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Katharine M Case, Natalia M Vega, Ramesh C Gupta, Michelle A Lasher, Terry D Canerdy
Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar(®) Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Francis Mutebi, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Hermann Feldmeier, Charles Waiswa, Jeanne Bukeka Muhindo, Jürgen Krücken
BACKGROUND: In endemic communities, zoonotic tungiasis, a severe skin disease caused by penetrating female sand fleas, is a public health hazard causing significant human and animal morbidity. No validated drugs are currently available for treatment of animal tungiasis. Due to the reservoir in domestic animals, integrated management of human and animal tungiasis is required to avert its negative effects. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A topical aerosol containing chlorfenvinphos 4...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tom G Schwan, Job E Lopez, David Safronetz, Jennifer M Anderson, Robert J Fischer, Ousmane Maïga, Nafomon Sogoba
BACKGROUND: Fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. During investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in Mali, West Africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest. METHODS: Small mammals were captured in 20 Malian villages from December 2007 to October 2011...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Yanping Han, Haihong Fang, Lei Liu, Dongsheng Zhou
Y. pestis exhibits dramatically different traits of pathogenicity and transmission, albeit their close genetic relationship with its ancestor-Y. pseudotuberculosis, a self-limiting gastroenteric pathogen. Y. pestis is evolved into a deadly pathogen and transmitted to mammals and/or human beings by infected flea biting or directly contacting with the infected animals. Various kinds of environmental changes are implicated into its complex life cycle and pathogenesis. Dynamic regulation of gene expression is critical for environmental adaptation or survival, primarily reflected by genetic regulation mediated by transcriptional factors and small regulatory RNAs at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level, respectively...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zongmin Du, Xiaoyi Wang
Various types of animal models of plague have been developed, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates. Studies have indicated that rodent and nonhuman primate models of pneumonic plague closely resemble the human disease and that the pathologic changes that occur during bubonic plague are very similar in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this section, the pathological changes caused by Y. pestis in different animal models are described. The bacterium Y. pestis causes deadly plague, whereas the other two closely related enteropathogenic Yersinia species merely cause limited gastrointestinal manifestations...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Robert R Brubaker
This chapter outlines the physiology of Yersinia pestis with emphasis on identifying unique functions required for tissue invasion and acute disease. These activities are opposed to often incompatible processes expressed by very closely related Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes localized gastrointestinal infection. Gain of new information in Y. pestis entailed lateral transfer of plasminogen activator and anti-phagocytic capsular antigen via the plasmids pPCP and pMT, respectively, and derepression of the pigmentation locus facilitating colonization of the flea vector...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jordyn M Wolfand, Gregory H LeFevre, Richard G Luthy
Fipronil is a recalcitrant phenylpyrazole-based pesticide used for flea/tick treatment and termite control that is distributed in urban aquatic environments via stormwater and contributes to stream toxicity. We discovered that fipronil is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 4.2 d) by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor to fipronil sulfone and multiple previously unknown fipronil transformation products, lowering fipronil concentration by 96.5%. Using an LC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics approach, we identified four novel fipronil fungal transformation products: hydroxylated fipronil sulfone, glycosylated fipronil sulfone, and two compounds with unresolved structures...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Caio Graco Zeppelini, Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela
As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Scott D Wagner, Tomofumi Kurobe, Bruce G Hammock, Chelsea H Lam, Gary Wu, Natalia Vasylieva, Shirley J Gee, Bruce D Hammock, Swee J Teh
Pesticides in urban runoff are a major source of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, found in structural pest control products, turf grass control, and home pet flea medication, has recently increased in use and is commonly detected in urban runoff. However, little is known about the effects of fipronil on aquatic organisms at early developmental stages. Here, we evaluated toxicity of fipronil to embryos of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes, Qurt strain) using a high-throughput 96-well plate toxicity test...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Lynn M Osikowicz, Sarah A Billeter, Maria Fernanda Rizzo, Michael P Rood, Ashley N Freeman, Joseph E Burns, Renjie Hu, Phalasy Juieng, Vladimir Loparev, Michael Kosoy
We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella washoensis in California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) and their fleas from parks and campgrounds located in seven counties of California. Ninety-seven of 140 (69.3%) ground squirrels were culture positive and the infection prevalence by location ranged from 25% to 100%. In fleas, 60 of 194 (30.9%) Oropsylla montana were found to harbor Bartonella spp. when screened using citrate synthase (gltA) specific primers, whereas Bartonella DNA was not found in two other flea species, Hoplopsyllus anomalus (n = 86) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (n = 6)...
October 5, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Christelle Navarro, Nadège Reymond, Nolwenn Crastes, Stéphane Bonneau
Effitix is a new broad spectrum product based on the combination of fipronil 6.1% and permethrin 54.5% in a solution for spot-on application. It has been shown to be safe and efficacious in dogs in controlling tick, flea, sandfly, and mosquito infestations in laboratory conditions. The aim of this controlled, randomised study was to assess its safety and efficacy against natural tick infestations in field conditions. One hundred eighty-two privately owned dogs were included in France and Germany: 123 dogs were treated on day 0 with the permethrin-fipronil combination (Effitix) and 59 with a permethrin-imidacloprid combination (Advantix®)...
