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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643091/sylvatic-plague-vaccine-partially-protects-prairie-dogs-cynomys-spp-in-field-trials
#1
Tonie E Rocke, Daniel W Tripp, Robin E Russell, Rachel C Abbott, Katherine L D Richgels, Marc R Matchett, Dean E Biggins, Randall Griebel, Greg Schroeder, Shaun M Grassel, David R Pipkin, Jennifer Cordova, Adam Kavalunas, Brian Maxfield, Jesse Boulerice, Michael W Miller
Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1-59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643090/burrow-dusting-or-oral-vaccination-prevents-plague-associated-prairie-dog-colony-collapse
#2
Daniel W Tripp, Tonie E Rocke, Jonathan P Runge, Rachel C Abbott, Michael W Miller
Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant "sylvatic plague vaccine" [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots ("blocks") receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641410/modeling-aquatic-toxicity-through-chromatographic-systems
#3
Alejandro Fernandez-Pumarega, Susana Amézqueta, Sandra Farré, Laura Muñoz-Pascual, Michael H Abraham, Elisabet Fuguet, Marti Roses
Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637916/model-based-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-bubonic-plague-in-cairo-in-1801
#4
Xavier Didelot, Lilith K Whittles, Ian Hall
Bubonic plague has caused three deadly pandemics in human history: from the mid-sixth to mid-eighth century, from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-eighteenth century and from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. Between the second and the third pandemics, plague was causing sporadic outbreaks in only a few countries in the Middle East, including Egypt. Little is known about this historical phase of plague, even though it represents the temporal, geographical and phylogenetic transition between the second and third pandemics...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623811/residential-exposure-to-pesticides-as-risk-factor-for-childhood-and-young-adult-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Geneviève Van Maele-Fabry, Laurence Gamet-Payrastre, Dominique Lison
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). OBJECTIVE: (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. METHODS: Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications...
June 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622851/prevalence-and-zoonotic-risks-of-trichophyton-mentagrophytes-and-cheyletiella-spp-in-guinea-pigs-and-rabbits-in-dutch-pet-shops
#6
P A M Overgaauw, K H A van Avermaete, C A R M Mertens, M Meijer, N J Schoemaker
Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619142/drivers-of-bartonella-infection-in-micromammals-and-their-fleas-in-a-mediterranean-peri-urban-area
#7
Aitor Cevidanes, Laura Altet, Andrea D Chirife, Tatiana Proboste, Javier Millán
People living at the human/wildlife interface are at risk of becoming infected with Bartonella for which micromammals act as reservoir. We aimed to determine the factors related to the prevalence of Bartonella and its haplotype diversity in micromammals and in their fleas in a Mediterranean peri-urban environment. We analyzed 511 micromammals, chiefly 407 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), captured into Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain) in spring and autumn from 2011 to 2013 in two natural and two adjacent residential areas, their fleas (grouped in 218 monospecific pools) and 29 fetuses from six Bartonella-positive female wood mice...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616492/the-role-of-environmental-health-in-one-health-a-uganda-perspective
#8
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Edwinah Atusingwize, Abdullah Ali Halage
BACKGROUND: One Health is the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. As the human population continues to increase across the world, the interface of people, animals and the environment becomes more significant and impactful. For the past few years, the One Health concept has brought together experts in the areas of animal and human health. It has provided a new synthesis for public health and veterinary communities across the world...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616481/evidence-of-exposure-to-rickettsia-felis-in-australian-patients
#9
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca J Traub
Rickettsia felis is an emerging zoonosis, causing flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF). Serological diagnosis is typically confounded by cross-reactivity with typhus group rickettsiae and prior to the development of specific serological methods, cases of FBSF in Australia were misdiagnosed. Patient sera tested between August 2010 and December 2013 and known to be seropositive to R. typhi by immunofluorescence antibody testing (IFAT) were subsequently retested against R. felis using an R. felis-specific IFAT. Sera of 49 patients were of a sufficient quality to be included in re-analysis...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614592/the-heat-is-on-genetic-adaptation-to-urbanization-mediated-by-thermal-tolerance-and-body-size
#10
Kristien I Brans, Mieke Jansen, Joost Vanoverbeke, Nedim Tüzün, Robby Stoks, Luc De Meester
Worldwide, urbanization leads to tremendous anthropogenic environmental alterations, causing strong selection pressures on populations of animals and plants. Although a key feature of urban areas is their higher temperature ("urban heat islands"), adaptive thermal evolution in organisms inhabiting urban areas has rarely been studied. We tested for evolution of a higher heat tolerance (CTMAX ) in urban populations of the water flea Daphnia magna, a keystone grazer in freshwater ecosystems, by carrying out a common garden experiment at two temperatures (20 °C and 24 °C) with genotypes of 13 natural populations ordered along a well-defined urbanization gradient...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610351/world-checklist-of-flea-beetles-of-the-genus-epitrix%C3%A2-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-galerucinae-alticini
#11
Andrzej O Bieńkowski, Marina J Orlova-Bienkowskaja
The world checklist of the genus Epitrix (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is necessary, since many species of this genus are serious pests of potato and other Solanaceae, and since some species have been inadvertedly introduced from one continent to another and established. We have compiled the catalogue of all species described to date. There are 162 species and 11 subspecies in the world. The geographic distribution is indicated for each species.
May 18, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610289/updated-checklist-of-balearic-leaf-beetles-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#12
Eduard Petitpierre, Antoni Sacarés, José A Jurado-Rivera
The first updated checklist of Balearic leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) since 1960 is presented here, evincing the presence of 118 species. This estimation is clearly lower than the 141 species reported in the only list available to date (Jolivet, 1953), and the dissimilarity is even more pronounced if we take into account that 22 new species have been added during this period. The possible explanations for these differences are discussed. The main island in the archipelago holds most of the species (Mallorca, 113 spp...
