhibited by individuals with knee OA. METHODS: A literature search published until September 2017 was conducted in PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Reviewer extracted data in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook...
March 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
Tian Xie, Meie Wang, Chao Su, Weiping Chen
Soils provide the service of attenuating and detoxifying pollutants. Such ability, natural attenuation capacity (NAC), is one of the most important ecosystem services for urban soils. We improved the ecosystem-service performance index (EPX) model by integrating with entropy weight determination method to evaluate the NAC of residential soils in Beijing. Eleven parameters related to the soil process of pollutants fate and transport were selected and 115 residential soil samples were collected. The results showed that bulk density, microbial functional diversity and soil organic matter had high weights in the NAC evaluation...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Moritz Lindner, Sebastian Kosanetzky, Maximilian Pfau, Jennifer Nadal, Lukas A Gördt, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Matthias Schmid, Frank G Holz, Monika Fleckenstein
Purpose: To assess the impact of distinct atrophy border characteristics based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging on local atrophy progression. Methods: Patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD were recruited in the context of the Longitudinal Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration and Directional Spread in Geographic Atrophy studies (NCT00393692, NCT02051998). Horizontal and vertical SD-OCT scans were acquired at sequential visits using a device allowing for anatomically accurate registration of follow-up to baseline scans...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Antonio Lopalco, Annalisa Cutrignelli, Nunzio Denora, Angela Lopedota, Massimo Franco, Valentino Laquintana
The transport of dopamine across the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for the management of Parkinson's disease. The employment of central nervous system targeted ligands functionalized nanocarriers could be a valid tactic to overcome this obstacle and avoid undesirable side effects. In this work, transferrin functionalized dopamine-loaded liposomes were made by a modified dehydration-rehydration technique from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcoline, cholesterol and 1,2-stearoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N -[carboxy(poly(ethylene glycol)-2000)]...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Ge Li, Baodong Wang, Wayne Qiang Xu, Yonglong Li, Yifan Han, Qi Sun
Nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) are major air pollutants, so simultaneously removing them from gases emitted during fossil fuel combustion in stationary systems is important. Wet denitrification using urea is used for a wide range of systems. Additives have strong effects on wet denitrification using urea, and different mechanisms are involved and different effects found using different additives. In this study, the effects of different additives, initial urea concentrations, reaction temperatures, initial pH values, gas flow rates, and reaction times on the simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification efficiencies achieved using wet denitrification using urea were studied in single factor experiment...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Alexander Kreft, Peter G Jones, Daniel B Werz
D-A cyclopropanes bearing a simple cyclopropyl group as donor are shown to undergo a variety of [3+ n]-cycloaddition reactions ( n = 2-4). This behavior contrasts sharply with that of common D-A cyclopropanes with aliphatic donors. Kinetic experiments demonstrate that, in terms of donor ability, the cyclopropyl substituent lies between electron-rich and electron-neutral aryl donors.
March 20, 2018: Organic Letters
Yury I Kostyukevich, Alexey S Kononikhin, Igor A Popov, Eugene N Nikolaev
We present the accurate analytical solution obtained for the system of rate equations describing the isotope exchange process for molecule containing arbitrary number of equivalent labile atoms. The exact solution was obtained using Mathematica 7.0 software and this solution has the form of the time-dependent Gaussian distribution. For the case when forward exchange considerable overlaps the back exchange it is possible to estimate the activation energy of the reaction by obtaining a temperature dependence of the reaction degree...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Junghyun L Suh, Brian Watts, Jacob I Stuckey, Jacqueline L Norris-Drouin, Stephanie H Cholensky, Bradley M Dickson, Yi An, Sebastian Mathea, Eidarus Salah, Stefan Knapp, Abid Khan, Alexander T Adams, Brian D Strahl, Cari A Sagum, Mark T Bedford, Lindsey I James, Dmitri B Kireev, Stephen V Frye
Multivalent binding is an efficient means to enhance the affinity and specificity of chemical probes targeting multi-domain proteins in order to study their function and role in disease. While the theory of multivalent binding is straightforward, physical and structural characterization of bivalent binding encounters multiple technical difficulties. We present a case study where a combination of experimental techniques and computational simulations was used to comprehensively characterize the binding and structure-affinity relationships for a series of Bromosporine-based bivalent bromodomain ligands with a bivalent protein, Transcription Initiation Factor TFIID subunit 1 (TAF1)...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Brittney Ann Klein, Béla Reiz, Ian Michael Robertson, Malcolm Irving, Liang Li, Yin-Biao Sun, Brian D Sykes
The development of calcium sensitizers for the treatment of systolic heart failure presents difficulties including judging the optimal efficacy and the specificity to target cardiac muscle. The thin filament is an attractive target since cardiac troponin-C (cTnC) is the site of calcium binding and the trigger for subsequent contraction. One widely studied calcium sensitizer is levosimendan. We have recently shown that when a covalent cTnC-levosimendan analog is exchanged into cardiac muscle cells, they become constitutively active, demonstrating the potency of a covalent complex...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Guoxian Gu, Jiaxiang Lu, Ouran Yu, Jialin Wen, Qin Yin, Xumu Zhang
An iridium/f-amphol catalytic system for the enantioselective hydrogenation of α-substituted β-ketoesters via dynamic kinetic resolution is reported. The desired anti products were obtained in high yields (up to 98%) with good diastereoselectivity (up to 96:4 diastereometic ratio (dr)) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to >99% enantiomeric excess (ee)). A catalytic model is proposed to explain the stereoselectivity.
