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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526098/first-description-of-bartonella-koehlerae-infection-in-a-spanish-dog-with-infective-endocarditis
#1
María-Dolores Tabar, Laura Altet, Ricardo G Maggi, Jaume Altimira, Xavier Roura
BACKGROUND: Bartonella koehlerae has been recently described as a new cat- and cat fleas-associated agent of culture-negative human endocarditis. It has been also encountered in one dog from Israel and six dogs from the USA, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. RESULTS: A 7-year-old intact male mixed dog presented with clinico-pathological signs consistent with mitral endocarditis and cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Molecular studies revealed the presence of Bartonella koehlerae DNA in samples from blood and mitral valve tissue...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520514/flea-and-small-mammal-species-composition-in-mixed-grass-prairies-implications-for-the-maintenance-of-yersinia-pestis
#2
Lauren P Maestas, Hugh B Britten
Maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (Cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. Another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. These hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals could together be driving sylvatic cycles of plague...
May 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505888/fipronil-washoff-to-municipal-wastewater-from-dogs-treated-with-spot-on-products
#3
Jennifer Teerlink, Jorge Hernandez, Robert Budd
Fipronil and fipronil degradates have been reported in treated wastewater effluent at concentrations that exceed USEPA Aquatic Life Benchmarks, posing a potential risk to the surface waters to which they discharge. Fipronil is a common insecticide found in spot-on flea and tick treatment products that have the potential for down-the-drain transport and direct washoff into surface water. Volunteers currently treating their dogs with a fipronil-containing spot-on product were recruited. Dogs were washed either 2, 7, or 28days after product application, and rinsate from 34 discrete bathing events were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for fipronil and fipronil degradates (collectively known as fiproles)...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504448/efficacy-of-a-fipronil-bait-in-reducing-the-number-of-fleas-oropsylla-spp-infesting-wild-black-tailed-prairie-dogs
#4
David M Poché, Daniel Hartman, Larisa Polyakova, Richard M Poché
Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500797/fatal-flea-borne-typhus-in-texas-a-retrospective-case-series-1985-2015
#5
Emily G Pieracci, Nicole Evert, Naomi A Drexler, Bonny Mayes, Inger Vilcins, Philip Huang, Jill Campbell, Casey Barton Behravesh, Christopher D Paddock
AbstractFlea-borne (murine) typhus is a global rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi. Although flea-borne typhus is no longer nationally notifiable, cases are reported for surveillance purposes in a few U.S. states. The infection is typically self-limiting, but may be severe or life-threatening in some patients. We performed a retrospective review of confirmed or probable cases of fatal flea-borne typhus reported to the Texas Department of State Health Services during 1985-2015. When available, medical charts were also examined...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497745/preventive-efficacy-of-nexgard-spectra-%C3%A2-against-dipylidium-caninum-infection-in-dogs-using-a-natural-flea-ctenocephalides-felis-infestation-model
#6
Frédéric Beugnet, Leon Meyer, Josephus Fourie, Diane Larsen
The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra(®) (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra(®) was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492109/revisiting-the-role-of-dissimilarity-of-host-communities-in-driving-dissimilarity-of-ectoparasite-assemblages-non-linear-vs-linear-approach
#7
Luther VAN DER Mescht, Irina S Khokhlova, Elizabeth M Warburton, Boris R Krasnov
We revisited the role of dissimilarity of host assemblages in shaping dissimilarity of flea assemblages using a non-linear approach. Generalized dissimilarity models (GDMs) were applied using data from regional surveys of fleas parasitic on small mammals in four biogeographical realms. We compared (1) model fit, (2) the relative effects of host compositional and phylogenetic turnover and geographic distance on flea compositional and phylogenetic turnover, and (3) the rate of flea turnover along gradients of host turnover and geographic distance with those from earlier application of a linear approach...
