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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197898/prevalence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bartonella-species-of-wild-carnivores-and-their-fleas-in-northwestern-mexico
#1
A M López-Pérez, L Osikowicz, Y Bai, J Montenieri, A Rubio, K Moreno, K Gage, G Suzán, M Kosoy
The host-parasite-vector relationship of Bartonella spp. system in wild carnivores and their fleas from northwestern Mexico was investigated. Sixty-six carnivores belonging to eight species were sampled, and 285 fleas belonging to three species were collected during spring (April-May) and fall (October-November) seasons. We detected Bartonella species in 7 carnivores (10.6%) and 27 fleas (9.5%) through either blood culture or PCR. Of the 27 Bartonella-positive fleas, twenty-two were Pulex simulans, three were Pulex irritans and one was Echidnophaga gallinacea...
February 14, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193869/perplexing-cooperative-folding-and-stability-of-a-low-sequence-complexity-polyproline-2-protein-lacking-a-hydrophobic-core
#2
Zachary P Gates, Michael C Baxa, Wookyung Yu, Joshua A Riback, Hui Li, Benoît Roux, Stephen B H Kent, Tobin R Sosnick
The burial of hydrophobic side chains in a protein core generally is thought to be the major ingredient for stable, cooperative folding. Here, we show that, for the snow flea antifreeze protein (sfAFP), stability and cooperativity can occur without a hydrophobic core, and without α-helices or β-sheets. sfAFP has low sequence complexity with 46% glycine and an interior filled only with backbone H-bonds between six polyproline 2 (PP2) helices. However, the protein folds in a kinetically two-state manner and is moderately stable at room temperature...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193637/jumping-performance-of-flea-hoppers-and-other-mirid-bugs-hemiptera-miridae
#3
M Burrows, M Dorosenko
The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs which were respectively 140% and 190% longer than the front legs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189099/miniaturising-acute-toxicity-and-feeding-rate-measurements-in-daphnia-magna
#4
Konstantinos Grintzalis, Wenkui Dai, Konstantinos Panagiotidis, Alexia Belavgeni, Mark R Viant
Phenotypic markers of animal health form an essential component of regulatory toxicology. Immobilisation of neonate water fleas - Daphnia magna - as a surrogate measure of their mortality following exposure to a chemical for 24-48h forms the basis of the internationally utilised OECD acute toxicity test 202. A second important marker of animal physiology and health is feeding rate, which in Daphnia is determined by measuring the algae feeding rate. Given the widespread use of OECD test 202 for acute toxicity as well as the quantification of feeding rate in toxicological studies of daphniids, significant benefits could result from miniaturising this assay...
February 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165869/a-field-study-of-plague-and-tularemia-in-rodents-western-iran
#5
Ehsan Mostafavi, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Alireza Japoni-Nejad, Saber Esmaeili, Jamshid Darvish, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Ali Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Behzad Pourhossein, Ahmad Ghasemi, Miklós Gyuranecz, Elisabeth Carniel
INTRODUCTION: Kurdistan Province in Iran is a historical focus for plague and tularemia. This study aimed at assessing the current status of these two foci by studying their rodent reservoirs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rodents were trapped and their ectoparasites were collected. The genus and species of both rodents and ectoparasites were determined. Serological analyses of rodent blood samples were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plague and by standard tube agglutination assay for tularemia...
