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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339508/human-ectoparasites-and-the-spread-of-plague-in-europe-during-the-second-pandemic
#1
Katharine R Dean, Fabienne Krauer, Lars Walløe, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Boris V Schmid
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Several studies have suggested that human ectoparasite vectors, such as human fleas (Pulex irritans) or body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), caused the rapidly spreading epidemics...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324040/neonicotinoids-and-other-insect-nicotinic-receptor-competitive-modulators-progress-and-prospects
#2
John E Casida
Neonicotinoids (neonics) are remarkably effective as plant systemics to control sucking insects and for flea control on dogs and cats. The nitroimines imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran are the leaders among the seven commercial neonics that also include the nitromethylene nitenpyram, the nitromethylene-derived cycloxaprid, and the cyanoimines acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Honey bees are highly sensitive to the nitroimines and nitromethylenes, but the cyanoimines are less toxic. All neonics are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with a common mode of action, target-site cross-resistance, and much higher potency on insect than mammalian nAChRs at defined binding sites...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321604/trophic-transfer-and-individual-impact-of-nano-sized-polystyrene-in-a-four-species-freshwater-food-chain
#3
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Shin Woong Kim, Youn-Joo An
This study investigated the trophic transfer, individual impact, and embryonic uptake of fluorescent nano-sized polystyrene plastics (nanoplastics) through direct exposure in a freshwater ecosystem, with a food chain containing four species. The alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, water flea Daphnia magna, secondary-consumer fish Oryzias sinensis, and end-consumer fish Zacco temminckii were used as test species. In the trophic transfer test, algae were exposed to 50 mg/L nanoplastics, defined as plastic particles <100 nm in diameter; higher trophic level organisms were exposed through their diet...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313064/genetic-diversity-of-bartonella-spp-in-wild-mammals-and-ectoparasites-in-brazilian-pantanal
#4
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Renan Bressianini do Amaral, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Filipe Martins Santos, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The present work aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Bartonella in mammals and ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil. For this purpose, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, 7 Leopardus pardalis, 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled. DNA samples were submitted to a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR). Positive samples in qPCR were submitted to conventional PCR assays targeting other five protein-coding genes. Thirty-five wild rodents and three Polygenis (P.) bohlsi bohlsi flea pools showed positive results in qPCR for Bartonella spp...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309411/tungiasis-related-life-quality-impairment-in-children-living-in-rural-kenya
#5
Susanne Wiese, Lynne Elson, Hermann Feldmeier
BACKGROUND: Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by female sand fleas (Tunga spp.) embedded in the skin of the host. The disease is common in sub-Saharan Africa and predominantly affects children living in impoverished rural communities. In these settings tungiasis is associated with important morbidity. Whether tungiasis impairs life quality has never been studied. METHODS: The study was performed in 50 children with tungiasis, living in resource-poor communities in coastal Kenya...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307305/parasite-spread-at-the-domestic-animal-wildlife-interface-anthropogenic-habitat-use-phylogeny-and-body-mass-drive-risk-of-cat-and-dog-flea-ctenocephalides-spp-infestation-in-wild-mammals
#6
Nicholas J Clark, Jennifer M Seddon, Jan Šlapeta, Konstans Wells
BACKGROUND: Spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. Cat and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides felis and C. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. Although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. We built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used Bayesian hierarchical models to identify traits that predict wildlife infestation probability...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307121/fleas-of-dog-and-cat-species-biology-and-flea-borne-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Filomena Iannino, Nadia Sulli, Antonio Maitino, Ilaria Pascucci, Guglielmo Pampiglione, Stefania Salucci
Ectoparasitic insects play a major role in veterinary medicine. Fleas infest man and animals and are the most frequent external parasites of companion animals worldwide. Some species are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens. Dogs and cats may play an important role either as reservoir of some of the pathogens or as transport vehicles for infected eas between their natural reservoirs and human beings, thus playing a crucial step in the transmission cycle of ea-borne diseases. This article reviews relevant literature on morphology, classi cation, host speci city, geographical distribution, and seasonality of eas infesting dogs and cats in order to improve their timely identi cation, prevention, and control...
