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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356444/physiological-plasticity-in-lizard-embryos-exposed-to-high-altitude-hypoxia
#1
Gerardo A Cordero, Bea Angelica Andersson, Jeremie Souchet, Gaëlle Micheli, Daniel W A Noble, Eric J Gangloff, Tobias Uller, Fabien Aubret
Coping with novel environments may be facilitated by plastic physiological responses that enable survival during environmentally sensitive life stages. We tested the capacity for embryos of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) from low altitude to cope with low-oxygen partial pressure (hypoxia) in an alpine environment. Developing embryos subjected to hypoxic atmospheric conditions (15-16% O2 sea-level equivalent) at 2,877 m above sea level exhibited responses common to vertebrates acclimatized to or evolutionarily adapted to high altitude: suppressed metabolism, cardiac hypertrophy, and hyperventilation...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356429/the-effects-of-incubation-temperature-and-experimental-design-on-heart-rates-of-lizard-embryos
#2
Austin C Hulbert, Timothy S Mitchell, Joshua M Hall, Cassia M Guiffre, Danielle C Douglas, Daniel A Warner
Many studies of phenotypic plasticity alter environmental conditions during embryonic development, yet only measure phenotypes at the neonatal stage (after embryonic development). However, measuring aspects of embryo physiology enhances our understanding of how environmental factors immediately affect embryos, which aids our understanding of developmental plasticity. While current research on reptile developmental plasticity has demonstrated that fluctuating incubation temperatures affect development differently than constant temperatures, most research on embryo physiology is still performed with constant temperature experiments...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356153/mun-meristem-unstructured-encoding-a-spc24-homolog-of-ndc80-kinetochore-complex-affects-development-through-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Jinwoo Shin, Goowon Jeong, Jong-Yoon Park, Hoyeun Kim, Ilha Lee
Kinetochore, a protein super-complex on the centromere of chromosomes, mediates chromosome segregation during cell division by providing attachment sites for spindle microtubules. The NDC80 complex, composed of four proteins, NDC80, NUF2, SPC24, and SPC25, is localized at the outer kinetochore and connects spindle fibers to the kinetochore. Although it is conserved across species, functional studies of this complex are rare in Arabidopsis. Here, we characterize a recessive mutant, meristem unstructured-1 (mun-1), exhibiting an abnormal phenotype with unstructured shoot apical meristem caused by ectopic expression of the WUSCHEL gene in unexpected tissues...
January 21, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356036/dnah6-is-a-novel-candidate-gene-associated-with-sperm-head-anomaly
#4
L Li, Y-W Sha, X Xu, L-B Mei, P-P Qiu, Z-Y Ji, S-B Lin, Z-Y Su, C Wang, C Yin, P Li
Globozoospermia and acephalic spermatozoa are two rare sperm head anomalies associated with male infertility. Combination of the two phenotypes in the same patient is extremely rare, so the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Here, we report a 35-year-old infertile male, who presented with 30% of sperm-lacked heads and 69% of sperm round-headed or small-headed with neck thickening in his ejaculate. Subsequent whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis identified compound heterozygous variants within the DNAH6 gene...
January 22, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355775/real-time-electrochemical-investigation-of-the-release-distribution-and-modulation-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-intestine-of-individual-zebrafish-embryos
#5
Eduard Dumitrescu, Kenneth Wallace, Silvana Andreescu
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule that has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes in living organisms. NO plays an important role in embryonic development in vertebrates and has been reported to influence early organ development and plasticity. Quantifying NO in single embryos and their developing organs is challenging because of the small size of the embryos, the low dynamically changing concentration and the short life-time of NO. Here, we measured the distribution of NO in the intestine of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in physiological conditions and under the influence of therapeutic agents...
January 16, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355596/ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-e1-inhibitor-pyr-41-retards-sperm-enlargement-after-fusion-to-the-egg
#6
Keiichi Yoshida, Woojin Kang, Akihiro Nakamura, Natsuko Kawano, Maito Hanai, Mami Miyado, Yoshitaka Miyamoto, Maki Iwai, Toshio Hamatan, Hidekazu Saito, Kenji Miyado, Akihiro Umezawa
The ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is initiated by a single ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBE1), is involved in male reproduction via spermatogenesis and function in mammals. Here we explored the influence of UBE1-specific inhibitor, 4[4-(5-nitro-furan-2-ylmethylene)-3,5-dioxo-pyrazolidin-1-yl]-benzoic acid ethyl ester (pyrazone-41 or PYR-41) in female reproduction. UBE-1 was detected by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in mouse eggs and was localized mainly under the egg plasma membrane. PYR-41 pretreatment suppresses the development of eggs into two-cell embryos...
