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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935246/knowledge-and-practices-related-to-plague-in-an-endemic-area-of-uganda
#1
Kiersten J Kugeler, Titus Apangu, Joseph D Forrester, Kevin S Griffith, Gordian Candini, Janet Abaru, Jimmy F Okoth, Harriet Apio, Geoffrey Ezama, Robert Okello, Meghan Brett, Paul Mead
BACKGROUND: Plague is a virulent zoonosis reported most commonly from sub-Saharan Africa. Early treatment with antibiotics is important to prevent mortality. Understanding knowledge gaps and common behaviors informs development of educational efforts to reduce plague mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multi-stage cluster-sampled survey of 420 households in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda to assess knowledge of symptoms and causes of plague and healthcare-seeking practices...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928300/zoonotic-surveillance-for-rickettsiae-in-rodents-and-mapping-of-vectors-of-rickettsial-diseases-in-india-a-multi-centric-study
#2
Rina Tilak, Rajesh Kunwar, P K Tyagi, Anurag Khera, R K Joshi, Urmila B Wankhade
BACKGROUND: The global resurgence of rickettsial diseases and their potential to impact the fitness of military personnel and inflict widespread casualties amongst civil populations has emerged as a major cause of public health concern. Absence of surveillance system, lack of awareness amongst medical fraternity to rickettsial activity along with the difficulty in diagnosis because of their protean clinical manifestations are reasons for the outbreaks of these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine rickettsial activity amongst rodents and study vector diversity, abundance and their distribution to enable mapping of rickettsial hotspots...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927433/modelling-the-current-distribution-and-predicted-spread-of-the-flea-species-ctenocephalides-felis-infesting-outdoor-dogs-in-spain
#3
Rosa Gálvez, Vicenzo Musella, Miguel A Descalzo, Ana Montoya, Rocío Checa, Valentina Marino, Oihane Martín, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927427/first-molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-zoonotic-bartonella-species-in-fleas-infesting-domestic-animals-in-tunisia
#4
Saba Zouari, Fatma Khrouf, Youmna M'ghirbi, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by different intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) that is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking arthropods such as sandflies, ticks and fleas. In Tunisia, there are no data available identifying the vectors of Bartonella spp. In our research, we used molecular methods to detect and characterize Bartonella species circulating in fleas collected from domestic animals in several of the country's bioclimatic areas...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924831/effects-of-a-hypothetical-escape-of-co2-gas-from-subterranean-storage-sites-on-water-flea-daphnia-magna
#5
Alla Khosrovyan, Tomas Angel DelValls, Angel Luque, Inmaculada Riba
The impacts of a hypothetical CO2 gas leak from freshwater sediments on the survival and reproduction of freshwater flea Daphnia magna were analyzed. Another objective was to assess the performance of standard toxicity testing protocols for CO2-induced acidification research in freshwaters. Four pH levels (7.5, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0) and two sediments with different contamination level were tested. The results revealed that the D. magna are susceptible to a gradual but relatively rapid CO2 enrichment of the water column causing a change from circumneutral to acidic conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923406/negative-environmental-impacts-of-antibiotic-contaminated-effluents-from-pharmaceutical-industries
#6
Ana Bielen, Ana Šimatović, Josipa Kosić-Vukšić, Ivan Senta, Marijan Ahel, Sanja Babić, Tamara Jurina, Juan José González Plaza, Milena Milaković, Nikolina Udiković-Kolić
Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10...
September 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916986/continuous-structured-population-models-for-daphnia-magna
#7
Erica M Rutter, H T Banks, Gerald A LeBlanc, Kevin B Flores
We continue our efforts in modeling Daphnia magna, a species of water flea, by proposing a continuously structured population model incorporating density-dependent and density-independent fecundity and mortality rates. We collected new individual-level data to parameterize the individual demographics relating food availability and individual daphnid growth. Our model is fit to experimental data using the generalized least-squares framework, and we use cross-validation and Akaike Information Criteria to select hyper-parameters...
September 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905982/vector-borne-diseases-in-cats-in-germany
#8
Michèle Bergmann, Katrin Hartmann
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are caused by a wide range of pathogens, which are transmitted by a variety of vectors, such as ticks and fleas. As a result of climate changes, more vector-borne diseases are becoming endemic in Germany, not only in dogs, but also in cats. For some of the pathogens prevalence data still need to be investigated in Germany. However, natural infections with Bartonella, Anaplasma, haemotropic Mycoplasma and Borrelia species have already been described in German cats. Clinical relevance of these pathogens is not fully understood, and it is still unknown, why most infected cats stay asymptomatic and which predisposing factors contribute to the development of clinical signs in cats...
