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Exercise, sports,

Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Harry Jell, Jonathan Fulford, James Carter, Lara Nyman, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
: The influence of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on indices of maximal sprint and intermittent exercise performance is unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of NO3(-) supplementation on sprint running performance, and cognitive function and exercise performance during the sport-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (IR1). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover study, 36 male team-sport players received NO3(-)-rich (BR; 70 mL·day(-1); 6...
October 21, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Aysun Genç, Mehmet Mesut Çelebi, Süleyman Utku Çelik, Ebru Düşünceli Atman, Akın Fırat Kocaay, Ali Murat Zergeroğlu, Atilla Halil Elhan, Volkan Genç
OBJECTIVE: Mastalgia is often ignored by physicians although it is the most common breast-related complaint among women. The effectiveness of exercise therapy for mastalgia is unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on mastalgia. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with twenty women with complaints of mastalgia fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to the control group and to the exercise group...
October 25, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Rafael Monge-Rojas, Tamara Fuster-Baraona, Carlos Garita-Arce, Marta Sánchez-López, Uriyoán Colon-Ramos, Vanessa Smith-Castro
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, more than 80% of adolescent girls are physically inactive. Inactivity may be reinforced by female stereotypes and objectification in the Latin American sociocultural context. METHODS: We examined the influence of objectification on the adoption of an active lifestyle among 192 adolescents (14 -17 y/old) from urban and rural areas in Costa Rica. Analyses of 48 focus-groups sessions were grounded in Objectification Theory. RESULTS: Vigorous exercises were gender-typed as masculine while girls had to maintain an aesthetic appearance at all times...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Muath M Altarawneh, Aaron Petersen, Robert Smith, David M Rouffet, Francois Billaut, Ben D Perry, Victoria L Wyckelsma, Antony Tobin, Michael J McKenna
PURPOSE: Salbutamol inhalation is permissible by WADA in athletic competition for asthma management and affects potassium regulation, which is vital for muscle function. Salbutamol effects on arterial potassium concentration ([K(+)]a) during and after high-intensity continuous exercise (HIcont) and intermittent exercise comprising repeated, brief sprints (HIint), and on performance during HIint are unknown and were investigated. METHODS: Seven recreationally active men participated in a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design, inhaling 1000 µg salbutamol or placebo...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Sijie Tan, Cheng Chen, Mingyang Sui, Lunan Xue, Jianxiong Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of exercise training on body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in 5-year-old obese and lean children. METHODS: 42 obese and 62 lean children were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups separately. Body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness were measured at baseline and the end of the intervention. The exercise groups participated in 10 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training (at 50% of heart rate reserve), 50 training sessions in total...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Cristina Casals, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Silvia Rosillo, Silvana N Gomes, Ana Rivas-García, Rafael Guisado, Jesús R Huertas
The effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on health and aging is not clearly explained. This study examined the effects of habitual sport practice, age, and submaximal exercise on the blood markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. Seventy-two healthy men were grouped by their habitual sport practice: inactive (<1.5 h/week), recreational (3-8 h/week), and trained athletes (>8 h/week), and further divided by age: young (18-25 years), adult (40-55 years), and senior (>55 years)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Gregory R Waryasz, Alan H Daniels, Joseph A Gil, Vladimir Suric, Craig P Eberson
Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor's degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89...
September 19, 2016: Orthopedic Reviews
Diego B Souza, Juan Del Coso, Juliano Casonatto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Shannon Jordan, Justin Karcher, Rebecca Rogers, Kathleen Kennedy, Anne Lawrence, Jenny Adams
PURPOSE: Updated cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and return-to-work guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) now include specificity of training for industrial athletes (exercise training that involves the muscle groups, movements, and energy systems that these patients use during occupational tasks). However, many CR facilities do not apply this principle, relying instead on the traditional protocol that consists primarily of aerobic exercise. This study was conducted to measure the metabolic cost of typical farming tasks and to compare 2 methods of calculating training intensities...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Jared J Murray, Colleen M Renier, Jenny J Ahern, Barbara A Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To document neuromuscular training (NMT) availability and its relationship to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in 4 major high school sports by gender, sport, and rural/urban geography, with the hypothesis that increased exposure to NMT would be associated with fewer ACL injuries. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All Minnesota high schools identified in the Minnesota State High School League (MSHSL) database for fall 2014 boys' football and soccer, and girls' volleyball and soccer...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Nivan Weerakkody, Trevor Allen
The impact that muscle fatigue and taping have on proprioception in an applied sporting context remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate disturbances in position sense at the shoulder joint, and asses the effectiveness of adhesive tape in preventing injury and improving performance, after a bout of cricket fast bowling. Among amateur cricket players (N = 14), shoulder position sense, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force and bowling accuracy was assessed before and immediately after a fatiguing exercise bout of fast bowling...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Alan J Pearce, Janet A Young, Lucy Parrington, Nicole Aimers
The objective of this study was to explore beliefs and attitudes of students studying exercise science in Australia towards sports concussion. A secondary objective explored differences between gender and previous experience of concussion. A total of 312 participants (m = 217; f = 95) responded to a series of statements ranging across a number of areas including personal attitudes and beliefs towards concussion: if they would risk playing with a concussion; their views on elite/professional athletes who continue to play after a concussion; and attitudes towards rehabilitation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Andreas Reinke, Michael Behr, Alexander Preuss, Jimmy Villard, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel
OBJECT: Total disc replacement (TDR) is typically indicated in young patients with a cervical soft disc herniation. To date, there are few data on the activity level of patients after cervical TDR; in particular, from young patients who are expected to have a high activity level with frequent exercising. The expectation is that returning to active sports after cervical TDR is not restricted. METHODS: Fifty patients were treated with a monosegmental cervical TDR at our department between May 2006 and March 2012...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Hotfiel T, Swoboda B, Krinner S, Grim C, Engelhardt M, Uder M, Hei R
Foam rolling has been developed as a popular intervention in training and rehabilitation. However, evidence on its effects on the cellular and physiological level is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foam rolling on arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh. Twenty-one healthy participants (age 25 ± 2 years, height 177 ± 9 cm, body weight 74 ± 9 kg) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. Arterial tissue perfusion was determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound, represented as peak flow (Vmax), time average velocity maximum (TAMx), time average velocity mean (TAMn), and resistive index (RI), and with semiquantitative grading that was assessed by four blind-folded investigators...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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