March 20, 2018: Organic Letters
Riccardo Amorati, Luca Valgimigli
Measurement of antioxidant properties in plant-derived compounds require appropriate methods that address the mechanism of antioxidant activity and focus on the kinetics of the reactions involving the antioxidants. Methods based on inhibited autoxidations are the most suited for chain-breaking antioxidants and for termination-enhancing antioxidants, while different specific studies are needed for preventive antioxidants. A selection of chemical testing methods is critically reviewed highlighting their advantages and limitations, and discussing their usefulness to investigate both pure molecules and raw extracts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Min Zhou, Qunhong Weng, Zakhar I Popov, Yijun Yang, Liubov Yu Antipina, Pavel B Sorokin, Xi Wang, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg
Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution is hindered by its sluggish kinetics toward water dissociation. Nickel-based catalysts, as low-cost and effective candidates, show great potentials to replace platinum (Pt)-based materials in the alkaline media. The main challenge regarding this type of catalysts is their relatively poor durability. In this work, we conceive and construct a charge-polarized carbon layer derived from carbon quantum dots (CQDs) on Ni3 N nanostructure (Ni3 N@CQDs) surfaces, which simultaneously exhibit durable and enhanced catalytic activity...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Giannin Mosoarca, Cosmin Vancea, Simona Popa, Sorina Boran
Present paper investigates the phytoremediation of cobalt from wastewaters using Elodea canadensis. Bioaccumulation tests were conducted at various concentrations of cobalt ranging from 1 to 15 mg/L. Final concentrations of cobalt in wastewaters, after phytoremediation, were less than 1 mg/L. E. canadensis' hyperaccumulator character with regard to cobalt is emphasised by the amount of cobalt retained: 0.39% ± 0.02% of dry mass at an initial concentration in wastewater of 15 mg/L. After 14 days of exposure to contaminant, the biomass as well as the relative growth rate has increased with the amount of cobalt in wastewaters, the plant manifesting an excellent tolerance to cobalt exposure...
March 20, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Núria F Montcada, Maria Méndez, Kyung Taek Cho, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Emilio Palomares
We describe in this work how the use of the photo-induced charge extraction (PICE) technique can be useful to study and understand the relationship between perovskite composition, ion migration processes and solar cell performance. Our results show that varying the organic cation and halide composition in perovskite crystals has an effect on the charge extraction process, which is related to the differences in the ion migration process occurring during light irradiation. Moreover, we do also observe that different perovskites also show differences in interfacial carrier recombination kinetics under operando conditions but the dynamics are too fast to be influenced by the ion migration...
March 20, 2018: Nanoscale
D J Medeiros, M A Blitz, P W Seakins
Ab initio theory has been used to identify the pre-reaction complex in the atmospherically important reaction between OH + SO2, (R1), where the binding energy of the pre-reaction complex was determined to be 7.2 kJ mol-1. Using reaction rate theory, implemented with the master equation package MESMER, the effects of this complex on the kinetics of R1 at temperatures above 250 K have been investigated. From simulations and fitting to the experimental kinetic data, it is clear that the influence of this pre-reaction complex is negligible and that the kinetics are controlled by the inner transition-state that leads to the product, HOSO2...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kohei Abe, Susumu Inasawa
We evaluate an enhancement of the drying flux from a narrow drying interface. We examine drying of colloidal suspensions in a directional drying cell with various combinations of width and height to change the area of the drying interface. The drying flux changes depending on the height or width of the drying interface. A simple scaling law describes the experimental data quantitatively. Using this effect, we systematically change the drying flux and analyze the formation kinetics of particulate films. There is a threshold drying flux for immediate film formation after the beginning of drying...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
María Lovato, José Real Buffelli, Mariana Abrile, Carlos Martín
The application of conventional physicochemical and microbiological techniques for the removal of organic pollutants has limitations for its utilization on wastewaters as landfill leachates because of their high concentration of not easily biodegradable organic compounds. The use of ozone-based technologies is an alternative and complementary treatment for this type of wastewaters. This paper reports the study of the degradation of landfill leachates from different stages of a treatment plant using ozone and ozone + UV...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hossein Faghihian, Zahra Adibmehr
Novel magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was prepared by use of SBA-15 as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross linker, diphenylcarbazide as ligand, and Cd2+ , Cu2+ , and Ni2+ as the template of ion source. The adsorption capacity of the synthesized adsorbent was 111, 95, and 87 mg g-1 , respectively for cadmium, copper, and nickel. The selectivity of the adsorbents examined in the presence of different cations including Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Zn2+ , Co2+ , Fe2+ , Mn2+ , Hg2+ , and Pb2+ indicated that the synthesized ion-imprinted adsorbents were highly selective for the appropriate cations...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mirella Luciani, Tiziana Di Febo, Massimiliano Orsini, Ivanka Krasteva, Angela Cattaneo, Michele Podaliri Vulpiani, Chiara Di Pancrazio, Angela Bachi, Manuela Tittarelli
The diagnosis of dourine can be difficult because the clinical signs of this disease in horses are similar to those of surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi . Moreover, T. equiperdum and T. evansi are closely related and, so far, they cannot be distinguished using serological tests. In a previous work, the T. equiperdum protein pattern recognized by antibodies from dourine-infected horses and the humoral immune response kinetics were investigated by immunoblotting assay; a total of 20 sera from naturally and experimentally infected horses and from healthy animals were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Paraskevi Malea, Theodoros Kevrekidis, Konstantina-Roxani Chatzipanagiotou, Athanasios Mogias
Background: Seagrass species have been recommended as biomonitors of environmental condition and as tools for phytoremediation, due to their ability to concentrate anthropogenic chemicals. This study aims to provide novel information on metal accumulation in seagrasses under laboratory conditions to support their use as a tool in the evaluation and abatement of contamination in the field. We investigated the kinetics of cadmium uptake into adult leaf blades, leaf sheaths, rhizomes and roots of Cymodocea nodosa in exposure concentrations within the range of cadmium levels in industrial wastewater (0...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
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