May 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486652/swabbing-prairie-dog-burrows-for-fleas-that-transmit-yersinia-pestis-influences-on-efficiency
#8
David A Eads
Scientists and health-care professionals sometimes use a swabbing technique to collect fleas from rodent burrows, and later test the fleas for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Detection of Y. pestis is enhanced when large pools of fleas are available. The following study investigated factors that might affect the rate at which fleas are collected from burrows in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Data were collected from 13 colonies in New Mexico during 0600-1000 hours, June-August 2010-2011...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470467/beta-diversity-of-ectoparasites-at-two-spatial-scales-nested-hierarchy-geography-and-habitat-type
#9
Elizabeth M Warburton, Luther van der Mescht, Michal Stanko, Maxim V Vinarski, Natalia P Korallo-Vinarskaya, Irina S Khokhlova, Boris R Krasnov
Beta-diversity of biological communities can be decomposed into (a) dissimilarity of communities among units of finer scale within units of broader scale and (b) dissimilarity of communities among units of broader scale. We investigated compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional beta-diversity of compound communities of fleas and gamasid mites parasitic on small Palearctic mammals in a nested hierarchy at two spatial scales: (a) continental scale (across the Palearctic) and (b) regional scale (across sites within Slovakia)...
May 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455335/yersinia-pestis-resists-predation-by-acanthamoeba-castellanii-and-exhibits-prolonged-intracellular-survival
#10
Javier A Benavides-Montaño, Viveka Vadyvaloo
Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis The disease is characterized by epizootics with high rodent mortalities, punctuated by inter-epizootic periods when the bacterium persists in an unknown reservoir. This study investigates the interaction between Y. pestis and the ubiquitous soil free-living amoeba (FLA), Acanthamoeba castellanii, to assess if the bacterium can survive within soil amoeba and whether intracellular mechanisms are conserved between infection of mammalian macrophages and soil amoeba...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454576/a-field-trial-of-a-fixed-combination-of-permethrin-and-fipronil-effitix-%C3%A2-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-flea-infestation-in-dogs-living-with-sheep
#11
Manolis K Chatzis, Dimitris Psemmas, Elias Papadopoulos, Christelle Navarro, Manolis N Saridomichelakis
BACKGROUND: A large number of fleas parasitize dogs living with sheep in Greece. The primary aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of a permethrin-fipronil combination (Effitix(®)) for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in dogs living with sheep and the secondary aim was to examine the efficacy of this intervention on flea infestation, pruritus and skin lesions of the people in contact with these dogs. METHODS: Thirty dogs living with sheep and infested by at least 10 fleas and all 80 sheep living on the same premises were randomly allocated into equal groups...
April 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438088/anaplasma-ehrlichia-and-rickettsia-species-infections-in-cats
#12
Maria Grazia Pennisi, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Alan D Radford, Séverine Tasker, Sándor Belák, Diane D Addie, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Herman Egberink, Tadeusz Frymus, Tim Gruffydd-Jones, Katrin Hartmann, Marian C Horzinek, Margaret J Hosie, Albert Lloret, Hans Lutz, Fulvio Marsilio, Etienne Thiry, Uwe Truyen, Karin Möstl
Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the most important feline pathogen among these rickettsial organisms, and coinfections are possible. Little information is available on the pathogenesis of these agents in cats. Clinical signs are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific, consisting of fever, anorexia and lethargy...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433729/comparative-vertical-transmission-of-rickettsia-by-dermacentor-variabilis-and-amblyomma-maculatum
#13
Emma K Harris, Victoria I Verhoeve, Kaikhushroo H Banajee, Jacqueline A Macaluso, Abdu F Azad, Kevin R Macaluso
The geographical overlap of multiple Rickettsia and tick species coincides with the molecular detection of a variety of rickettsial agents in what may be novel tick hosts. However, little is known concerning transmissibility of rickettsial species by various tick hosts. To examine the vertical transmission potential between select tick and rickettsial species, two sympatric species of ticks, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma maculatum, were exposed to five different rickettsial species, including Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia montanensis, Rickettsia amblyommatis, or flea-borne Rickettsia felis...
April 6, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431028/hybrid-de-novo-genome-assembly-of-the-chinese-herbal-fleabane-erigeron-breviscapus
#14
Jing Yang, Guanghui Zhang, Jing Zhang, Hui Liu, Wei Chen, Xiao Wang, Yahe Li, Yang Dong, Shengchao Yang
Background: The plants in the Erigeron genus of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family are commonly called fleabanes, possibly due to the belief that certain chemicals in these plants repel fleas. In the traditional Chinese medicine, Erigeron breviscapus , which is native to China, was widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. A handful of bioactive compounds, including scutellarin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, have been isolated from the plant...