2016: BioMed Research International
P Kuryntseva, P Galitskaya, S Selivanovskaya
Organic wastes, such as the organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or sewage sludge (SS), have become a serious environmental problem in Russia as well as in other countries. The use of these wastes as soil amendments allows their negative impact on the environment to be minimized. However, before these wastes can be used, they need to be treated appropriately in order to decrease their level of hazard. In this study, composting of raw SS, OFMSW, a mixture of these two wastes (OFMSW+SS) at a ratio 1:2 as well as the anaerobically digested variants of these wastes (SSd, OFMSWd and OFMSWd+SSd) mixed with oiled sawdust was performed...
September 28, 2016: Waste Management
Jennifer E Thomas, Lesa Staubus, Jaime L Goolsby, Mason V Reichard
Free-roaming domestic cat (Felis catus) populations serve as a valuable resource for studying ectoparasite prevalence. While they share a similar environment as owned cats, free-roaming cats do not receive routine veterinary care or ectoparasiticide application, giving insight into parasite risks for owned animals. We examined up to 673 infested cats presented to a trap-neuter-return (TNR) clinic in the central United States. Ectoparasite prevalences on cats were as follows: fleas (71.6%), ticks (18.7%), Felicola subrostratus (1...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Ya-Nan Zhang, Xiu-Yun Zhu, Wen-Ping Wang, Yi Wang, Lu Wang, Xiao-Xue Xu, Kun Zhang, Dao-Gui Deng
The water flea Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans commonly found in freshwater environment that can switch their reproduction mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction to adapt to the external environment. As such, Daphnia are great model organisms to study the mechanism of reproductive switching, the underlying mechanism of reproduction and development in cladocerans and other animals. However, little is known about the Daphnia's reproductive behaviour at a molecular level. We constructed a genetic database of the genes expressed in a sexual female (SF) and a parthenogenetic female (PF) of D...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Victoria I Verhoeve, Krit Jirakanwisal, Tadanobu Utsuki, Kevin R Macaluso
Crucial factors influencing the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis include pathogenesis and transmission. Detection of R. felis DNA in a number of arthropod species has been reported, with characterized isolates, R. felis strain LSU and strain LSU-Lb, generated from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, and the non-hematophagous booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, respectively. While it is realized that strain influence on host biology varies, the rickettsial response to these distinct host environments remained undefined...
2016: PloS One
Tsegazeabe H Haileselasie, Joachim Mergeay, Lawrence J Weider, Ruben Sommaruga, Thomas A Davidson, Mariana Meerhoff, Hartmut Arndt, Klaus Jürgens, Erik Jeppesen, Luc De Meester
One of the most prominent manifestations of the ongoing climate warming is the retreat of glaciers and ice sheets around the world. Retreating glaciers result in the formation of new ponds and lakes, which are available for colonization. The gradual appearance of these new habitat patches allows us to determine to what extent the composition of asexual Daphnia (water flea) populations is affected by environmental drivers versus dispersal limitation. Here we used a landscape genetics approach to assess the processes structuring the clonal composition of species in the D...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Christina A Nelson, Shubhayu Saha, Paul S Mead
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005-2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Solomon Tsebeni Wafula, Charles Ssemugabo, Noel Namuhani, David Musoke, John Ssempebwa, Abdullah Ali Halage
INTRODUCTION: Tungiasis is an endemic but neglected health problem in Uganda especially in resource poor communities. It is largely affecting rural communities in the Eastern, West Nile and Central regions. This study assessed prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study that used a semi-structured questionnaire and observational checklist to collect quantitative data from 422 households in 12 villages...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo, Yecenia Martínez-Nájera, Ingeborg Becker, José M Venzal, Marcelo B Labruna
The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by several hematophagous arthropods such as ticks, fleas and sucking lice. In particular hard ticks (Ixodidae) have been cited as the main vectors of pathogenic rickettsiae in Mexico. However, there have been only two records of a single Rickettsia species associated with Mexican soft ticks (Argasidae). In this study, we searched for rickettsial DNA in argasid ticks (13 adults and eight nymphs of Ornithodoros yumatensis) from two bat caves in the state of Yucatan, Mexico...
October 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Emanuele Brianti, Ettore Napoli, Gabriella Gaglio, Luigi Falsone, Salvatore Giannetto, Fabrizio Solari Basano, Roberto Nazzari, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Viviana Domenica Tarallo, Dorothee Stanneck, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
This study investigated the efficacy of two collars for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations. Additionally the effect of these collars on the incidence of Leishmania infantum infection as compared with a group of vaccinated dogs was evaluated. A total of 224 young dogs from private animal shelters were enrolled in April/May into four groups: G1, 55 dogs treated with 10% imidacloprid + 4.5% flumethrin collar (Seresto, Bayer Animal Health); G2, 60 dogs treated with 4% deltamethrin collar (Scalibor protector band, MSD Animal Health); G3, 54 dogs vaccinated with CaniLeish (Virbac Animal Health); and G4, 55 dogs left non-treated as controls...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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