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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637295/inhibition-of-polyamine-synthesis-causes-entry-of-the-mouse-blastocyst-into-embryonic-diapause1
#1
Jane C Fenelon, Bruce D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is a common reproductive strategy amongst mammals, requiring an intimate cross-talk between the endometrium and the blastocyst. To date, the precise molecular signals responsible are unknown in the mouse or any other mammal. Previous studies in the mink implicate polyamines as major regulators of the control of diapause. In the mouse, inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) during early pregnancy largely prevents implantation, but the fate of the non-implanted embryos is unknown...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637085/successful-delivery-derived-from-cryopreserved-rare-human-spermatozoa-with-novel-cryopiece
#2
J Sun, W Chen, L Zhou, J Hu, Z Li, Z Zhang, Y Wu
Herein, we report the clinical outcomes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with cryopiece cryopreserved rare human spermatozoa from severe male factor infertility patients. We established a novel cryopiece system on the basis of previous studies. In this study, 126 spermatozoa from four patients with non-obstructiveazoospermia (NOA) or severe oligozoospermia were stored in cryopiece and then thawed on the day of the oocyte retrieval, 88 (83%) spermatozoa were recovered with a 47.5% (38 of 80) motile rate...
June 21, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636837/microrna-101-2-5p-targets-the-apob-gene-in-liver-of-chicken-gallus-gallus
#3
Zheng Ma, Hong Li, Hang Zheng, Keren Jiang, Lijuan Jia, Fengbin Yan, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Yanbin Wang, Xiaojun Liu
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a major protein component of plasma lipoproteins, which have been involved in many important biological processes such as lipid transportation, enzyme activity regulation and receptor recognition. Extensive studies have showed that the expression of the ApoB was regulated at multiple levels. However, the regulation of ApoB expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) still remains unknown. In present studies, miRNAs that interact with ApoB have been predicted in chicken. The targeted relationship between the predicated miRNAs and ApoB was verified through dual luciferase reporter assay in chicken DF1 cells, and the effect of miRNAs on ApoB expression was analyzed in chicken embryo hepatocytes stimulated by 17β-estradiol...
June 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636676/mitochondrion-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-apposition-length-in-zebrafish-embryo-spinal-progenitors-is-unchanged-in-response-to-perturbations-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Morgan Newman, Lena Halter, Anne Lim, Michael Lardelli
Mutations in the human genes PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1), PRESENILIN2 (PSEN2) and AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP) have been identified in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The length of mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum (M-ER) appositions is increased in Psen1-/-/Psen2-/- double knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from AD-affected individuals. Development of an easily accessible, genetically manipulable, in vivo system for studying M-ER appositions would be valuable so we attempted to manipulate M-ER apposition length in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#5
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636430/when-is-embryonic-arrest-broken-in-turtle-eggs
#6
Sean A Williamson, Roger G Evans, Richard D Reina
Turtle embryos enter a state of arrested development in the oviduct, allowing the mother greater flexibility in her reproductive schedule. Development recommences once eggs transition from the hypoxic oviduct to the normoxic nest. Significant mortality can occur if turtle eggs are moved between 12 h and 20 d after oviposition, and this is linked to the recommencement of embryonic development. To better understand the timing of developmental arrest and to determine how movement-induced mortality might be avoided, we determined the latency (i...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636279/effects-of-in-ovo-injection-of-chrysin-quercetin-and-ascorbic-acid-on-hatchability-somatic-attributes-hepatic-oxidative-status-and-early-post-hatch-performance-of-broiler-chicks
#7
F Khaligh, A Hassanabadi, H Nassiri-Moghaddam, A Golian, G-A Kalidari
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of chrysin, quercetin and ascorbic acid on hatchability, somatic attributes, hepatic antioxidant status and early post-hatch growth performance of broiler chicks. Four hundred and eighty embryonated broiler breeder eggs containing live 18-day-old embryos were divided into six groups of 80 eggs each. One group remained intact and served as a control group (i), whereas the other five groups were injected with the prepared injection solutions as follows: (ii) 0...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636277/esrrb-plays-a-crucial-role-in-the-promotion-of-porcine-cell-reprogramming
#8
Fan Yang, Yahui Ren, Huan Li Huayan Wang
The estrogen-related receptor b (ESRRB) is an orphan nuclear receptor and targets many genes involved in self-renewal and pluripotency. In mouse ES cells, overexpression of ESRRB can maintain LIF-independent self-renewal in the absence of Nanog. However, the fundamental features of porcine ESRRB remain elusive. In this study, we revealed the expression profiles of ESRRB in both porcine pluripotent stem cells and early stage embryos and dissected the functional domains of ESRRB protein to prove that ESRRB is a key transcription factor that enhanced porcine pluripotent gene activation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636231/orchestration-at-the-beginning-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryo
#9
Giselle A Abruzzese, Nae Tanpradit, Renata S Tavares
Development of multicellular organisms is driven by a series of mitotic divisions after fertilization. Total cytoplasmic volume does not increase during this process, resulting in an increasing number of smaller daughter cells. Cell divisions are initially synchronous in an early embryo, but this ends at the 16-cell stage in the sea urchin. Orchesterated mitosis does, however, continue in subpopulations via the coordination of two different processes: karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Part of this asynchrony is due to the differentiation of lineages...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636213/distribution-and-hypoxia-regulation-of-haemocyanin-in-springtails-collembola
#10
S Flachsbarth, M Kruse, T Burmester
Haemocyanin is the copper-containing respiratory protein present in many arthropods. In the hexapods, respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary as sufficient O2 was thought to be obtained via the trachea. Nevertheless, many ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod species actually possess haemocyanin. Here we investigated the occurrence of haemocyanin in Collembola (springtails). Haemocyanin was found in 22 collembolan species of the suborders Symphypleona, Tomoceroidea and Entomobryomorpha, demonstrating its widespread occurrence...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636164/a-nanostructured-microfluidic-immunoassay-platform-for-highly-sensitive-infectious-pathogen-detection
#11
Xu Yu, Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Wen-Long Zhang, Yin-Ting Yeh, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple potential pathogens by portable devices can facilitate early diagnosis of infectious diseases, and allow for rapid and effective implementation of disease prevention and treatment measures. The development of a ZnO nanorod integrated microdevice as a multiplex immunofluorescence platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) is described. The 3D morphology and unique optical property of the ZnO nanorods boost the detection limit of the H5N2 AIV to as low as 3...
