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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722614/identification-of-risk-factors-associated-with-transmission-of-plague-disease-in-eastern-zambia
#1
Stanley S Nyirenda, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Robert Machangu, Jackson Mwanza, Bukheti S Kilonzo
Plague is a fatal, primarily rodent-flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis. The identification of risk factors of plague was investigated through questionnaire interview and conducting focus group discussion (FGD) in Sinda and Nyimba of eastern Zambia. A total of 104 questionnaires were administered to individual respondents and 20 groups consisting of 181 discussants, which comprised FGD team in this study. The study revealed that trapping, transportation, and preparation of rodents for food exposed the community to rodent and their fleas suggesting that plague may have occurred primarily by either flea bites or contact with infected wild rodents...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722283/comparative-analysis-of-storage-conditions-and-homogenization-methods-for-tick-and-flea-species-for-identification-by-maldi-tof-ms
#2
A Nebbak, B El Hamzaoui, J-M Berenger, I Bitam, D Raoult, L Almeras, P Parola
Ticks and fleas are vectors for numerous human and animal pathogens. Controlling them, which is important in combating such diseases, requires accurate identification, to distinguish between vector and non-vector species. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to the rapid identification of arthropods. The growth of this promising tool, however, requires guidelines to be established. To this end, standardization protocols were applied to species of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Latreille and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Bouché, including the automation of sample homogenization using two homogenizer devices, and varied sample preservation modes for a period of 1-6 months...
July 19, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721523/from-endosymbionts-to-host-communities-factors-determining-the-reproductive-success-of-arthropod-vectors
#3
Irit Messika, Mario Garrido, Hadar Kedem, Victor China, Yoni Gavish, Qunfeng Dong, Clay Fuqua, Keith Clay, Hadas Hawlena
Elucidating the factors determining reproductive success has challenged scientists since Darwin, but the exact pathways that shape the evolution of life history traits by connecting extrinsic (e.g., landscape structure) and intrinsic (e.g., female's age and endosymbionts) factors and reproductive success have rarely been studied. Here we collected female fleas from wild rodents in plots differing in their densities and proportions of the most dominant rodent species. We then combined path analysis and model selection approaches to explore the network of effects, ranging from micro to macroscales, determining the reproductive success of these fleas...
July 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707827/cat-scratch-disease-u-s-clinicians-experience-and-knowledge
#4
C A Nelson, A R Moore, A E Perea, P S Mead
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic infection caused primarily by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. An estimated 12,000 outpatients and 500 inpatients are diagnosed with CSD annually, yet little is known regarding clinician experience with and treatment of CSD in the United States. Questions assessing clinical burden, treatment and prevention of CSD were posed to 3,011 primary care providers (family practitioners, internists, paediatricians and nurse practitioners) during 2014-2015 as part of the annual nationwide DocStyles survey...
July 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705248/prevention-of-feline-leishmaniosis-with-an-imidacloprid-10-flumethrin-4-5-polymer-matrix-collar
#5
Emanuele Brianti, Luigi Falsone, Ettore Napoli, Gabriella Gaglio, Salvatore Giannetto, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Vito Priolo, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Viviana Domenica Tarallo, Fabrizio Solari Basano, Roberto Nazzari, Katrin Deuster, Matthias Pollmeier, Laura Gulotta, Vito Colella, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Gioia Capelli, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is one of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting animals and humans worldwide. Dogs are considered main reservoirs of the zoonotic forms, though in the last years the role of cats as reservoirs has been increasingly investigated. Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) occurs in endemic areas and no specific preventive measures have been investigated so far. In this study the efficacy of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar, licensed for tick and flea prevention, has been assessed against FeL in a longitudinal study on 204 privately owned cats from the Aeolian islands (Sicily), an area highly endemic for the disease...
July 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704774/corrosion-protection-products-as-a-source-of-bisphenol-a-and-toxicity-to-the-aquatic-environment
#6
Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Conrad Dietschweiler, Inge Werner, Michael Burkhardt
Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days...
