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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908928/development-and-validation-of-a-normal-phase-chiral-hplc-method-for-analysis-of-afoxolaner-using-a-chiralpak%C3%A2-ad-3-column
#1
Jinyou Zhuang, Satish Kumar, Abu Rustum
Afoxolaner is a new antiparasitic molecule from the isoxazoline family that acts on the insect acarine gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors. Isoxazoline family of compounds has been employed as active pharmaceutical ingredient in drug products prescribed for control of fleas and ticks in dogs. Afoxolaner with a chiral center at isoxazoline ring exists as a racemic mixture. A normal phase chiral high performance liquid chromatography analytical method has been developed to verify that afoxolaner is a racemic mixture as demonstrated by specific rotation, as well as to determine enantiomeric purity of single enantiomer samples...
November 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900542/effects-of-parasitism-on-host-reproductive-investment-in-a-rodent-flea-system-host-litter-size-matters
#2
Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Luther Van Der Mescht, Boris R Krasnov
Parents may alter offspring phenotype depending on the type of environment they encounter. Parasitism is a common stressor; therefore, maternal reproductive investment could change in response to parasitic infection. However, few experiments have investigated the relationship between parasitism and maternal investment, whereas earlier field studies provided contradictory evidence. We investigated number, sex ratio, and growth of offspring in two rodent species, solitary altricial Meriones crassus and social precocial Acomys cahirinus, exposed to parasitism by fleas Xenopsylla ramesis and Parapulex chephrenis...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887563/the-trans-generational-impact-of-population-density-signals-on-host-parasite-interactions
#3
Jessica Michel, Dieter Ebert, Matthew D Hall
BACKGROUND: The density of a host population is a key parameter underlying disease transmission, but it also has implications for the expression of disease through its effect on host physiology. In response to higher densities, individuals are predicted to either increase their immune investment in response to the elevated risk of parasitism, or conversely to decrease their immune capacity as a consequence of the stress of a crowded environment. However, an individual's health is shaped by many different factors, including their genetic background, current environmental conditions, and maternal effects...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884443/effect-of-uncertainty-in-total-parasite-infestation-on-accuracy-and-precision-of-estimates-of-ectoparasiticide-efficacy
#4
Robert Schall, Divan A Burger, Theo P Erasmus
In animal studies of ectoparasiticide efficacy the total number of parasites with which experimental animals are infested is not always equal to the intended number of parasites (usually n=50 per experimental animal in the case of ticks, and n=50 or n=100 in the case of fleas). That is, in the practical implementation of a study protocol, the infestation of experimental animals may be subject to variability so that total infestation is not known precisely. The purpose of the present study is to assess the impact of this variability on the accuracy and precision of efficacy estimates...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876962/diagnosis-and-therapeutic-management-of-dipylidium-caninum-in-dogs-a-case-report
#5
Vijesh Kumar Saini, Snehil Gupta, Arjun Kasondra, R L Rakesh, A Latchumikanthan
The present study is related to Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs. Three dogs about 1 year of age with the history of scooting behaviour and passing diarrhoeic stool containing white specks were presented before the clinicians. Physical examination of dogs revealed flea infestation and faecal examination revealed the presence of gravid segments, which were confirmed microscopically to be of cestode, D. caninum. Dogs were treated with Praziquantel@5 mg/kg body wt. orally. Dogs showed marked recovery post treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870634/investigation-of-and-response-to-2-plague-cases-yosemite-national-park-california-usa-2015
#6
Mary Danforth, Mark Novak, Jeannine Petersen, Paul Mead, Luke Kingry, Matthew Weinburke, Danielle Buttke, Gregory Hacker, James Tucker, Michael Niemela, Bryan Jackson, Kerry Padgett, Kelly Liebman, Duc Vugia, Vicki Kramer
In August 2015, plague was diagnosed for 2 persons who had visited Yosemite National Park in California, USA. One case was septicemic and the other bubonic. Subsequent environmental investigation identified probable locations of exposure for each patient and evidence of epizootic plague in other areas of the park. Transmission of Yersinia pestis was detected by testing rodent serum, fleas, and rodent carcasses. The environmental investigation and whole-genome multilocus sequence typing of Y. pestis isolates from the patients and environmental samples indicated that the patients had been exposed in different locations and that at least 2 distinct strains of Y...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862502/temporal-genetic-stability-in-natural-populations-of-the-waterflea-daphnia-magna-in-response-to-strong-selection-pressure
#7
Luisa Orsini, Hollie Marshall, Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Anurag Chaturvedi, Kelley W Thomas, Michael E Pfrender, Katina I Spanier, Luc De Meester
Studies monitoring changes in genetic diversity and composition through time allow a unique understanding of evolutionary dynamics and persistence of natural populations. However, such studies are often limited to species with short generation times that can be propagated in the laboratory or few exceptional cases in the wild. Species that produce dormant stages provide powerful models for the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics in the natural environment. A remaining open question is to what extent dormant egg banks are an unbiased representation of populations and hence of the species' evolutionary potential, especially in presence of strong environmental selection...
