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Kyu-Sung Ahn, Shin-Eui Huh, Sang-Woo Seol, Ha-Jung Kim, Kuk-Hyun Suh, SungShik Shin
BACKGROUND: The status of flea infestation in dogs is an important public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution worldwide and the flea-borne disease transmission. In the present study, we investigated the flea infestation among 116 outdoor dogs (57 females and 59 males) in 8 rural areas of Jeonnam Province, Republic of Korea. RESULTS: Thirty-three dogs (28.4%) were infested with fleas, and all dogs were infested with Ctenocephalides canis. One dog from Hampyeong was co-infested with Ctenocephalides felis orientis, but no dogs were infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca Justine Traub
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) caused by Rickettsia felis is an arthropod-borne zoonosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, primary species and genotype(s) of R. felis infecting fleas from dogs and cats. RESULTS: All fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis. All rickettsial DNA detected in fleas was identified as being 100% homologous to R. felis URRWXCal2, with positivity within tropical, subtropical and temperate regions noted at 6...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ricci P H Yue, Harry F Lee
BACKGROUND: Although the linkage between climate change and plague transmission has been proposed in previous studies, the dominant approach has been to address the linkage with traditional statistical methods, while the possible non-linearity, non-stationarity and low frequency domain of the linkage has not been fully considered. We seek to address the above issue by investigating plague transmission in pre-industrial Europe (AD1347-1760) at both continental and country levels. METHODS: We apply Granger Causality Analysis to identify the casual relationship between climatic variables and plague outbreaks...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ashley Jane Riner, Jaime L Rudd, Deana L Clifford, Brian L Cypher, Janet E Foley, Patrick Foley
The San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica Merriam (Carnivora, Canidae)) is an endangered small carnivore endemic to the San Joaquin Valley of California. Commercial and agricultural land expansion has contributed to the species' decline and invasion of more cosmopolitan species, providing means for potential ecological shifts in disease vector and host species. Fleas are common ectoparasites that can serve as important indicators of cross-species interactions and disease risk. We compared flea load and species composition on kit foxes inhabiting urban and nonurban habitats to determine how urbanization affects flea diversity and potential disease spillover from co-occurring species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Habibeh Mirzadeh, Jamshid Mohammadi, Asghar Fazaeli
The human flea is an important ectoparasite causing serious public health problems worldwide. Planning and monitoring the control programs against this vector require the knowledge of population structure and vector competence. This study was carried out to identify molecular structure of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal gene and its capability in the survey of Pulex irritans populations as well as to investigate Rickettsia infection in these populations. Flea samples were collected via human baits from animal farms in two districts of Zanjan Province, northwest of Iran...
March 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Colleen Edith Archer, M Corrie Schoeman, Christopher Charles Appleton, Samson Mukaratirwa, Karen J Hope, Glenda Beverly Matthews
This study investigated associations between Trypanosoma lewisi; Xenopsylla cheopis, a common cyclical vector of T. lewisi; Polyplax spinulosa, a reported mechanical vector; and Laelaps ecidnina and L. lamborni, two rodent mites of Rattus norvegicus in Durban. Three hundred and seventy nine R. norvegicus were live-trapped at 48 sites in 4 locality types of Durban during a one year period. Rats were euthanized, cardiac blood was taken to check for hemoparasites and ectoparasites were removed for identification...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Sebastian Heger, Miaomiao Du, Kevin Bauer, Andreas Schäffer, Henner Hollert
The ecotoxicity of two biofuel candidates (1‑octanol and 2‑butanone) was investigated by an integrative test strategy using three bioassays: the acute immobilisation test with water flea (D. magna), the fish embryo acute toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the in vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells. The median effective concentration (EC50 ) values were 14.9±0.66mgL-1 for 1‑octanol, and 2152.1±44.6mgL-1 for 2‑butanone in the D. magna test. Both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone caused teratogenic and lethal effects on zebrafish embryos, while exposure to 1‑octanol significantly induced these effects at concentrations ≥2...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jaroslav Vrba, Markéta Macholdová, Linda Nedbalová, Jiří Nedoma, Michal Šorf