February 6, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150014/dynamics-of-co-infection-with-bartonella-henselae-genotypes-i-and-ii-in-naturally-infected-cats-implications-for-feline-vaccine-development
#6
Camille Huwyler, Nadja Heiniger, Bruno B Chomel, Minsoo Kim, Rickie W Kasten, Jane E Koehler
Bartonella henselae is an emerging bacterial pathogen causing cat-scratch disease and potentially fatal bacillary angiomatosis in humans. Bacteremic cats constitute a large reservoir for human infection. Although feline vaccination is a potential strategy to prevent human infection, selection of appropriate B. henselae strains is critical for successful vaccine development. Two distinct genotypes of B. henselae (type I, type II) have been identified and are known to co-infect the feline host, but very little is known about the interaction of these two genotypes during co-infection in vivo...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148275/effectiveness-and-residual-speed-of-flea-kill-of-a-novel-spot-on-formulation-of-spinetoram-cheristin-%C3%A2-for-cats
#7
Tandy Paarlberg, Joseph Winkle, Anthony J Rumschlag, Lisa Marie Young, William G Ryan, Daniel E Snyder
BACKGROUND: A spot-on spinetoram formulation (Cheristin(®)) was developed to eliminate fleas from infested cats. This paper describes three spinetoram studies: two for registration (Studies 1 and 2), and one comparing residual speed of kill (SOK) with topically applied fipronil/(S)-methoprene (FSM) and imidacloprid (Study 3). METHODS: Cats were randomized to treatment based on flea counts from infestations placed within 2 weeks prior to treatment. In Studies 1 and 2, groups were untreated control and spinetoram; in Study 3, groups were untreated control, spinetoram, FSM and imidacloprid, all applied per label on Day 0...
February 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140571/the-sub-lethal-and-reproductive-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-flowback-and-produced-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-the-water-flea-daphnia-magna
#8
Tamzin A Blewett, Perrine L M Delompre, Yuhe He, Erik J Folkerts, Shannon L Flynn, Daniel S Alessi, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process allowing for the extraction of gas or oil. To fracture the rocks, a proprietary mix of chemicals is injected under high pressure, which later returns to the surface as flowback and produced water (FPW). FPW is a complex chemical mixture consisting of trace metals, organic compounds, and often, high levels of salts. FPW toxicity to the model freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna, was characterized utilizing acute (48 h median lethal concentrations; LC50) and chronic (21 d) exposures...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137976/morphological-asymmetry-and-habitat-quality-using-fleas-and-their-rodent-hosts-as-a-novel-experimental-system
#9
Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova, Daniel Kiefer, Boris R Krasnov
Morphological asymmetry is widely used to measure developmental instability and higher levels of asymmetry often correlate with decreased mating success, increased inbreeding, increased stress, and decreased habitat quality. We studied asymmetry and relationships between asymmetry and host identity in two flea species, host generalist Xenopsylla ramesis and host specialist Parapulex chephrenis and asked 1) what are levels of asymmetry in their femurs and tibiae, 2) which type of asymmetry predominates and 3) whether fleas that fed on host species distantly related to their principal host species produce offspring that exhibit greater asymmetry than those that had fed on their principal host species...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133871/bartonellosis-one-health-and-all-creatures-great-and-small
#10
REVIEW
Edward B Breitschwerdt
BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis is a zoonotic infectious disease of worldwide distribution, caused by an expanding number of recently discovered Bartonella spp. OBJECTIVES: This review serves as an update on comparative medical aspects of this disease, including the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, treatment and challenges. RESULTS: Of comparative medical importance, Bartonella spp. are transmitted by several arthropod vectors, including fleas, keds, lice, sand flies, ticks and, potentially, mites and spiders...
February 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132659/long-chain-alkanes-and-fatty-acids-from-ludwigia-octovalvis-weed-leaf-surface-waxes-as-short-range-attractant-and-ovipositional-stimulant-to-altica-cyanea-weber-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#11
S Mitra, N Sarkar, A Barik
The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively...
January 30, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122816/effectiveness-of-fipronil-as-a-systemic-control-agent-against-xenopsylla-cheopis-siphonaptera-pulicidae-in-madagascar
#12
D M Rajonhson, A Miarinjara, S Rahelinirina, M Rajerison, S Boyer
Fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), the main vector of Yersinia pestis (Yersin), the causative agent of plague, in Madagascar. The effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against X. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "Lethal Dose 50" (LD50). Two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil mixture from which X...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117561/wildlife-plague-surveillance-near-the-china-kazakhstan-border-2012-2015
#13
S-S Zhao, Y Pulati, X-P Yin, W Li, B-J Wang, K Yang, C-F Chen, Y-Z Wang
Plague is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This pathogen can be transmitted by fleas and has an enzootic cycle, circulating among small mammals, and occasionally epizootic cycles, infecting other species. In China, infected wild rodents are primarily reservoirs of Y. Pestis and are related to human infection (Int. J. Infect. Dis., 33, 2015 and 67; BMC Microbiol., 9, 2009 and 205). Because shepherd dogs prey on and eat rodents (e.g. marmots and mice), they are valuable sentinel animals for plague serosurveillance in endemic disease foci, although their infections are usually asymptomatic (Vet...