June 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635583/cigarette-smoke-is-associated-with-altered-expression-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-granulosa-cells-from-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#12
Maria Cristina Budani, Erminia Carletti, Gian Mario Tiboni
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether cigarette smoke is associated with changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes in granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF treatments. For this aim, the expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2 and catalase) in non-smokers (n = 20) and smokers (n = 20) was analyzed. There was a statistically significant overexpression of SOD2 and catalase mRNA levels in smokers in comparison with non-smokers. Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate in comparison with non-smokers...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635162/chlamydia-trachomatis-is-responsible-for-lipid-vacuolation-in-the-amniotic-epithelium-of-fetal-gastroschisis
#13
Marcia L Feldkamp, Diane M Ward, Theodore J Pysher, Christina T Chambers
BACKGROUND: Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body)...
June 21, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634424/overexpression-and-knockdown-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-disrupt-the-expression-of-steroidogenic-enzyme-genes-and-early-embryonic-development-in-zebrafish
#14
Tianfeng Tan, Richard Man Kit Yu, Rudolf Shiu Sun Wu, Richard Yuen Chong Kong
Hypoxia is an important environmental stressor leading to endocrine disruption and reproductive impairment in fish. Although the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is known to regulate the transcription of various genes mediating oxygen homeostasis, its role in modulating steroidogenesis-related gene expression remains poorly understood. In this study, the regulatory effect of HIF-1 on the expression of 9 steroidogenic enzyme genes was investigated in zebrafish embryos using a "gain-of-function and loss-of-function" approach...
2017: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634372/dna-methylation-changes-in-endometrium-and-correlation-with-gene-expression-during-the-transition-from-pre-receptive-to-receptive-phase
#15
Viktorija Kukushkina, Vijayachitra Modhukur, Marina Suhorutšenko, Maire Peters, Reedik Mägi, Nilufer Rahmioglu, Agne Velthut-Meikas, Signe Altmäe, Francisco J Esteban, Jaak Vilo, Krina Zondervan, Andres Salumets, Triin Laisk-Podar
The inner uterine lining (endometrium) is a unique tissue going through remarkable changes each menstrual cycle. Endometrium has its characteristic DNA methylation profile, although not much is known about the endometrial methylome changes throughout the menstrual cycle. The impact of methylome changes on gene expression and thereby on the function of the tissue, including establishing receptivity to implanting embryo, is also unclear. Therefore, this study used genome-wide technologies to characterize the methylome and the correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression in endometrial biopsies collected from 17 healthy fertile-aged women from pre-receptive and receptive phase within one menstrual cycle...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#16
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634349/synuclein-impairs-trafficking-and-signaling-of-bdnf-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Fang Fang, Wanlin Yang, Jazmin B Florio, Edward Rockenstein, Brian Spencer, Xavier M Orain, Stephanie X Dong, Huayan Li, Xuqiao Chen, Kijung Sung, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah, Jianqing Ding, Chengbiao Wu
Recent studies have demonstrated that hyperphosphorylation of tau protein plays a role in neuronal toxicities of α-synuclein (ASYN) in neurodegenerative disease such as familial Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease. Using a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) that expresses GFP-ASYN driven by the PDGF-β promoter, we investigated how accumulation of ASYN impacted axonal function. We found that retrograde axonal trafficking of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in DIV7 cultures of E18 cortical neurons was markedly impaired at the embryonic stage, even though hyperphosphorylation of tau was not detectable in these neurons at this stage...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634273/the-c-elegans-vapb-homolog-vpr-1-is-a-permissive-signal-for-gonad-development
#18
Pauline A Cottee, Tim Cole, Jessica Schultz, Hieu D Hoang, Jack Vibbert, Sung Min Han, Michael A Miller
VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated proteins (VAPs) contain an N-terminal major sperm protein domain (MSPd) that is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VAPs have an intracellular housekeeping function, as well as an extracellular signaling function mediated by the secreted MSPd. Here we show that the C. elegans VAP homolog VPR-1 is essential for gonad development. vpr-1 null mutants are maternal effect sterile due to arrested gonadogenesis following embryo hatching. Somatic gonadal precursor cells and germ cells fail to proliferate fully and complete their respective differentiation programs...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634228/spatial-mapping-and-profiling-of-metabolite-distributions-during-germination
#19
Adam D Feenstra, Liza E Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R Korte, Marna Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids...
June 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633953/reversal-learning-and-resurgence-of-operant-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#20
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R X Cançado, Christopher A Podlesnik
Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor)...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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