September 13, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892281/transgenerational-and-developmental-plasticity-at-the-molecular-level-lessons-from-daphnia
#9
Alison M Bell, Laura R Stein
Listen to the news and you are bound to hear that researchers are increasingly interested in the biological manifestations of trauma that reverberate through the generations. Research in this area can be controversial in the public realm, provoking societal issues about personal responsibility (are we really born free or are we born with the burden of our ancestors' experience?). It is also a touchy subject within evolutionary biology because it provokes concerns about Lamarckianism and general scepticism about the importance of extra-genetic inheritance (Laland et al...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886687/-fleaing-the-plague-adaptations-of-yersinia-pestis-to-its-insect-vector-that-lead-to-transmission
#10
B Joseph Hinnebusch, Clayton O Jarrett, David M Bland
Interest in arthropod-borne pathogens focuses primarily on how they cause disease in humans. How they produce a transmissible infection in their arthropod host is just as critical to their life cycle, however. Yersinia pestis adopts a unique life stage in the digestive tract of its flea vector, characterized by rapid formation of a bacterial biofilm that is enveloped in a complex extracellular polymeric substance. Localization and adherence of the biofilm to the flea foregut is essential for transmission. Here, we review the molecular and genetic mechanisms of these processes and present a comparative evaluation and updated model of two related transmission mechanisms...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886013/secondary-bacterial-infections-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-tungiasis-patients-in-western-kenya
#11
Ruth Monyenye Nyangacha, David Odongo, Florence Oyieke, Missiani Ochwoto, Richard Korir, Ronald Kiprotich Ngetich, Gladys Nginya, Olipher Makwaga, Christine Bii, Peter Mwitari, Festus Tolo
Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884961/bartonellosis-in-chronic-kidney-disease-an-unrecognized-and-unsuspected-diagnosis
#12
REVIEW
Fateme Shamekhi Amiri
Systemic cat scratch disease or bartonellosis is a clinical entity caused by Bartonella henselae, which manifests with necrotizing granulomas in visceral organs. The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the vector responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and its bite can also infect humans. In immunocompromised patients including chronic kidney disease and renal transplant recipients, it can cause persistent and disseminated cat scratch disease. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the diagnostic methods of cat scratch disease in chronic kidney disease and renal transplant recipients...
September 8, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883213/present-status-of-displaying-pharmaceutical-products-for-sale-on-flea-market-applications-for-smartphones-and-the-responses-to-illicit-selling-by-service-providers
#13
Keiko Kishimoto, Tomoe Takeuchi, Noriko Fukushima
  In Japan, a pharmacy or drug store license is required for selling pharmaceutical products. However, civilians without a pharmacy or drug store license are displaying pharmaceutical products for sale on a flea market application, which is illegal dealing. This study discussed the modality for implementing countermeasures for the illicit selling of pharmaceutical products. We extracted pharmaceutical products displayed for sale on three flea market applications (Mercari, Rakuma, Fril) on one day. One hundred and eighty-one pharmaceutical products were displayed (49 on Mercari, 86 on Rakuma, and 46 on Fril)...
September 5, 2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#14
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879613/vaccines-for-conservation-plague-prairie-dogs-black-footed-ferrets-as-a-case-study
#15
Daniel J Salkeld
The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873107/what-s-eating-you-sticktight-flea-revisited
#16
Fernanda Salgado, Dirk M Elston
The sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea) earns its name by embedding its head in the host's skin. It has been found in many species of birds and mammals, including humans. The sticktight flea is found worldwide in the tropics, subtropics, and temperate zones, and it is the only representative of this genus found in the United States. Bites from fleas cause irritation and itching for hosts including humans, typically resulting in clusters of firm, pruritic, erythematous papules. Treatment can be tricky, as the fleas can be difficult to remove, and any flea-infested environments should be properly treated to prevent further bites...
July 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854641/conserved-transcription-factors-steer-growth-related-genomic-programs-in-daphnia
#17
Katina I Spanier, Mieke Jansen, Ellen Decaestecker, Gert Hulselmans, Dörthe Becker, John K Colbourne, Luisa Orsini, Luc De Meester, Stein Aerts
Ecological genomics aims to understand the functional association between environmental gradients and the genes underlying adaptive traits. Many genes that are identified by genome-wide screening in ecologically relevant species lack functional annotations. Although gene functions can be inferred from sequence homology, such approaches have limited power. Here, we introduce ecological regulatory genomics by presenting an ontology-free gene prioritization method. Specifically, our method combines transcriptome profiling with high-throughput cis-regulatory sequence analysis in the water fleas Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845593/a-historical-perspective-of-nutrient-change-impact-on-an-infectious-disease-in-daphnia
#18
Lien Reyserhove, Giovanni Samaey, Koenraad Muylaert, Vincent Coppé, Willem Van Colen, Ellen Decaestecker
Changes in food quality can play a substantial role in the vulnerability of hosts to infectious diseases. In this study, we focused on the genetic differentiation of the water flea Daphnia magna towards food of different quality (by manipulating C:N:P ratios) and its impact on the interaction with a virulent infectious disease, "White Fat Cell Disease (WFCD)". Via a resurrection ecology approach, we isolated two Daphnia subpopulations from different depths in a sediment core, which were exposed to parasites and a nutrient ratio gradient in a common garden experiment...
August 28, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842764/prevalence-and-intensity-of-fleas-parasitizing-an-isolated-population-of-screaming-hairy-armadillo-in-buenos-aires-province-argentina-host-related-factors-and-temporal-dynamics
#19
M Cecilia Ezquiaga, Agustín M Abba, Guillermo H Cassini, Marcela Lareschi
Fleas (Siphonaptera) of an isolated population of Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Magdalena (Buenos Aires province) were studied, and their presence was associated with host-related factors (age, sex, weight, size, and physical condition) and temporal dynamics (seasonality and year). Three species of fleas were identified: Polygenis (Polygenis) platensis (Rhopalopsyllidae), Tunga penetrans (Tungidae), and Pulex irritans (Pulicidae). Prevalences were significant for year, season, and physical condition...
August 25, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837848/interaction-of-the-red-pigment-concentrating-hormone-of-the-crustacean-daphnia-pulex-with-its-cognate-receptor-dappu-rpchr-a-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-modeling-study
#20
Graham E Jackson, Elumalai Pavadai, Gerd Gäde, Zaheer Timol, Niels H Andersen
The primary sequence of the red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) receptor of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, was used in homology modeling to construct the first 3D model of a crustacean G-protein coupled receptor, Dappu-RPCHR. This receptor was found to belong to the class A subfamily of GPCRs with a disulfide bridge between Cys(72) and Cys(150) and an ionic lock between Arg(97) and Thr(224) and Thr(220). NMR restrained molecular dynamics was used to determine the structure of an agonist, Dappu-RPCH, in a membrane-mimicking environment...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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