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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433729/comparative-vertical-transmission-of-rickettsia-by-dermacentor-variabilis-and-amblyomma-maculatum
#1
Emma K Harris, Victoria I Verhoeve, Kaikhushroo H Banajee, Jacqueline A Macaluso, Abdu F Azad, Kevin R Macaluso
The geographical overlap of multiple Rickettsia and tick species coincides with the molecular detection of a variety of rickettsial agents in what may be novel tick hosts. However, little is known concerning transmissibility of rickettsial species by various tick hosts. To examine the vertical transmission potential between select tick and rickettsial species, two sympatric species of ticks, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma maculatum, were exposed to five different rickettsial species, including Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia montanensis, Rickettsia amblyommatis, or flea-borne Rickettsia felis...
April 6, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431028/hybrid-de-novo-genome-assembly-of-the-chinese-herbal-fleabane-erigeron-breviscapus
#2
Jing Yang, Guanghui Zhang, Jing Zhang, Hui Liu, Wei Chen, Xiao Wang, Yahe Li, Yang Dong, Shengchao Yang
Background: The plants in the Erigeron genus of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family are commonly called fleabanes, possibly due to the belief that certain chemicals in these plants repel fleas. In the traditional Chinese medicine, Erigeron breviscapus , which is native to China, was widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. A handful of bioactive compounds, including scutellarin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, have been isolated from the plant...
April 18, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427962/first-report-of-a-rickettsia-asembonensis-related-infecting-fleas-in-brazil
#3
Arannadia Barbosa Silva, Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni, Andréa Pereira Costa, Francisco Borges Costa, Jonas Moraes-Filho, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Gilberto Salles Gazêta, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira
The present study was performed in a non-endemic area for spotted fever (SF) in Imperatriz microregion, state of Maranhão, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites were collected from 300 dogs of the Imperatriz microregion. Canine serum samples were tested individually by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using five Rickettsia isolates from Brazil. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 1.6% of the dogs (5/300). These sera were considered reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia amblyommatis or very closely related species...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427957/pcr-based-identification-of-trypanosoma-lewisi-and-trypanosoma-musculi-using-maxicircle-kinetoplast-dna
#4
Xiao-Kun Hong, Xuan Zhang, Octavio Alejandro Fusco, You-Gen Lan, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai
Trypanosoma lewisi, transmitted by rat fleas, is a widespread pathogen specific to rats with records of human infection cases. Its closely related species with global distribution, Trypanosoma musculi, is transmitted between mice by ingestion of infected fleas. These trypanosomes are of similar morphology, making it difficult to distinguish them by microscopy. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable PCR method for the diagnosis of T. lewisi and T. musculi. The T. lewisi-specific amplicons were not produced by other Trypanosoma, such as T...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424526/the-impact-of-host-sex-on-the-outcome-of-co-infection
#5
Olivia Thompson, Stephen A Y Gipson, Matthew D Hall
Males and females vary in many characteristics that typically underlie how well a host is able to fight infection, such as body-size, immune capacity, or energy availability. Although well studied in the context of sexual signalling, there is now growing recognition that these differences can influence aspects of pathogen evolution as well. Here we consider how co-infection between multiple pathogen strains is shaped by male-female differences. In natural populations, infections by more than one pathogen strain or species are believed to be a widespread occurrence...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419257/rodent-pika-parasite-spillover-in-western-north-america
#6
Patrick Foley, Tara Roth, Janet Foley, Chris Ray
Competition during the Cenozoic expansion of the Rodentia may have contributed to ecological niche reduction of pikas, which are now increasingly under threat as their habitat degrades under global climate change, while some rodents expand their ranges and overlap with pikas. Range overlap carries the possibility of disease spillover. Contemporary North American pikas are cold-adapted and relegated primarily to alpine environments where they subsist on relatively low-quality herbaceous diet. Yet their evolutionary ancestors were distributed geographically even into the subtropics...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405279/fine-scale-frequency-differentiation-along-a-herbivory-gradient-in-the-trichome-dimorphism-of-a-wild-arabidopsis
#7
Yasuhiro Sato, Hiroshi Kudoh
Geographic variation is commonly observed in plant resistance traits, where plant species might experience different selection pressure across a heterogeneous landscape. Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera is dimorphic for trichome production, generating two morphs, trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) plants. Trichomes of A. halleri are known to confer resistance against the white butterfly, cabbage sawfly, and brassica leaf beetle, but not against flea beetles. We combined leaf damage, microclimate, and microsatellite loci data of 26 A...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400593/rickettsial-seropositivity-in-the-indigenous-community-and-animal-farm-workers-and-vector-surveillance-in-peninsular-malaysia