November 11, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819327/structure-and-function-of-fs50-a-salivary-protein-from-the-flea-xenopsylla-cheopis-that-blocks-the-sodium-channel-nav1-5
#8
Xueqing Xu, Bei Zhang, Shilong Yang, Su An, José M C Ribeiro, John F Andersen
Naturally occurring toxins have been invaluable tools for the study of structural and functional relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). Few studies have been made of potential channel-modulating substances from blood-feeding arthropods. He we describe the characterization FS50, a salivary protein from the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, that exhibits an inhibitory activity against the NaV1.5 channel with an IC50 of 1.58 μM. The pore-blocking mechanism of this toxin is evident from the kinetics of activation and inactivation suggesting that FS50 does not interfere with the voltage sensor of NaV1...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816916/limited-evidence-for-rickettsia-felis-as-a-cause-of-zoonotic-flea-borne-rickettsiosis-in-southern-california
#9
Sarah A Billeter, Marco E Metzger
Over 90% of human flea-borne rickettsioses cases in California are reported from suburban communities of Los Angeles and Orange counties and are presumed to be associated with either Rickettsia typhi or Rickettsia felis infection. Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) is considered the principal vector for both rickettsiae, and R. felis has largely replaced R. typhi as the presumptive etiologic agent based on the widespread incidence of R. felis in cat flea populations. However, with no evidence to confirm R. felis as the cause of human illness in southern California, coupled with recent findings that showed R...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811751/key-to-holarctic-species-of-epitrix-flea-beetles-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-%C3%A2-galerucinae-alticini-with-review-of-their-distribution-host-plants-and-history-of-invasions
#10
Andrzej O Bieńkowski, Marina J Orlova-Bienkowskaja
The genus Epitrix Foudras, 1860a has a worldwide distribution. Some species of Epitrix are major pests of potato, tomato, eggplant, tobacco and other plants in North America and Europe. Some pest species have been inadvertently introduced from North America to Europe, from Europe to North America and from both continents to some islands in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Therefore, a key for the identification of all Holarctic species is necessary for plant quarantine and protection services. We have compiled the key for distinguishing Epitrix from genera that could be confused with it and a key for all Holarctic species of Epitrix with the figures of spermathecae and aedeagi and the checklist with a review of the geographical distribution, host plants and history of invasions...
October 17, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808432/passage-of-fiproles-and-imidacloprid-from-urban-pest-control-uses-through-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-northern-california
#11
Akash M Sadaria, Rebecca Sutton, Kelly D Moran, Jennifer Teerlink, Jackson Vanfleet Brown, Rolf U Halden
Urban pest control insecticides, specifically fipronil and its four major degradates (fipronil sulfone, sulfide, desulfinyl, and amide) and imidacloprid, were monitored during drought conditions in eight San Francisco Bay wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In influent and effluent, ubiquitous detections were obtained in units of ng/L for fipronil (13-88), fipronil sulfone (1-28), fipronil sulfide (1-5) and imidacloprid (58-306). In influent, 100% of imidacloprid and 62 ± 9% of total fiproles (fipronil and degradates) were present in the dissolved state, with the balance being bound to filter-removable particulates...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799640/flea-borne-rickettsioses-and-rickettsiae
#12
REVIEW
Lucas S Blanton, David H Walker
Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis are flea-borne rickettsiae that are distributed throughout the world. This mini-review outlines the ecology and epidemiology of flea-borne rickettsioses; highlights important clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations; and discusses areas of uncertainty regarding Rickettsia felis and other rickettsiae harbored by fleas.