July 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692183/host-range-and-distribution-of-small-mammal-fleas-in-south-africa-with-a-focus-on-species-of-medical-and-veterinary-importance
#7
L VAN DER Mescht, S Matthee
The host range and distribution of flea species on rodents and insectivores across multiple vegetation types in South Africa were investigated. Habitat suitability for flea species considered as important vectors of disease in humans and domestic animals was modelled. Data originated from fleas that were recovered from small mammals captured at 29 localities during 2009-2013 and published literature searched for flea records. Climate-based predictor variables, widely used in arthropod vector distribution, were selected and habitat suitability modelled for 10 flea vector species...
July 10, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689745/itching-for-change-embracing-modern-flea-and-tick-product-development
#8
Katherine Groff, Patricia Bishop
The development and regulatory approval of ectoparasiticides, including flea and tick control products, involves decades-old methods and the use of large numbers of animals to evaluate toxicity and efficacy. Animals also are used to rear (breed and feed) fleas and ticks for later use in testing. Non-animal methods for regulatory-required testing and rearing currently exist and, with further development, others could soon become available. Here we provide an overview of the state-of-the-science of non-animal methods for rearing and regulatory-required efficacy testing of flea and tick control products...
July 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662705/high-intensity-of-tunga-penetrans-infection-causing-severe-disease-among-pigs-in-busoga-south-eastern-uganda
#9
Francis Mutebi, Jürgen Krücken, Hermann Feldmeier, Charles Waiswa, Norbert Mencke, Wilfred Eneku, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
BACKGROUND: Towards the improvement of stakeholders' awareness of animal tungiasis, we report 10 unusual severe clinical cases of pig tungiasis which were associated with very high infection intensities of T. penetrans in an endemic area. RESULTS: Morbidity of ten pigs with high sand flea intensities detected during high transmission seasons in an endemic area in Busoga sub region, Uganda is described in detail. The cases of pigs presented with a very high number of embedded sand fleas (median = 276, range = 141-838)...
June 29, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660292/bartonella-in-rodents-and-ectoparasites-in-the-canary-islands-spain-new-insights-into-host-vector-pathogen-relationships
#10
Estefania Abreu-Yanes, Aaron Martin-Alonso, Natalia Martin-Carrillo, Katherine Garcia Livia, Alessandro Marrero-Gagliardi, Basilio Valladares, Carlos Feliu, Pilar Foronda
Bartonella genus is comprised of several species of zoonotic relevance and rodents are reservoirs for some of these Bartonella species. As there were no data about the range of Bartonella species circulating among rodents in the Canary Islands, our main aim was to overcome this lack of knowledge by targeting both the citrate synthase (gltA) and the RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) genes. A total of 181 small mammals and 154 ectoparasites were obtained in three of the Canary Islands, namely Tenerife, La Palma, and Lanzarote...
June 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660184/diabetes-screening-and-prevention-in-a-high-risk-medically-isolated-border-community
#11
Ann V Millard, Margaret A Graham, Nelda Mier, Jesus Moralez, Maria Perez-Patron, Brian Wickwire, Marlynn L May, Marcia G Ory
INTRODUCTION: A project in a Texas border community setting, Prevention Organized against Diabetes and Dialysis with Education and Resources (POD(2)ER), offered diabetes prevention information, screening, and medical referrals. The setting was a large, longstanding flea market that functions as a shopping mall for low-income people. The priority population included medically underserved urban and rural Mexican Americans. Components of the program addressed those with diabetes, prediabetes, and accompanying relatives and friends...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653590/guinea-worm-from-robert-leiper-to-eradication
#12
Ahmed Tayeh, Sandy Cairncross, Francis E G Cox
Guinea worm disease, dracunculiasis or dracontiasis, is an ancient disease with records going back over 4500 years, but until the beginning of the 20th century, little was known about its life cycle, particularly how humans became infected. In 1905, Robert Thomas Leiper was sent by the British colonial authorities to West Africa to investigate the spread of Guinea worm disease and to recommend measures to prevent it. While carrying out his investigations, he made important contributions to the aetiology, epidemiology and public health aspects of Guinea worm disease and provided definitive answers to many outstanding questions...