#8
Kai Ling Kho, Fui Xian Koh, Lailatul Insyirah Mohd Hasan, Li Ping Wong, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Awang Bulgiba, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Sun Tee Tay
Rickettsioses are emerging zoonotic diseases that are often neglected in many countries in Southeast Asia. Rickettsial agents are transmitted to humans through exposure to infected arthropods. Limited data are available on the exposure of indigenous community and animal farm workers to the aetiological agents and arthropod vectors of rickettsioses in Peninsular Malaysia. Serological analysis of Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia felis was performed for 102 individuals from the indigenous community at six rural villages and 87 workers from eight animal farms in Peninsular Malaysia in a cross-sectional study...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399300/diversity-of-flea-siphonaptera-parasites-on-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-in-romania
#9
P Foley, J Foley, A D Sándor, A M Ionica, I A Matei, G D'Amico, C M Gherman, C Dom A, A D Mihalca
Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399281/potential-roles-of-pigs-small-ruminants-rodents-and-their-flea-vectors-in-plague-epidemiology-in-sinda-district-eastern-zambia
#10
Stanley S Nyirenda, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Bukheti S Kilonzo, Henry L Kangwa, Evans Mulenga, Ladslav Moonga
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern part of Zambia that previously reported a plague outbreak. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of pigs, goats, and sheep as sero-surveillance hosts for monitoring plague, and to investigate the flea vectors and potential reservoir hosts to establish the current status of plague endemicity in the district. Serum samples were collected from 96 rodents, 10 shrews, 245 domestic pigs, 232 goats, and 31 sheep, whereas 106 organs were eviscerated from rodents and shrews...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399271/high-prevalence-of-rickettsia-spp-in-dog-fleas-siphonaptera-pulicidae-in-rural-uganda
#11
Ana M Palomar, Aitor Cevidanes, Aránzazu Portillo, Gladis Kalema-Zikusoka, Andrea D Chirife, Lourdes Romero, Jesús Muro, Lawrence Mugisha, José A Oteo, Javier Millán
Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic agents. Thirty-five fleas, including 28 Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), four Pulex irritans (L.), and three Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) from 19 rural dogs from southwestern Uganda were analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. (ompB, gltA, and 17 kDa fragment genes) and Bartonella spp. (rpoB and ITS genes) by PCR. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 27 out of 28 of Ct. felis and in two out of four P. irritans. None of the E. gallinacea specimens harbored Rickettsia DNA...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399259/effect-of-rickettsia-felis-strain-variation-on-infection-transmission-and-fitness-in-the-cat-flea-siphonaptera-pulicidae
#12
Sean P Healy, Lisa D Brown, Melena R Hagstrom, Lane D Foil, Kevin R Macaluso
Rickettsia felis is a human pathogen transmitted by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (str. LSU), as well as an obligate symbiont of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel) (str. LSU-Lb). The influence of genetic variability in these two strains of R. felis on host specialization and fitness and possible resulting differences on infection and transmission kinetics in C. felis is unknown. Utilizing an artificial host system, cat fleas were exposed to a R. felis str. LSU-Lb-infected bloodmeal and monitored for infection at 7-d intervals for 28 d...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399210/first-detection-of-rickettsia-typhi-and-rickettsia-felis-in-fleas-collected-from-client-owned-companion-animals-in-the-southern-great-plains
#13
Bruce H Noden, Suzanna Davidson, Jessica Lynn Smith, Faithful Williams
Flea-borne rickettsiosis occurs worldwide and includes a number of pathogens, namely, Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis. Most studies in the United States have occurred in southern Texas and California where flea-borne rickettsiosis is endemic, resulting in a lack of information from other regions of the country. Between March and August 2016, 222 fleas were collected from 52 client-owned dogs and cats in two urban areas in Oklahoma. Fleas were identified using morphological characteristics then pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using published primers for gltA, ompB, and 17-kDa...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395752/efficacy-of-a-new-spot-on-formulation-of-selamectin-plus-sarolaner-for-cats-against-adult-ctenocephalides-felis-flea-egg-production-and-adult-flea-emergence
#14
Adriano F Vatta, William R Everett, Susan J Holzmer, Judith A Cherni, Vickie L King, Douglas Rugg, Thomas Geurden
A new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner was evaluated against fleas for adulticidal efficacy, and for the effect on egg production and hatching when applied to flea-infested cats. Ten male and ten female adult domestic shorthair cats were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment flea counts. Cats received topical treatment on Day 0 in a single spot to the dorsal scapular area with either a placebo formulation or with the combination formulation at the minimal dose of 6...
