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Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer, Cyril Savin, Elisabeth Carniel, Jean-Marc Duplantier
Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Karen A Boegler, Linda A Atiku, Russell E Enscore, Titus Apangu, Joseph Tendo Mpanga, Sarah Acayo, John Kaggwa, Paul S Mead, Brook M Yockey, Kiersten J Kugeler, Martin E Schriefer, Kalanthe Horiuchi, Kenneth L Gage, Rebecca J Eisen
Plague, primarily a disease of rodents, is most frequently transmitted by fleas and causes potentially fatal infections in humans. In Uganda, plague is endemic to the West Nile region. Primary prevention for plague includes control of rodent hosts or flea vectors, but targeting these efforts is difficult given the sporadic nature of plague epizootics in the region and limited resource availability. Here, we present a community-based strategy to detect and report rodent deaths (rat fall), an early sign of epizootics...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tara Elizabeth Stewart, Mark Torchin, Carla Cáceres
The top-down effects of consumers, like predators, are known to affect abundances, size structure, and species composition in aquatic ecosystems. Parasites are also important in shaping the ecology of free-living species, however, their effects are often overlooked because parasites can be difficult to detect. Parasites can be particularly challenging to observe in zooplankton hosts because of their small size and ephemeral infection periods. To overcome these challenges, we used a quarantine approach combined with high magnification microscopy to increase detection of parasites of the tropical Cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia cornuta, in Lake Gatun, Panamá...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
Fabio M Gomes, Bretta L Hixson, Miles D W Tyner, Jose Luis Ramirez, Gaspar E Canepa, Thiago Luiz Alves E Silva, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Moussa Keita, Fouseyni Kane, Boïssé Traoré, Nafomon Sogoba, Carolina Barillas-Mury
A naturally occurring Wolbachia strain (wAnga-Mali) was identified in mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex collected in the Malian villages of Dangassa and Kenieroba. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of two 16S rRNA regions showed that wAnga-Mali clusters with Wolbachia strains from supergroup A and has the highest homology to a Wolbachia strain isolated from cat fleas (Ctenocephalides). wAnga-Mali is different from two Wolbachia strains previously reported in A. gambiae from Burkina Faso (wAnga_VK5_STP and wAnga_VK5_3...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adélaïde Miarinjara, Jean Vergain, Jean Marcel Kavaruganda, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sébastien Boyer
BACKGROUND: Prisons in Madagascar are at high risk of plague outbreak. Occurrence of plague epidemic in prisons can cause significant episode of urban plague through the movement of potentially infected humans, rodents and fleas. Rodent and flea controls are essential in plague prevention, by reducing human contact with plague reservoirs and vectors. Insecticide treatment is the key step available for the control of rat fleas which transmit the disease from infected rodents to human. The implementation of an adapted flea control strategy should rely on the insecticide susceptibility status of the targeted population...
November 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
S D Melman, P E Ettestad, E S VinHatton, J M Ragsdale, N Takacs, L M Onischuk, P M Leonard, S S Master, V S Lucero, L C Kingry, J M Petersen
Plague is a zoonotic disease (transmitted mainly by fleas and maintained in nature by rodents) that causes severe acute illness in humans. We present a human plague case who became infected by the bite of a wild Gunnison's prairie dog, and a good practical example of the One Health approach that resulted in a rapid public health response. The exposure occurred while the animal was being transported for relocation to a wildlife refuge after being trapped in a plague enzootic area. This is the first report of a human plague case resulting from the bite of a Gunnison's prairie dog...
November 6, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
K C M DE Sousa, A C Calchi, H M Herrera, J S Dumler, D M Barros-Battesti, R Z Machado, M R André
Anaplasmataceae agents comprise obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause disease in humans and animals. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua (coati), 78 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), seven Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. In addition, ectoparasites found parasitizing the animals were collected and identified. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae agents in wild mammals, domestic dogs and ectoparasites, by molecular and serological techniques...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Y Ajith, Umesh Dimri, A Gopalakrishnan, E Madhesh, Ricky Jhambh, Vivek Joshi, Devi Gopinath
Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is the common, often neglected skin disease of goats caused mainly by Ctenocephalides felis. The present study aimed to evaluate the immuno-oxidative pathobiology of FAD in goats. Twelve goats from the same herd were divided into two groups of six animals each. The group I (FAD) included animals with natural flea infestation and severe dermatitis lesions. The group II (Healthy control) animals were free from any parasitic infestation. To assess the pathological changes, the markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity), and immune status (Tumour necrosis factor alpha, Interleukin 10, Transforming growth factor beta 1 and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio) were evaluated from the blood and the serum samples...