April 18, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427962/first-report-of-a-rickettsia-asembonensis-related-infecting-fleas-in-brazil
#15
Arannadia Barbosa Silva, Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni, Andréa Pereira Costa, Francisco Borges Costa, Jonas Moraes-Filho, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Gilberto Salles Gazêta, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira
The present study was performed in a non-endemic area for spotted fever (SF) in Imperatriz microregion, state of Maranhão, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites were collected from 300 dogs of the Imperatriz microregion. Canine serum samples were tested individually by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using five Rickettsia isolates from Brazil. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 1.6% of the dogs (5/300). These sera were considered reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia amblyommatis or very closely related species...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427957/pcr-based-identification-of-trypanosoma-lewisi-and-trypanosoma-musculi-using-maxicircle-kinetoplast-dna
#16
Xiao-Kun Hong, Xuan Zhang, Octavio Alejandro Fusco, You-Gen Lan, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai
Trypanosoma lewisi, transmitted by rat fleas, is a widespread pathogen specific to rats with records of human infection cases. Its closely related species with global distribution, Trypanosoma musculi, is transmitted between mice by ingestion of infected fleas. These trypanosomes are of similar morphology, making it difficult to distinguish them by microscopy. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable PCR method for the diagnosis of T. lewisi and T. musculi. The T. lewisi-specific amplicons were not produced by other Trypanosoma, such as T...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424526/the-impact-of-host-sex-on-the-outcome-of-co-infection
#17
Olivia Thompson, Stephen A Y Gipson, Matthew D Hall
Males and females vary in many characteristics that typically underlie how well a host is able to fight infection, such as body-size, immune capacity, or energy availability. Although well studied in the context of sexual signalling, there is now growing recognition that these differences can influence aspects of pathogen evolution as well. Here we consider how co-infection between multiple pathogen strains is shaped by male-female differences. In natural populations, infections by more than one pathogen strain or species are believed to be a widespread occurrence...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419257/rodent-pika-parasite-spillover-in-western-north-america
#18
Patrick Foley, Tara Roth, Janet Foley, Chris Ray
Competition during the Cenozoic expansion of the Rodentia may have contributed to ecological niche reduction of pikas, which are now increasingly under threat as their habitat degrades under global climate change, while some rodents expand their ranges and overlap with pikas. Range overlap carries the possibility of disease spillover. Contemporary North American pikas are cold-adapted and relegated primarily to alpine environments where they subsist on relatively low-quality herbaceous diet. Yet their evolutionary ancestors were distributed geographically even into the subtropics...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405279/fine-scale-frequency-differentiation-along-a-herbivory-gradient-in-the-trichome-dimorphism-of-a-wild-arabidopsis
#19
Yasuhiro Sato, Hiroshi Kudoh
Geographic variation is commonly observed in plant resistance traits, where plant species might experience different selection pressure across a heterogeneous landscape. Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera is dimorphic for trichome production, generating two morphs, trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) plants. Trichomes of A. halleri are known to confer resistance against the white butterfly, cabbage sawfly, and brassica leaf beetle, but not against flea beetles. We combined leaf damage, microclimate, and microsatellite loci data of 26 A...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400593/rickettsial-seropositivity-in-the-indigenous-community-and-animal-farm-workers-and-vector-surveillance-in-peninsular-malaysia
#20
Kai Ling Kho, Fui Xian Koh, Lailatul Insyirah Mohd Hasan, Li Ping Wong, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Awang Bulgiba, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Sun Tee Tay
Rickettsioses are emerging zoonotic diseases that are often neglected in many countries in Southeast Asia. Rickettsial agents are transmitted to humans through exposure to infected arthropods. Limited data are available on the exposure of indigenous community and animal farm workers to the aetiological agents and arthropod vectors of rickettsioses in Peninsular Malaysia. Serological analysis of Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia felis was performed for 102 individuals from the indigenous community at six rural villages and 87 workers from eight animal farms in Peninsular Malaysia in a cross-sectional study...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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