December 29, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302275/rapid-evolution-leads-to-differential-population-dynamics-and-top-down-control-in-resurrected-daphnia-populations
#8
Eyerusalem Goitom, Laurens J Kilsdonk, Kristien Brans, Mieke Jansen, Pieter Lemmens, Luc De Meester
There is growing evidence of rapid genetic adaptation of natural populations to environmental change, opening the perspective that evolutionary trait change may subsequently impact ecological processes such as population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. To study such eco-evolutionary feedbacks in natural populations, however, requires samples across time. Here, we capitalize on a resurrection ecology study that documented rapid and adaptive evolution in a natural population of the water flea Daphnia magna in response to strong changes in predation pressure by fish, and carry out a follow-up mesocosm experiment to test whether the observed genetic changes influence population dynamics and top-down control of phytoplankton...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299290/the-virulence-transmission-relationship-in-an-obligate-killer-holds-under-diverse-epidemiological-and-ecological-conditions-but-where-is-the-tradeoff
#9
Frida Ben-Ami
Parasite virulence is a leading theme in evolutionary biology. Modeling the course of virulence evolution holds the promise of providing practical insights into the management of infectious diseases and the implementation of vaccination strategies. A key element of virulence modeling is a tradeoff between parasite transmission rate and host lifespan. This assumption is crucial for predicting the level of optimal virulence. Here, I test this assumption using the water flea Daphnia magna and its castrating and obligate-killing bacterium Pasteuria ramosa...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286262/plague-in-a-colony-of-gunnison-s-prairie-dogs-cynomys-gunnisoni-despite-three-years-of-infusions-of-burrows-with-0-05-deltamethrin-to-kill-fleas
#10
John L Hoogland, Dean E Biggins, Nathaniel Blackford, David A Eads, Dustin Long, Mariana Rivera Rodriguez, Lauren M Ross, Sarah Tobey, Emma M White
At Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico, USA, infusing Gunnison's prairie dog ( Cynomys gunnisoni) burrows with an insecticide dust containing 0.05% deltamethrin killed fleas which transmit bubonic plague. The reduction in the number of fleas per prairie dog was significant and dramatic immediately after infusions, with a suggestion that the reduction persisted for as long as 12 mo. Despite the lower flea counts, however, a plague epizootic killed >95% of prairie dogs after 3 yr of infusions (once per year)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276773/comparison-of-zoonotic-bacterial-agents-in-fleas-collected-from-small-mammals-or-host-seeking-fleas-from-a-ugandan-region-where-plague-is-endemic
#11
Ying Bai, Lynn M Osikowicz, Michael Y Kosoy, Rebecca J Eisen, Linda A Atiku, Joseph T Mpanga, Karen A Boegler, Russell E Enscore, Kenneth L Gage
Fleas (n = 407) were collected from small mammals trapped inside huts and surroundings of homesteads in five villages within the Arua and Zombo districts of Uganda. The most common flea species were Dinopsyllus lypusus (26%) and Xenopsylla cheopis (50%). Off-host fleas (n = 225) were collected inside huts by using Kilonzo flea traps. The majority of the off-host fleas were Ctenocephalides felis (80%). All fleas were examined for the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., and Yersinia spp. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 fleas, with an overall prevalence of 14%...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274119/beyond-abundance-how-microenvironmental-features-and-weather-influence-bartonella-tribocorum-infection-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#12
J L Rothenburger, C G Himsworth, N M Nemeth, D L Pearl, C M Jardine
Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inhabit cities worldwide and carry a number of zoonotic pathogens. Although many studies have investigated rat-level risk factors, there is limited research on the effects of weather and environment on zoonotic pathogen transmission ecology in rats. The objective of this study was to use a disease ecology approach to understand how abiotic (weather and urban microenvironmental features) and biotic (relative rat population abundance) factors affect Bartonella tribocorum prevalence in urban Norway rats from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada...
