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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092623/ultrasonography-a-method-used-for-pregnancy-imaging-of-the-fire-salamander-salamandra-salamandra
#1
A Najbar, Z Kiełbowicz, J Szymczak, M Ogielska
Ultrasound imaging has more frequently been used in veterinary medicine of amphibians and reptiles. In this study, we have verified the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in pregnancy determination of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We have also undertaken to estimate the number of larvae and their developmental stage directly in the oviducts. Three gravid females from Lower Silesia (southern Poland) were examined. Due to the small size of the scanned animals, and the particular arrangement of embryos in the oviducts and ultrasound beams dispersal, the method proved to be inaccurate...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092407/study-of-potential-health-effects-of-electromagnetic-fields-of-telephony-and-wi-fi-using-chicken-embryo-development-as-animal-model
#2
Henri Woelders, Agnes de Wit, Alexander Lourens, Norbert Stockhofe, Bas Engel, Ina Hulsegge, Dirkjan Schokker, Paula van Heijningen, Stefan Vossen, Dave Bekers, Peter Zwamborn
The objective of this study is to investigate possible biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as used in modern wireless telecommunication in a well-controlled experimental environment using chicken embryo development as animal model. Chicken eggs were incubated under continuous experimental exposure to GSM (1.8 GHz), DECT (1.88 GHz), UMTS (2.1 GHz), and WLAN (5.6 GHz) radiation, with the appropriate modulation protocol, using a homogeneous field distribution at a field strength of approximately 3 V/m, representing the maximum field level in a normal living environment...
January 16, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091967/balancing-ethical-pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-derived-gametes
#3
Seppe Segers, Heidi Mertes, Guido de Wert, Wybo Dondorp, Guido Pennings
In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091617/switch-from-sexual-to-parthenogenetic-reproduction-in-a-zebra-shark
#4
Christine L Dudgeon, Laura Coulton, Ren Bone, Jennifer R Ovenden, Severine Thomas
Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091415/advances-of-coagulation-factor-xiii
#5
REVIEW
Da-Yu Shi, Shu-Jie Wang
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive literature review on roles of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) in coagulation, wound healing, neoplasm, bone metabolism, and pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: All articles in PubMed with key words "Coagulation factor XIII", "wound", "leukemia", "tumor", "bone," and "pregnancy" with published date from 2001 to 2016 were included in the study. Frequently cited publications before 2000 were also included. STUDY SELECTION: We reviewed the role of FXIII in biologic processes as documented in clinical, animal, and in vitro studies...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091127/amino-modified-polystyrene-nanoparticles-affect-signalling-pathways-of-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus-embryos
#6
Annalisa Pinsino, Elisa Bergami, Camilla Della Torre, Maria Luisa Vannuccini, Piero Addis, Marco Secci, Kenneth A Dawson, Valeria Matranga, Ilaria Corsi
Polystyrene nanoparticles have been shown to pose serious risk to marine organisms including sea urchin embryos based on their surface properties and consequently behaviour in natural sea water. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxicity pathways of amino polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NH2, 50 nm) in Paracentrotus lividus embryos in terms of development and signalling at both protein and gene levels. Two sub-lethal concentrations of 3 and 4 µg/mL of PS-NH2 were used to expose sea urchin embryos in natural sea water (PS-NH2 as aggregates of 143 ± 5 nm)...