Extracellular phosphatase activity (PA) has been used as an overall indicator of P depletion in lake phytoplankton. However, detailed insights into the mechanisms of PA regulation are still limited, especially in the case of acid phosphatases. The novel substrate ELF97 phosphate allows for tagging PA on single cells in an epifluorescence microscope. This fluorescence-labeled enzyme activity (FLEA) assay enables for autecological studies in natural phytoplankton and algal cultures. We combined the FLEA assay with image analysis to measure cell-specific acid PA in two closely related species of the genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) isolated from two acidic lakes with distinct P availability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mousa Khosravani
Historically, rodents-ectoparasites are responsible for many diseases in human and domestic animal communities because they are well-adapted to the environment and nutritional resources. In addition, ectoparasites can affect the reproductive rates, ecological fitness and the dispersal pattern of their hosts. Data was compiled through all publications relating to ectoparasites fauna from Iranian rodents. Host specificity, rodent-parasites interaction, geographical distribution, ecological trends as well as the medical or veterinary importance of ectoparasites are considered in this review...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Koji Noge, Shigeru Tamogami
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles play important roles in plant-insect and plant-plant interactions. The common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis, is often infested by the flea beetle, Altica oleracea, on which the predatory blue shield bug, Zicrona caerulea, is usually found. This observation suggests that the predatory bug can discriminate infested plants from intact ones to locate its prey. In this study, l-leucine-derived nitrogen-containing compounds [isovaleronitrile (3-methylbutanenitrile), (E/Z)-isovaleraldoxime and 3-methyl-1-nitrobutane] and some terpenes were identified as a characteristic volatile blend from herbivore-infested O...
March 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Duy An Duong, Roderick V Jensen, Ann M Stevens
The bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn. P. stewartii is transmitted to plants via corn flea beetles where it first colonizes the apoplast causing water-soaked lesions, then migrates to the xylem and forms a biofilm that blocks water transport. Bacterial quorum sensing insures the exopolysaccharide production necessary for biofilm formation occurs only at high cell density. A genomic-level Tn-Seq analysis was performed to identify additional bacterial genes essential for survival in planta and to provide insights into the plant-microbe interactions occurring during wilt disease...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Lisa A Golding, Kitty McKnight, Monique Binet, Merrin Adams, Simon C Apte
Barium is present at elevated concentrations in oil and gas produced waters (PWs) and has no international water quality guideline value to assess the potential risk of adverse effects to aquatic biota. Sulfate concentration largely controls the solubility of barium in aquatic systems with insoluble barium sulfate (barite) assumed to be less bioavailable and less toxic than dissolved barium. We exposed aquatic biota to dissolved barium only and to a mixture of dissolved and precipitated barium. The chronic dissolved barium 48-h growth rate inhibition EC10 and EC50 values for the tropical freshwater alga Chlorella sp...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Basma El Hamzaoui, Maureen Laroche, Lionel Almeras, Jean Michel Bérenger, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently emerged in the field of entomology as a promising method for the identification of arthropods and the detection of associated pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experimental model of Ctenocephalides felis (cat fleas) infected with Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae was developed to evaluate the efficacy of MALDI-TOF MS in distinguishing infected from uninfected fleas, and its ability to distinguish fleas infected with Bartonella quintana from fleas infected with Bartonella henselae...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emily A Wilson, Cheryl J Briggs, Tom L Dudley
Amphibian species are experiencing population declines due to infection by the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), an asymptomatic carrier of Bd, has been implicated in the spread of this pathogen through global trade and established invasive populations on several continents. However, research has not explored the relationships of both life stages of this amphibian with Bd. While the post-metamorphic individuals may act as a reservoir, spreading the infection to susceptible species, the filter-feeding larvae may consume the motile Bd zoospores from the water column, potentially reducing pathogen abundance and thus the likelihood of infection...