December 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243148/impaired-reproduction-and-individual-growth-of-the-water-flea-daphnia-magna-as-consequence-of-exposure-to-the-non-ester-pyrethroid-etofenprox
#13
Encarna Sancho, Sandra Banegas, María José Villarroel, Dolores Ferrando
The effect of the pesticide etofenprox (0.76, 0.95, 1.18, 1.48, and 1.85 μg L-1) on survival, reproduction, and growth of Daphnia magna organisms was monitored using 21-day exposure tests. In order to test pesticide effects on D. magna, survival, length, mean total neonates per female, mean brood size, time to first reproduction, mean number broods per female, cumulative molting, and the population parameter intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were used. Reproduction was seriously affected by etofenprox...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242636/a-millifluidic-system-for-analysis-of-daphnia-magna-locomotory-responses-to-water-born-toxicants
#14
Yushi Huang, Olivia Campana, Donald Wlodkowic
Aquatic toxicity testing in environmental monitoring and chemical risk assessment is critical to assess water quality for human use as well as predict impact of pollutants on ecosystems. In recent years, studies have increasingly focused on the relevance of sub-lethal effects of environmental contaminants. Sub-lethal toxicity endpoints such as behavioural responses are highly integrative and have distinct benefits for assessing water quality because they occur rapidly and thus can be used to sense the presence of toxicants...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237851/micrornas-regulate-the-sesquiterpenoid-hormonal-pathway-in-drosophila-and-other-arthropods
#15
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Wenyan Nong, Kenneth W Siggens, Fernando G Noriega, Zhen-Peng Kai, Yang-Yang Zang, Alex C Koon, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Ting Fung Chan, Ka Hou Chu, Hon Ming Lam, Michael Akam, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome Ho Lam Hui
Arthropods comprise the majority of all described animal species, and understanding their evolution is a central question in biology. Their developmental processes are under the precise control of distinct hormonal regulators, including the sesquiterpenoids juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate. The control of the synthesis and mode of action of these hormones played important roles in the evolution of arthropods and their adaptation to diverse habitats. However, the precise roles of non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), controlling arthropod hormonal pathways are unknown...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217417/cat-fleas-ctenocephalides-felis-carrying-rickettsia-felis-and-bartonella-species-in-hong-kong
#16
Jan Šlapeta, Andrea Lawrence, Michael P Reichel
Fleas are commonly recorded on stray as well as domestic dogs and cats in Hong Kong. Fleas can be a major cause of pruritus in dogs and cats and also vectors of potentially zoonotic bacteria in the genera Rickettsia and Bartonella. Morphological examination of 174 fleas from dogs and cats living in Hong Kong revealed only cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) genotyping of 20 randomly selected specimens, revealed three cox1 haplotypes (HK-h1 to HK-h3). The most common haplotype was HK-h1 with 17 specimens (17/20, 85%)...
December 4, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202201/prevalence-and-seasonality-of-fleas-associated-with-california-ground-squirrels-and-the-potential-risk-of-tularemia-in-an-outdoor-non-human-primate-research-facility
#17
Tara Roth, Rebecca Sammak, Janet Foley
Ectoparasites at primate research centers may be difficult to control, e.g. without exposing non-human primates (NHPs) to toxicants, but their impact on NHP health is poorly understood. In 2010, there was an epizootic of tularemia at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) in Yolo County, California that resulted in 20 confirmed and suspect clinical cases in outdoors housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta [Zimmermann]) and a 53% seroprevalence in the southern section of the colony. We studied ectoparasite burdens at the CNPRC in order to understand possible conditions at the time of the epizootic and provide data for the management of ectoparasites for the future...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180709/predation-drives-local-adaptation-of-phenotypic-plasticity
#18
Julia Reger, Martin I Lind, Matthew R Robinson, Andrew P Beckerman
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual genotype to alter aspects of its phenotype depending on the current environment. It is central to the persistence, resistance and resilience of populations facing variation in physical or biological factors. Genetic variation in plasticity is pervasive, which suggests its local adaptation is plausible. Existing studies on the adaptation of plasticity typically focus on single traits and a few populations, while theory about interactions among genes (for example, pleiotropy) suggests that a multi-trait, landscape scale (for example, multiple populations) perspective is required...
November 27, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177055/population-characteristics-of-golden-retriever-lifetime-study-enrollees
#19
Melissa Simpson, Erin Searfoss, Sharon Albright, Diane E Brown, Barbara Wolfe, Nancy K Clark, Susan E McCann, David Haworth, Mike Guy, Rod Page
Background: Studying cancer and other diseases poses a problem due to their protracted and multifactorial nature. Prospective studies are useful to investigate chronic disease processes since collection of lifestyle information, exposure data and co-incident health issues are collected before the condition manifests. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study is one of the first prospective studies following privately-owned dogs throughout life to investigate the incidence and risk factors for disease outcomes, especially cancer...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174893/the-stone-age-plague-and-its-persistence-in-eurasia
#20
Aida Andrades Valtueña, Alissa Mittnik, Felix M Key, Wolfgang Haak, Raili Allmäe, Andrej Belinskij, Mantas Daubaras, Michal Feldman, Rimantas Jankauskas, Ivor Janković, Ken Massy, Mario Novak, Saskia Pfrengle, Sabine Reinhold, Mario Šlaus, Maria A Spyrou, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Mari Tõrv, Svend Hansen, Kirsten I Bos, Philipp W Stockhammer, Alexander Herbig, Johannes Krause
Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is a bacterium associated with wild rodents and their fleas. Historically it was responsible for three pandemics: the Plague of Justinian in the 6th century AD, which persisted until the 8th century [1]; the renowned Black Death of the 14th century [2, 3], with recurrent outbreaks until the 18th century [4]; and the most recent 19th century pandemic, in which Y. pestis spread worldwide [5] and became endemic in several regions [6]. The discovery of molecular signatures of Y...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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