June 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653411/impact-of-dispersant-on-early-life-stages-of-the-water-flea-daphnia-magna-and-the-eastern-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#13
Maryam Salehi, Rachel Rodriguez, Anne Boettcher, Sean Powers, Nick Geitner, David A Ladner, Scott Rikard, Andrew J Whelton
In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, over 1 million gallons of dispersant were applied in Gulf of Mexico offshore waters; Corexit 9500 was the most applied dispersant. The impact on organisms in nearshore and freshwaters has received little scrutiny. Acute 48 h toxicity of Corexit 9500 and a new hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) dispersant-like compound were evaluated for the freshwater indicator organism, Daphnia magna and for larval and early spat stages of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652984/direct-evidence-of-rickettsia-typhi-infection-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-ticks-and-their-canine-hosts
#14
Karla Dzul-Rosado, Cesar Lugo-Caballero, Raul Tello-Martin, Karina López-Avila, Jorge Zavala-Castro
Murine typhus is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi, whose transmission is carried out by rat fleas in urban settlements as classically known, but it also has been related to cat fleas in a sub-urban alternative cycle that has been suggested by recent reports. These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals like cats, opossums and dogs could be implied in the transmission of Rickettsia typhi as infected fleas obtained from serologically positive animals have been detected in samples from endemic areas...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646299/effective-combined-water-and-sideband-suppression-for-low-speed-tissue-and-in-vivo-mas-nmr
#15
Yalda Liaghati Mobarhan, Jochem Struppe, Blythe Fortier-McGill, André J Simpson
High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a powerful technique that can provide metabolic profiles and structural constraints on intact biological and environmental samples such as cells, tissues and living organisms. However, centripetal force from fast spinning can lead to a loss of sample integrity. In analyses focusing on structural organization, metabolite compartmentalization or in vivo studies, it is critical to keep the sample intact. As such, there is growing interest in slow spinning studies that preserve sample longevity...
June 23, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643091/sylvatic-plague-vaccine-partially-protects-prairie-dogs-cynomys-spp-in-field-trials
#16
Tonie E Rocke, Daniel W Tripp, Robin E Russell, Rachel C Abbott, Katherine L D Richgels, Marc R Matchett, Dean E Biggins, Randall Griebel, Greg Schroeder, Shaun M Grassel, David R Pipkin, Jennifer Cordova, Adam Kavalunas, Brian Maxfield, Jesse Boulerice, Michael W Miller
Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1-59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643090/burrow-dusting-or-oral-vaccination-prevents-plague-associated-prairie-dog-colony-collapse
#17
Daniel W Tripp, Tonie E Rocke, Jonathan P Runge, Rachel C Abbott, Michael W Miller
Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant "sylvatic plague vaccine" [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots ("blocks") receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641410/modeling-aquatic-toxicity-through-chromatographic-systems
#18
Alejandro Fernández-Pumarega, Susana Amézqueta, Sandra Farré, Laura Muñoz-Pascual, Michael H Abraham, Elisabet Fuguet, Martí Rosés
Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information...
July 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637916/model-based-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-bubonic-plague-in-cairo-in-1801
#19
Xavier Didelot, Lilith K Whittles, Ian Hall
Bubonic plague has caused three deadly pandemics in human history: from the mid-sixth to mid-eighth century, from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-eighteenth century and from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. Between the second and the third pandemics, plague was causing sporadic outbreaks in only a few countries in the Middle East, including Egypt. Little is known about this historical phase of plague, even though it represents the temporal, geographical and phylogenetic transition between the second and third pandemics...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623811/residential-exposure-to-pesticides-as-risk-factor-for-childhood-and-young-adult-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Geneviève Van Maele-Fabry, Laurence Gamet-Payrastre, Dominique Lison
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). OBJECTIVE: (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. METHODS: Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications...
June 14, 2017: Environment International
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