2018: PloS One
Angela E Douglas
In Focus: Mushegian, A. A., Walser, J. -C., Sullam, K. E., & Ebert, D. (2018). The microbiota of diapause: How host-microbe associations are formed after dormancy in an aquatic crustacean. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 400-413. All animals are colonized by micro-organisms, most of which are benign or beneficial. Where do these micro-organisms come from? Theory predicts that micro-organisms which are transmitted vertically from parent to offspring are especially likely to be beneficial to the host, while horizontally acquired micro-organisms are opportunistic and more variable in their impact on host performance...
March 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Duck-Hyun Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Hui-Su Kim, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Il-Chan Kim, Jae-Seong Lee
We report the complete sequence analysis of the entire complement of eight typical homeobox (Hox) genes (Lab, Pb, Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and two other genes (Hox3 and Ftz) in a 324.6-kb region in the water flea Daphnia magna. In the cluster of D. magna Hox genes, we found one long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)/R2-NeSL between Ubx and Abd-A that was not present in Daphnia pulex Hox genes. In basal expression of Hox genes at different developmental stages, biothorax complex genes (Ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and some antennapedia complex genes (Lab, Scr, Antp) were moderately expressed, but the Hox3 gene was barely expressed...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Stanley S Nyirenda, Bernard M Hang Ombe, Edgar Simulundu, Evans Mulenga, Ladslav Moonga, Robert S Machang U, Gerald Misinzo, Bukheti S Kilonzo
BACKGROUND: Plague is a flea-borne zoonotic and invasive disease caused by a gram negative coccobacillus bacterium called Yersinia pestis. Plague has caused three devastating pandemics globally namely: the Justinian, Black Death and Oriental plague. The disease in the Eastern Province of Zambia has been reported in Nyimba and Sinda Districts in the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of plague in the two affected districts. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), targeting Plasminogen activator gene (pla gene) of Y...
January 4, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Hideyuki Kosumi, Hiroaki Iwata, Hajime Miyazawa, Masumi Tsujiwaki, Yosuke Mai, Satomi Ando, Takuya Ito, Kimiaki Yamano, Hiroshi Shimizu
Tungiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans. Tungiasis is prevalent in rural Central and South America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa.1 In some endemic areas, the overall infestation prevalence exceeds 50 percent, and it remains an important public health problem for poor communities.1,2 In some cases, the eruptions can mimic viral warts, furuncles, abscesses and paronychia.1 Dermoscopy is reported to be a useful tool for differentiating between these and tungiasis lesions...
February 11, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Domenico Otranto
Vector-borne pathogens have developed a close relationship with blood feeding arthropod ectoparasites (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, phlebotomine sand flies, black flies, fleas, kissing bugs, lice) and exploited a huge variety of vector transmission routes. Therefore, the life cycles of these pathogens result in a long evolved balance with the respective arthropod biology, ecology and blood feeding habits, instrumentally to the infection of several animal species, including humans. Amongst the many parasite transmission modes, such as ingestion of the arthropod, with its faeces or secretions, blood feeding represents the main focus for this article, as it is a central event to the life of almost all arthropod vectors...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
A Montoya, M García, R Gálvez, R Checa, V Marino, J Sarquis, J P Barrera, C Rupérez, L Caballero, C Chicharro, I Cruz, G Miró
Cats are definitive hosts and reservoirs for several parasites, some of which are responsible for serious zoonotic diseases. We conducted a case-control study of data from a trap-neuter-return (TNR) programme (years 2014-2017) designed to examine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites in free-roaming cats living in urban areas of central Spain. In the animal population tested (n = 263), we detected a 29.2% prevalence of endoparasites, including high rates of cestodes (12.9%) and Toxocara cati (11.7%). While faecal samples showed no Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, the seroprevalence of T...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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