January 16, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090691/peg3-pw1-is-a-marker-of-a-subset-of-vessel-associated-endothelial-progenitors
#7
Matteo Malinverno, Monica Corada, Luca Ferrarini, Luigi Formicola, Giovanna Marazzi, David Sassoon, Elisabetta Dejana
Vascular associated endothelial cell progenitors are still poorly studied and their role in the newly forming vasculature at embryonic or postnatal stage remains elusive. In the present work we first defined a set of genes highly expressed during embryo development and strongly down regulated in the adult mouse. In this group we then concentrated on the progenitor cell marker Peg3/PW1. By in vivo staining of the vasculature we found that only a subset of cells co-expressed endothelial markers and PW1. These cells were quite abundant in the embryo vasculature but declined in number at postnatal and adult stages...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090465/does-intrauterine-injection-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-improve-the-clinical-pregnancy-rate-in-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection
#8
Ahmed Mohamed Kamel, Yahia El-Faissal, Mona Aboulghar, Ragaa Mansour, Gamal I Serour, Mohamed Aboulghar
OBJECTIVE: Heparin can modulate proteins, and influence processes involved in implantation and trophoblastic development. This study aimed to assess the improvement of clinical pregnancy and implantation rates after local intrauterine injection of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). METHODS: A randomised case/control design was followed in women scheduled for ICSI. The study arm was injected with intrauterine LMWH during mock embryo transfer immediately following the ovum pickup procedure, while the control arm was given an intrauterine injection with a similar volume of tissue culture media...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090464/the-efficacy-of-intrauterine-instillation-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-in-infertile-women-with-a-thin-endometrium-a-pilot-study
#9
Dayong Lee, Jae Dong Jo, Seul Ki Kim, Byung Chul Jee, Seok Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intrauterine instillation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the day of ovulation triggering or oocyte retrieval in infertile women with a thin endometrium. METHODS: Fifty women whose endometrial thickness (EMT) was ≤8 mm at the time of triggering during at least one previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle and an index IVF cycle were selected. On the day of triggering (n=12) or oocyte retrieval (n=38), 300 µg of G-CSF was instilled into the uterine cavity...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090463/efficacy-of-oxytocin-antagonist-infusion-in-improving-in-vitro-fertilization-outcomes-on-the-day-of-embryo-transfer-a-meta-analysis
#10
Seul Ki Kim, E-Jung Han, Sun Mie Kim, Jung Ryeol Lee, Byung Chul Jee, Chang Suk Suh, Seok Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: Uterine contraction induced by the embryo transfer (ET) process has an adverse effect on embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET on in vitro fertilization outcomes via a meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Four online databases (Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) were searched through May 2015 for RCTs that investigated oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090462/pretreatment-of-normal-responders-in-fresh-in-vitro-fertilization-cycles-a-comparison-of-transdermal-estradiol-and-oral-contraceptive-pills
#11
Nigel Pereira, Allison C Petrini, Zhen N Zhou, Jovana P Lekovich, Isaac Kligman, Zev Rosenwaks
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment with transdermal estradiol (E2) compared to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response in normal responders undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) cycles. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of normal responders undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles who received pretreatment with transdermal E2 versus OCPs prior to fresh IVF-ET...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090461/effects-of-maternal-age-on-embryo-quality-and-pregnancy-outcomes-using-testicular-sperm-with-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection
#12
Hye Won Choi, Yong-Seog Park, Sun-Hee Lee, Chun Kyu Lim, Ju Tae Seo, Kwang Moon Yang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal age on fertilization, embryo quality, and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia. METHODS: A total of 416 ICSI cycles using testicular spermatozoa from partners with obstructive azoospermia (OA, n=301) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA, n=115) were analyzed. Female patients were divided into the following age groups: 27 to 31 years, 32 to 36 years, and 37 to 41 years...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089946/identification-by-pcr-signature-tagged-mutagenesis-of-attenuated-salmonella-pullorum-mutants-and-corresponding-genes-in-a-chicken-embryo-model
#13
Shizhong Geng, Qin Tian, Rongxian Guo, Yang Jiao, Paul Barrow, Chao Yin, Yaonan Wang, Haopeng Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
A key feature of the fowl-specific pathogen Salmonella Pullorum is its vertical transmission to progeny via the egg. In this study, PCR signature-tagged mutagenesis identified nine genes of a strain of S. Pullorum that contributed to survival in the chicken embryo during incubation. The genes were involved in invasion, cell division, metabolism and bacterial defence. The competition index in vivo and in vitro together with a virulence evaluation for chicken embryos of all nine mutant strains confirmed their attenuation...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089848/sparc-preserves-follicular-epithelium-integrity-in-insect-ovaries
#14
Paula Irles, Saray Ramos, Maria-Dolors Piulachs
The importance of juvenile hormone regulating insect oogenesis suggests looking for genes whose expression is regulated by this hormone. SPARC is a calcium-binding glycoprotein that forms part of the extracellular membranes, which in vertebrates participates in bones mineralization or regulating cell proliferation in some cancer types. This large number of functions described for SPARC in different species might be related to the significant differences in its structure observed when comparing different species-groups...