January 24, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115179/cat-fleas-ctenocephalides-felis-from-cats-and-dogs-in-new-zealand-molecular-characterisation-presence-of-rickettsia-felis-and-bartonella-clarridgeiae-and-comparison-with-australia
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shona Chandra, Maureen Forsyth, Andrea L Lawrence, David Emery, Jan Šlapeta
The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays...
January 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103945/a-randomized-blinded-controlled-usa-field-study-to-assess-the-use-of-fluralaner-topical-solution-in-controlling-canine-flea-infestations
#15
Cheyney Meadows, Frank Guerino, Fangshi Sun
BACKGROUND: Orally administered fluralaner effectively controls fleas and ticks on dogs for 12 weeks. This study evaluates the flea control efficacy achieved with topically applied fluralaner in dogs. METHODS: This investigator-blinded, multi-center randomized, positive controlled study evaluated flea control efficacy in dogs following a single owner-applied treatment of topical fluralaner. A positive control group received three treatments, at 4-week intervals, of a commercial formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene...
January 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103942/a-randomized-blinded-controlled-usa-field-study-to-assess-the-use-of-fluralaner-topical-solution-in-controlling-feline-flea-infestations
#16
Cheyney Meadows, Frank Guerino, Fangshi Sun
BACKGROUND: Fleas are a common ectoparasite of domestic cats and there is a need for novel treatments that improve feline flea control. METHODS: This investigator-blinded, multi-center randomized, positive-controlled study evaluated the flea control in cats provided by a single owner-applied treatment with a fluralaner topical formulation compared with a positive control. Households with up to five healthy cats, all at least 12 weeks of age and weighing at least 1...
January 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081130/comparative-ability-of-oropsylla-montana-and-xenopsylla-cheopis-fleas-to-transmit-yersinia-pestis-by-two-different-mechanisms
#17
B Joseph Hinnebusch, David M Bland, Christopher F Bosio, Clayton O Jarrett
BACKGROUND: Transmission of Yersinia pestis by flea bite can occur by two mechanisms. After taking a blood meal from a bacteremic mammal, fleas have the potential to transmit the very next time they feed. This early-phase transmission resembles mechanical transmission in some respects, but the mechanism is unknown. Thereafter, transmission occurs after Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the proventricular valve in the flea foregut. The biofilm can impede and sometimes completely block the ingestion of blood, resulting in regurgitative transmission of bacteria into the bite site...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076392/arthropod-pest-control-for-uk-oilseed-rape-comparing-insecticide-efficacies-side-effects-and-alternatives
#18
Han Zhang, Tom Breeze, Alison Bailey, David Garthwaite, Richard Harrington, Simon G Potts
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073394/gregarine-infection-accelerates-larval-development-of-the-cat-flea-ctenocephalides-felis-bouch%C3%A3
#19
M E Alarcón, A Jara-F, R C Briones, A K Dubey, C H Slamovits
A high degree of specialization between host and parasite is a well-known outcome of a long history of coevolution, and it is strikingly illustrated in a coordination of their life cycles. In some cases, the arms race ensued at the establishment of a symbiotic relationship results in the adoption of manipulative strategies by the parasite. We have already learned that Steinina ctenocephali, a gregarine living in the alimentary canal of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis follows its phenology and metamorphosis...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072500/ultrasound-guided-intracardiac-xenotransfusion-of-canine-packed-red-blood-cells-and-epinephrine-to-the-left-ventricle-of-a-severely-anemic-cat-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#20
Liron Oron, Yaron Bruchim, Sigal Klainbart, Efrat Kelmer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of an ultrasound-guided intracardiac xenotransfusion of canine packed red blood cells (pRBC) to the left ventricle of a severely anemic cat during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). CASE SUMMARY: An 8-year-old previously healthy neutered female cat was presented with severe weakness after she had disappeared for 1 month. On presentation, the cat was in hypovolemic shock, laterally recumbent, and severely anemic with massive flea infestation...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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