January 17, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355140/impact-of-embryo-co-culture-with-cumulus-cells-on-pregnancy-implantation-rate-in-patients-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization-using-donor-oocyte
#7
Harsha K Bhadarka, Nayana H Patel, Niket H Patel, Molina Patel, Kruti B Patel, Nilofar R Sodagar, Ajay G Phatak, Jagdish S Patel
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Cumulus cell co-culture of embryo had been found to be beneficial for achieving better pregnancy and implantation rate (IR). The present study was aimed to evaluate efficiency of cumulus co-culture technique over simple culture of embryo in terms of pregnancy rate (PR) and IR in patients undergoing treatment for infertility using donor oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study between control and study groups...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354792/mitochondria-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-in-eggs-and-embryos-of-the-ascidian-halocynthia-roretzi
#8
Yong Han Baek, Wang Jong Lee, Gil Jung Kim
Ascidian embryos have become an important model for embryological studies, offering a simple example for mechanisms of cytoplasmic components segregation. It is a well-known example that the asymmetric segregation of mitochondria into muscle lineage cells occurs during ascidian embryogenesis. However, it is still unclear which signaling pathway is involved in this process. To obtain molecular markers for studying mechanisms involved in the asymmetric distribution of mitochondria, we have produced monoclonal antibodies, Mito-1, Mito-2 and Mito-3, that specifically recognize mitochondriarich cytoplasm in cells of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi embryos...
December 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354791/cathepsin-b-d-and-the-survival-of-early-embryos-in-red-spotted-grouper-ephinephelus-akaara
#9
Seo-Hui Gwon, Hyun Kyu Kim, Hea Ja Baek, Young-Don Lee, Joon Yeong Kwon
Survival of embryos largely depends on yolk processing during early development. Proteolytic enzymes, cathepsin B & D (ctsb & ctsd) are known to have some important roles in yolk processing of various fish species. Mature female red spotted groupers were injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) to induce ovulation. The fertilized eggs and embryos were sampled at 0, 4 and 24 HPF (hours post fertilization). Survivals of each groups of embryos were checked at 24 and 48 HPH (hours post hatching). Transcripts of ctsb & ctsd showed the highest level at 0 HPF and relatively high at 4 HPF, but greatly decreased at 24 HPF...
December 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353869/lipofection-of-sirna-into-bovine-8-16-cell-stage-embryos-using-zona-removal-and-the-well-of-the-well-culture-system
#10
Shuntaro Ikeda, Miki Sugimoto, Shinichi Kume
Bovine preimplantation embryos exhibit dramatic biological changes between before and after the 8-16-cell stage. Here we report a simple lipofection method to transfect siRNA into bovine 8-16-cell stage embryos using zona removal and the well-of-the-well (WOW) culture system. Bovine one-cell embryos produced in vitro were freed from the zona pellucida and cultured up to the 8-16-cell stage in WOW dishes. The 8-16-cell embryos were lipofected with siRNA and the transfection efficiency was assessed at 48 h of transfection...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353513/effects-of-different-open-cryo-carriers-on-embryo-survival-and-clinical-outcome-in-frozen-embryo-transfer-cycle-patients
#11
Dapeng Chu, Lei Fu, Wenhui Zhou, Yuan Li
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of different open cryo-carriers: the CryoloopTM, CryotopTM, and CryoleafTM, in embryo survival and clinical outcome in patients with frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle. We analyzed the embryo survival rate and clinical outcome in 325 patients of 348 FET cycles vitrified with the CryoloopTM (160 cycles), CryotopTM (105 cycles), or CryoleafTM (83 cycles). No significant differences were observed in embryo survival rate (98.8% vs. 100% vs. 97.7%, p > 0...
January 20, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353506/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-sperm-morphology-on-embryo-aneuploidy-rates-in-a-donor-oocyte-program
#12
Onder Coban, Munevver Serdarogullari, Zehra Onar Sekerci, Ekrem Murat Bilgin, Nedime Serakinci
This study investigates the correlation between sperm morphology and the incidence of embryo aneuploidy in an oocyte donation program. A total of 1,165 embryos from 103 patients have been analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for numerical abnormalities in chromosome numbers 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. Data has been evaluated in five groups according to sperm morphology, which has been assessed according to the Kruger's strict criteria. The results did not show any difference in paternal (p = 0.878), maternal (p = 0...
January 20, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353449/blastulation-timing-is-associated-with-differential-mitochondrial-content-in-euploid-embryos
#13
Jacqueline R Ho, Nabil Arrach, Katherine Rhodes-Long, Wael Salem, Lynda K McGinnis, Karine Chung, Kristin A Bendikson, Richard J Paulson, Ali Ahmady
PURPOSE: Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and assessment of mitochondrial content (MC) are current methods for selection of the best embryos for transfer. Studies suggest that time-lapse morphokinetics (TLM) may also be helpful for selecting embryos more likely to implant. In our study, we sought to examine the relationship between TLM parameters and MC to determine if they could be used adjunctively in embryo selection. We also examined the relationship between MC with ploidy and blastulation...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353439/transgenesis-by-microparticle-bombardment-for-live-imaging-of-fluorescent-proteins-in-pristionchus-pacificus-germline-and-early-embryos
#14
Satoshi Namai, Asako Sugimoto
Pristionchus pacificus is a free-living nematode used as a model organism for evolutionary developmental and ecological biology. Although a transgenic technique to form complex arrays by microinjection has been established in P. pacificus, transgene expression from the array in the germline and early embryos tends to be silenced. Here, we established a method to integrate transgenes into the genome of P. pacificus using microparticle bombardment with hygromycin B selection. Additionally, we isolated a mutant exhibiting significantly lower autofluorescence in the germline and early embryos, facilitating visualization of transgene-derived fluorescent proteins for live imaging...