January 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089824/mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-2-in-human-cumulus-cells-is-associated-with-regulating-autophagy-and-apoptosis-maintaining-gap-junction-integrity-and-progesterone-synthesis
#15
Hongshan Ge, Fan Zhang, Duan Ping, Nan Zhu, Jiayan Zhang, Feijun Ye, Dan Shan, Hua Chen, XiaoSheng Lu, ChunFang Zhu, Renshan Ge, Zhenkun Lin
To explore the roles of mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) in cumulus cells (CCs), human CCs were cultured in vitro, and the UCP2 was inhibited by treatment with Genipin, a special UCP inhibitor, or by RNA interference targeting UCP2. No significant differences in adenosine triphosphate levels and the ratio of ADP/ATP were observed after UCP2 inhibition. UCP2 inhibition caused a significant increase in cellular oxidative damage, which was reflected in alterations to several key parameters, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels and the ratio of reduced GSH to GSSG...
January 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089717/persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-human-follicular-fluid-and-in-vitro-fertilization-outcomes-a-pilot-study
#16
Michael S Bloom, Victor Y Fujimoto, Robin Storm, Li Zhang, Celeste D Butts, Diana Sollohub, Robert L Jansing
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitously distributed among the U.S. population and adversely impact human reproduction. These compounds have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF), where they directly contact a developing oocyte. As a pilot investigation, we measured 43 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its persistent metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in residual FF collected from 32 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
January 9, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089573/what-is-a-difficult-transfer-analysis-of-7-714-embryo-transfers-the-impact-of-maneuvers-during-embryo-transfers-on-pregnancy-rate-and-a-proposal-of-objective-assessment
#17
Alejandro Kava-Braverman, Francisca Martínez, Ignacio Rodríguez, Manuel Álvarez, Pedro N Barri, Buenaventura Coroleu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between the degree of difficulty of ET and pregnancy rate (PR), with a view to proposing an algorithm for the objective assessment of ET. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: In vitro fertilization unit. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) with ET after IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in whom fresh embryo transfer or frozen-thawed embryo transfer was performed...
January 12, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089518/transcriptional-pre-patterning-of-drosophila-gastrulation
#18
Bomyi Lim, Michael Levine, Yuji Yamakazi
Gastrulation of the Drosophila embryo is one of the most intensively studied morphogenetic processes in animal development [1-4]. Particular efforts have focused on the formation of the ventral furrow, whereby ∼1,000 presumptive mesoderm cells exhibit coordinated apical constrictions that mediate invagination [5, 6]. Apical constriction depends on a Rho GTPase signaling pathway (T48/Fog) that is deployed by the developmental regulatory genes twist and snail [7-10]. It is thought that coordinate mesoderm constriction depends on high levels of myosin along the ventral midline, although the basis for this localization is uncertain...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089077/the-changing-pattern-of-uterine-contractions-before-and-after-fresh-embryo-transfer-and-its-relation-to-clinical-outcome
#19
Cathy Hoi Sze Chung, Alice Wai Yee Wong, Carol Pui Shan Chan, Sotirios H Saravelos, Grace Wing Shan Kong, Lai Ping Cheung, Jacqueline Pui Wah Chung, Tin Chiu Li
In this prospective cohort study of 286 women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after IVF, uterine contraction frequency and direction were measured before (-5 min), 5 min after (+5 min) and 60 min after (+60 min) embryo transfer. Mean ± SD uterine contraction frequency at -5 min was 1.8 ± 1.1 contractions per min, increasing significantly (P < 0.05) to 2.0 ± 1.1 at +5 min, and returning back to baseline 1.8 ± 1.1 at +60 min. At -5 min, the proportion of women the with retrograde, antegrade, indeterminate direction and absent contractions were 33%, 44%, 17% and 6%; at +5 min, 40%, 42%, 13% and 5%, and at +60 min, 42%, 38%, 14% and 6%...
December 23, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088685/a-semi-interpenetrating-network-of-polyacrylamide-and-recombinant-basement-membrane-allows-pluripotent-cell-culture-in-a-soft-ligand-rich-microenvironment
#20
Andrew J Price, Eva Y Huang, Vittorio Sebastiano, Alexander R Dunn
The physical properties of the extracellular matrix play an essential role in guiding stem cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. Existing work to investigate the role of matrix mechanics in directing stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation has been limited by the poor attachment and survival of human pluripotent cells cultured on soft matrices (Young's modulus E ≲ 1000 Pa). To address this limitation we developed a protocol for generating semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and recombinant basement membrane...
December 9, 2016: Biomaterials
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