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792329/excess-imidacloprid-exposure-causes-the-heart-tube-malformation-of-chick-embryos
#13
Lin-Rui Gao, Shuai Li, Jing Zhang, Chang Liang, En-Ni Chen, Shi-Yao Zhang, Manli Chuai, Yongping Bao, Guang Wang, Xuesong Yang
As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control sucking insects on agricultural planting and fleas on domestic animals. However, the extent to which imidacloprid exposure has an influence on cardiogensis in early embryogenesis is still poorly understood. In vertebrates, the heart is the first organ to be formed. In this study to address whether or not imidacloprid exposure affects early heart development, the early chick embryo has been used as an experimental model because of the accessibility of chick embryo at its early developmental stage...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791071/climatic-and-evolutionary-drivers-of-phase-shifts-in-the-plague-epidemics-of-colonial-india
#14
Joseph A Lewnard, Jeffrey P Townsend
Immune heterogeneity in wild host populations indicates that disease-mediated selection is common in nature. However, the underlying dynamic feedbacks involving the ecology of disease transmission, evolutionary processes, and their interaction with environmental drivers have proven challenging to characterize. Plague presents an optimal system for interrogating such couplings: Yersinia pestis transmission exerts intense selective pressure driving the local persistence of disease resistance among its wildlife hosts in endemic areas...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790728/flea-species-infesting-dogs-in-spain-updated-spatial-and-seasonal-distribution-patterns
#15
R Gálvez, A Montoya, R Checa, O Martín, V Marino, G Miró
This entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in Spain. Bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. In a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late May 2013 to mid-July 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. A total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (81.7%, 2476 fleas); Ctenocephalides canis (11...
October 28, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747219/safety-evaluation-of-parastar-%C3%A2-plus-in-dogs-and-assessment-of-transferable-residue-of-fipronil-and-cyphenothrin-from-dogs-to-humans
#16
Katharine M Case, Natalia M Vega, Ramesh C Gupta, Michelle A Lasher, Terry D Canerdy
Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar(®) Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727268/successful-treatment-of-severe-tungiasis-in-pigs-using-a-topical-aerosol-containing-chlorfenvinphos-dichlorphos-and-gentian-violet
#17
Francis Mutebi, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Hermann Feldmeier, Charles Waiswa, Jeanne Bukeka Muhindo, Jürgen Krücken
BACKGROUND: In endemic communities, zoonotic tungiasis, a severe skin disease caused by penetrating female sand fleas, is a public health hazard causing significant human and animal morbidity. No validated drugs are currently available for treatment of animal tungiasis. Due to the reservoir in domestic animals, integrated management of human and animal tungiasis is required to avert its negative effects. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A topical aerosol containing chlorfenvinphos 4...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724960/fleas-and-trypanosomes-of-peridomestic-small-mammals-in-sub-saharan-mali
#18
Tom G Schwan, Job E Lopez, David Safronetz, Jennifer M Anderson, Robert J Fischer, Ousmane Maïga, Nafomon Sogoba
BACKGROUND: Fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. During investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in Mali, West Africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest. METHODS: Small mammals were captured in 20 Malian villages from December 2007 to October 2011...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722865/genetic-regulation-of-yersinia-pestis
#19
Yanping Han, Haihong Fang, Lei Liu, Dongsheng Zhou
Y. pestis exhibits dramatically different traits of pathogenicity and transmission, albeit their close genetic relationship with its ancestor-Y. pseudotuberculosis, a self-limiting gastroenteric pathogen. Y. pestis is evolved into a deadly pathogen and transmitted to mammals and/or human beings by infected flea biting or directly contacting with the infected animals. Various kinds of environmental changes are implicated into its complex life cycle and pathogenesis. Dynamic regulation of gene expression is critical for environmental adaptation or survival, primarily reflected by genetic regulation mediated by transcriptional factors and small regulatory RNAs at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level, respectively...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722864/pathology-and-pathogenesis-of-yersinia-pestis
#20
Zongmin Du, Xiaoyi Wang
Various types of animal models of plague have been developed, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates. Studies have indicated that rodent and nonhuman primate models of pneumonic plague closely resemble the human disease and that the pathologic changes that occur during bubonic plague are very similar in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this section, the pathological changes caused by Y. pestis in different animal models are described. The bacterium Y. pestis causes deadly plague, whereas the other two closely related enteropathogenic Yersinia species merely cause limited gastrointestinal manifestations...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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