January 20, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353198/a-tiered-approach-to-assess-effects-of-diclofenac-on-the-brown-mussel-perna-perna-a-contribution-to-characterize-the-hazard
#15
Mayana Karoline Fontes, Paloma Kachel Gusso-Choueri, Luciane Alves Maranho, Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa, Wesley Almeida Mazur, Bruno Galvão de Campos, Luciana Lopes Guimarães, Marcos Sergio de Toledo, Daniel Lebre, Joyce Rodrigues Marques, Andreia Arantes Felicio, Augusto Cesar, Eduardo Alves Almeida, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira
Pharmaceutical discharges into the aquatic ecosystem are of environmental concern and sewage treatment plants (STPs) have been pointed out as the major source of these compounds to coastal zones, where oceanic disposal of sewage occurs through submarine outfalls. Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in water, but little is known about the effects on marine organisms. In this study, we employed a tiered approach involving the determination of environmental concentrations of DCF in marine water and the adverse biological effects for fertilization, embryo-larval development and biomarker responses of the mussel Perna perna...
December 29, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353190/characterization-of-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#16
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Zhidan Xia, Yu Zhang
Acrylamide (AA) is a high production volume chemical in industrial applications and widely found in baked or fried carbohydrate-rich foods. In this study, we unravelled that AA induced developmental toxicity associated with oxidative stress status and disordered lipid distribution in heart region of developing zebrafish. Treatment with AA caused a deficient cardiovascular system with significant heart malformation and dysfunction. We also found that AA could reduce the number of cardiomyocytes through the reduced capacity of cardiomyocyte proliferation rather than cell apoptosis...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353144/effects-of-the-hdac-inhibitor-scriptaid-on-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-development-of-bovine-embryos-and-on-imprinting-gene-expression-levels
#17
R Laguna-Barraza, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, A Gutiérrez-Adán, D Rizos, S Pérez-Cerezales
This study examines the effects of the histone deacetylation inhibitor scriptaid (SCR) on preimplantation embryo development in vitro and on imprinting gene expression. We hypothesized that SCR would increase histone acetylation levels, enhance embryonic genome activation, and regulate imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in in vitro produced bovine embryos. Zygotes were cultured in vitro in presence or absence of SCR added at different time points. We assessed cleavage and blastocyst rates as well as the quality of blastocysts through: (i) differential cell counts; (ii) survival after vitrification/thawing and (iii) gene expression analysis -including imprinted genes...
January 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353135/copper-induces-expression-and-methylation-changes-of-early-development-genes-in-crassostrea-gigas-embryos
#18
Rossana Sussarellu, Morgane Lebreton, Julien Rouxel, Farida Akcha, Guillaume Rivière
Copper contamination is widespread along coastal areas and exerts adverse effects on marine organisms such as mollusks. In the Pacific oyster, copper induces severe developmental abnormalities during early life stages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to better understand whether the embryotoxic effects of copper in Crassostrea gigas could be mediated by alterations in gene expression, and the putative role of DNA methylation, which is known to contribute to gene regulation in early embryo development...
January 3, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353058/chd7-is-critical-for-early-t-cell-development-and-thymus-organogenesis-in-zebrafish
#19
Zhi-Zhi Liu, Zi-Long Wang, Tae-Ik Choi, Wen-Ting Huang, Han-Tsing Wang, Ying-Ying Han, Lou-Yin Zhu, Hyun-Taek Kim, Jung-Hwa Choi, Jin-Soo Lee, Hyung-Goo Kim, Jian Zhao, Yue Chen, Zhuo Lu, Xiao-Li Tian, Bing-Xing Pan, Bao-Ming Li, Cheol-Hee Kim, Hong Xu
CHARGE syndrome is a congenital disorder affecting multiple organs and mainly caused by mutations in CHD7, a gene encoding a chromatin-remodeling protein. Immunodeficiency and reduced T-cells have been noted in CHARGE syndrome. However, the mechanisms underlying T-lymphopenia are largely unexplored. Here, we observed dramatic decrease of T cells in both chd7-knockdown and -knockout zebrafish embryos. Unexpectedly, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and, particularly, lymphoid progenitor cells were increased peripherally in nonthymic areas in chd7-deficient embryos, unlikely to contribute to the T cell decrease...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353036/nmr-based-serum-metabolomics-study-reveals-a-innovative-diagnostic-model-for-missed-abortion
#20
Zhenghong Wu, Lei Jin, Wenyi Zheng, Chenxi Zhang, Liwen Zhang, Yaping Chen, Junhua Guan, He Fei
A missed abortion (MA) is an in-utero death of the embryo or fetus before the 20th week of gestation with retained products of conception. In order to discover novel biomarkers for MA, a 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics approach was applied to detect human MA serum metabolic profiles. Serum samples were obtained from patients with MA (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 9) for study. The NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis was used to cluster the groups and establish a disease-specific metabolites phenotype...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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