April 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395751/efficacy-and-speed-of-kill-of-a-new-spot-on-formulation-of-selamectin-plus-sarolaner-against-flea-infestations-in-cats
#15
Csilla Becskei, Judith A Cherni, Adriano F Vatta, Vickie L King, Dan Lin, Douglas Rugg
The efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner against induced flea infestations in cats was confirmed in three placebo-controlled, blinded studies. Purpose-bred adult cats (n=8/group) were blocked by pre-treatment flea counts and randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo or with the spot-on formulation at the minimum dose of 6.0mg selamectin and 1.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. Treatments were applied topically once on Day 0. All cats were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult Ctenocephalides felis prior to treatment and at weekly intervals for 5 weeks...
April 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395750/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-new-spot-on-formulation-of-selamectin-plus-sarolaner-in-the-treatment-of-naturally-occurring-flea-and-tick-infestations-in-cats-presented-as-veterinary-patients-in-europe
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Thomas Geurden, Csilla Becskei, Robert Farkas, Dan Lin, Douglas Rugg
Two randomised, blinded, multi-centre field studies were conducted in Europe (Germany, Italy, France, Hungary) to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of three monthly applications of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Stronghold(®) Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea or tick infestations in cats presented as veterinary patients. The spot-on formulation was administered at the commercial dose range of 6.0-12.0mg selamectin and 1.0-2.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. In the flea study, the improvement in clinical signs associated with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) was also monitored...
April 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386524/surveillance-of-arthropod-borne-viruses-and-their-vectors-in-the-mediterranean-and-black-sea-regions-within-the-medilabsecure-network
#17
REVIEW
Anna-Bella Failloux, Ali Bouattour, Chafika Faraj, Filiz Gunay, Nabil Haddad, Zoubir Harrat, Elizabeta Jancheska, Khalil Kanani, Mohamed Amin Kenawy, Majlinda Kota, Igor Pajovic, Lusine Paronyan, Dusan Petric, Mhammed Sarih, Samir Sawalha, Taher Shaibi, Kurtesh Sherifi, Tatiana Sulesco, Enkelejda Velo, Lobna Gaayeb, Kathleen Victoir, Vincent Robert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses, viruses transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and fleas are a significant threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. The geographical distribution of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile (WN), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika has expanded over the last decades. Countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions are not spared. Outbreaks of WN are repeatedly reported in the Mediterranean basin...
2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384062/fleas-of-black-footed-ferrets-and-their-potential-role-in-the-movement-of-plague
#18
Erica L Mize, Shaun M Grassel, Hugh B Britten
Sylvatic plague is one of the major impediments to the recovery of the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes ) because it decimates their primary prey species, prairie dogs ( Cynomys spp.), and directly causes mortality in ferrets. Fleas are the primary vector of Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of sylvatic plague. The goal of this research was to better understand the flea fauna of ferrets and the factors that might influence flea abundance on ferrets. Fleas from ferrets were tested for Y. pestis in a post hoc assessment to investigate the plausibility that some ferrets could act as incidental transporter hosts of fleas infected with Y...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383254/distribution-bioaccumulation-trophic-transfer-and-influences-of-ceo2-nanoparticles-in-a-constructed-aquatic-food-web
#19
Xingchen Zhao, Miao Yu, Dan Xu, Aifeng Liu, Xingwang Hou, Fang Hao, Yanmin Long, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
In view of the final destination of nanomaterials, the water system would be the important sink. However, the environmental behavior of nanomaterials is rather confusing due to the complexity of the real environment. In this study, a fresh water ecosystem, including water, sediment, water lettuce, water silk, Asian clam, snail, water flea, the Japanese Medaka, and the Yamato shrimp, was constructed to study the distribution, bioaccumulation and potential impacts of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) via long-term exposure...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377623/a-starvation-induced-regulator-rovm-acts-as-a-switch-for-planktonic-biofilm-state-transition-in-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis
#20
Ruoxi Zhao, Yunhong Song, Qingyun Dai, Yiwen Kang, Junfeng Pan, Lingfang Zhu, Lei Zhang, Yao Wang, Xihui Shen
The transition between the planktonic state and the biofilm-associated state is a key developmental decision for pathogenic bacteria. Biofilm formation by Yersinia pestis is regulated by hmsHFRS genes (β-1, 6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine synthesis operon) in its flea vector and in vitro. However, the mechanism of biofilm formation in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the LysR-type regulator RovM inversely regulates biofilm formation and motility in Y. pseudotuberculosis by acting as a transcriptional regulator of these two functions...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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