November 2, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Jason Drake, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner (Credelio™) is the newest member of the novel isoxazoline chemical class to be developed to treat canine ectoparasitism. Administered orally, lotilaner is rapidly absorbed with peak blood levels occurring within 2 h post-treatment. A study was undertaken to determine the earliest onset of lotilaner's efficacy against existing flea infestations. METHODS: From 72 Beagles, 64 qualifying dogs were ranked in descending order of flea counts from a Day -8 infestation and placed into eight blocks...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Jason Drake, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a novel isoxazoline developed for oral administration to dogs. In laboratory studies, lotilaner was shown to be safe and to produce a rapid flea and tick knockdown, with a sustained speed of kill for at least a month post-treatment. A study was undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy, safety and palatability of three monthly doses of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco) in controlling fleas under field conditions in Europe. METHODS: Dogs were enrolled at 17 veterinary clinics across Germany, Hungary and Portugal...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Daniela Karadzovska, Kimberly Chappell, Shane Coble, Martin Murphy, Daniela Cavalleri, Scott Wiseman, Jason Drake, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown that the novel isoxazoline, lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) administered orally to dogs, produces rapid flea and tick knockdown and sustained speed of kill for at least a month post-treatment with a wide safety margin. A field study was undertaken to validate pre-clinical results. METHODS: Dogs were enrolled at 10 veterinary clinics across the United States. Qualifying households containing up to three dogs and one primary dog with at least 10 fleas were randomized 2:1 to receive lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) at the recommended minimum dose of 20 mg/kg, or afoxolaner (Nexgard®, Merial), administered per label, to give a minimum dose of 2...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Susan E Little
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Céline E Toutain, Wolfgang Seewald, Martin Jung
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a new oral ectoparasiticide from the isoxazoline class developed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations in dogs. It is formulated as pure S-enantiomer in flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™). The pharmacokinetics of lotilaner were thoroughly determined after intravenous and oral administration and under different feeding regimens in dogs. METHODS: Twenty-six adult beagle dogs were enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study evaluating either intravenous or oral administration of lotilaner...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Emmanuelle A Kuntz, Srinivas Kammanadiminti
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) is a novel isoxazoline that provides rapid speed of flea and tick knockdown which is sustained for at least 1 month following oral administration to dogs. The safety of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets was investigated in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design study in healthy Beagle puppies starting at 8 weeks of age. Lotilaner was administered orally once a month over 8 months at one, three and five times the upper level of the recommended dose range (of 20 to 43 mg/kg)...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Jason Drake, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco), a novel isoxazoline, is a systemic insecticide and acaricide that is rapidly absorbed following oral administration to dogs and has a half-life of 30 days. As part of a development program, studies were undertaken to investigate lotilaner's initial and sustained efficacy and speed of kill against fleas. METHODS: Four studies were conducted to evaluate the onset of lotilaner's speed of flea knockdown at the time of treatment, and to determine the sustained speed of flea kill (SOK) up to 35 days post-treatment...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Antonios Germanakis, Georgios Chaliotis, Stefania Kapetanaki, Loukia Kalogeraki, Elliona Gkika, Nikolaos Partalis, Georgia Polymili, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
Rickettsia felis is a flea-transmitted pathogen however, in Greece, much work has been done on another flea-borne pathogen, R. typhi; human cases have been described and high-risk areas have been characterized. Nevertheless, little is known about human infections caused by R. felis in the country since human cases are not routinely tested for antibodies against this pathogen. During the past seven years, we have set up a protocol at the National Reference Centre in order to improve the testing of tick-borne diseases in Greece...
October 24, 2017: Acta Tropica
Michael K Rust
The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas...
October 27, 2017: Insects
Natalie Sopinka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Y J Zhang, C Wang, T Luo, R Guo, W W Meng
Objective: To explore the epidemic situation of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague foci. Methods: Data on epidemics of plague and on population involved, as well as results on antibodies and pathogens, were analyzed. Samples on animals and vectors were collected from 18 counties in Junggar Basin plague natural foci between 2007 and 2016. Results: The density of Rhombomys (R.) opimus was temporally fluctuant, from 2.1/hm(2) to 22.6/hm(2) respectively. However, the spatial distribution appeared asymmetrical, with the highest seen in Kelamayi and Wumuqi-midong counties, as 14...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Carinthia Zapata-Valdés, Rafael Avila-Flores, Kenneth Gage, Jennifer Holmes, John Montenierri, Michael Kosoy, Gerardo Suzán
The presence of keystone species can influence disease dynamics through changes in species diversity and composition of vector and host communities. In this study, we compared 1) the diversity of small mammals; 2) the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of arthropod vectors; and 3) the prevalence of Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Bartonella spp. in vectors, between two grassland communities of northern Sonora, Mexico, one with (La Mesa [LM]) and one without (Los Fresnos [LF]) black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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