May 29, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591141/floodplain-farm-fields-provide-novel-rearing-habitat-for-chinook-salmon
#13
Jacob V E Katz, Carson Jeffres, J Louise Conrad, Ted R Sommer, Joshua Martinez, Steve Brumbaugh, Nicholas Corline, Peter B Moyle
When inundated by floodwaters, river floodplains provide critical habitat for many species of fish and wildlife, but many river valleys have been extensively leveed and floodplain wetlands drained for flood control and agriculture. In the Central Valley of California, USA, where less than 5% of floodplain wetland habitats remain, a critical conservation question is how can farmland occupying the historical floodplains be better managed to improve benefits for native fish and wildlife. In this study fields on the Sacramento River floodplain were intentionally flooded after the autumn rice harvest to determine if they could provide shallow-water rearing habitat for Sacramento River fall-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583186/assessment-of-dog-owner-adherence-to-veterinarians-flea-and-tick-prevention-recommendations-in-the-united-states-using-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Robert P Lavan, Kaan Tunceli, Dongmu Zhang, Dorothy Normile, Rob Armstrong
BACKGROUND: Adherence to a prescribed therapeutic regimen is a critical factor for achieving medication effectiveness and therefore treatment success. In the case of companion animal ectoparasite control, suboptimal owner adherence to medication recommendations is thought to be a common cause of treatment failure, and previous reports have found pet owners applying an average of 4.0-4.6 monthly flea and tick treatments per year to their dogs. This study investigated: US veterinary hospital self-reported flea and tick prevention recommendations; dog owner recollection of these recommendations; dog owner opinion on flea/tick recommendations and estimated owner flea and tick medication adherence based on veterinary hospital purchase records...
June 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574465/trap-neuter-return-activities-in-urban-stray-cat-colonies-in-australia
#15
Kuan Tan, Jacquie Rand, John Morton
Trap, neuter and return (TNR) describes a non-lethal approach to the control of urban stray cat populations. Currently, in Australia, lethal control is common, with over 85% of cats entering some municipal pounds euthanized. No research has been published describing TNR activities in Australia. Adults involved with TNR in Australia were invited to participate. Data from 53 respondents were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Most respondents were females 36 to 65 years of age, and slightly more participated in TNR as individuals than as part of an organization...
June 2, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572317/complete-genome-assembly-of-pantoea-stewartii-subsp-stewartii-dc283-a-corn-pathogen
#16
Duy An Duong, Ann M Stevens, Roderick V Jensen
The phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii DC283 causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn after transmission from the corn flea beetle insect vector. Here, we report that the complete annotated genome of P. stewartii DC283 has been fully assembled into one circular chromosome, 10 circular plasmids, and one linear phage.
June 1, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562081/a-new-sesquiterpene-lactone-glucoside-and-other-constituents-from-inula-salsoloides-with-insecticidal-activities-on-striped-flea-beetle-phyllotreta-striolata-fabricius
#17
Lu Bai, Qingchao Liu, Yijing Cen, Jinping Huang, Xinxin Zhang, Sen Guo, Li Zhang, Tiantian Guo, Chi-Tang Ho, Naisheng Bai
A new sesquiterpene, eupatolide 13-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (eupatolide-II, 1), lactone glucoside, along with 15 known compounds, were isolated from the whole plant of Inula salsoloides (Asteraceae). Dichloromethane extract and compounds 1-11 were used to investigate insecticidal activities against vegetable important pest, striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius). None of the samples show any toxicity under concentration of 500 times, while compound 1 and the extract had toxic effect when the concentration increased to 250 times...
May 31, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544307/afoxolaner-and-fluralaner-treatment-do-not-impact-on-cutaneous-demodex-populations-of-healthy-dogs
#18
Christine M Zewe, Laura Altet, Andrea T H Lam, Lluís Ferrer
BACKGROUND: Fluralaner and afoxolaner are isoxazolines licensed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations. Isoxazolines have also shown efficacy for treatment of demodicosis. Nothing is known about the impact of these compounds on the populations of Demodex in healthy dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of Demodex in the skin of healthy dogs prior to and following the use of either afoxolaner or fluralaner, using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for Demodex DNA...
May 23, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538849/-epidemiological-and-molecular-profile-of-rickettsiosis-in-peruvian-border-locations
#19
Rosa Palacios-Salvatierra, Elizabeth Anaya-Ramírez, Julio Juscamayta-López, Omar Cáceres-Rey, Leonardo Mendoza-Uribe, Patricia Mosquera-Visaloth, Fátima Conceição-Silva
Objectives.: To determine the circulation of Rickettsia in the years 2010 and 2011 in border locations in four regions ofPeru and their clinical epidemiological and molecular characteristics. Materials and Methods.: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Tumbes, Tacna, Madre de Dios, and Loreto. Whole blood samples were obtained from participants for culture and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) testing. The DNA taken from leukocytes and ectoparasite cultures was used, and those genes detected for Rickettsia that were successfully amplified were sequenced and analyzed...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526098/first-description-of-bartonella-koehlerae-infection-in-a-spanish-dog-with-infective-endocarditis
#20
María-Dolores Tabar, Laura Altet, Ricardo G Maggi, Jaume Altimira, Xavier Roura
BACKGROUND: Bartonella koehlerae has been recently described as a new cat- and cat fleas-associated agent of culture-negative human endocarditis. It has been also encountered in one dog from Israel and six dogs from the USA, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. RESULTS: A 7-year-old intact male mixed dog presented with clinico-pathological signs consistent with mitral endocarditis and cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Molecular studies revealed the presence of Bartonella koehlerae DNA in samples from blood and mitral valve tissue...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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