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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810870/vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-of-dogs-in-north-west-new-south-wales-and-the-northern-territory-australia
#1
Amanda J Shapiro, Graeme Brown, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Debbie J Marriot, Nandhakumar Balakrishnan, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Richard Malik
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases of dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities are relatively unexplored. These dogs represent a unique group with variable ecto- and endo-parasitic burdens, nutritional stresses and a general lack of veterinary intervention. We investigated haemoprotozoal and bacterial pathogen prevalences in relation to erythrocyte and platelet numbers in dogs from North-West New South Wales (N-W NSW) and the Northern Territory (NT; Central Australia). METHODS: Real-time PCR (qPCR) amplification of Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, Mycoplasma haemocanis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Bartonella spp...
August 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807310/the-sustained-speed-of-kill-of-ticks-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-and-fleas-ctenocephalides-felis-felis-on-dogs-by-a-spot-on-combination-of-fipronil-and-permethrin-effitix-%C3%A2-compared-with-oral-afoxolaner-nexgard-%C3%A2
#2
Dejan Cvejić, Claudia Schneider, Willem Neethling, Klaus Hellmann, Julian Liebenberg, Christelle Navarro
The rapid speed of kill of a spot-on, combination of fipronil-permethrin (Effitix(®), Virbac) was shown against infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis on dogs. Efficacy was determined against new infestations at weekly intervals for one month after treatment. Dogs were allocated randomly to either an untreated control or to a single administration, given on Day 0, of either topical fipronil-permethrin (6.7-13.4mg/kg and 60-120mg/kg, respectively) or oral afoxolaner (2.72-6.8mg/kg), based on pre-treatment, host-suitability flea counts...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807290/exposure-to-vector-borne-pathogens-in-privately-owned-dogs-living-in-different-socioeconomic-settings-in-brazil
#3
Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Katrin Deuster, Matthias Pollmeier, Domenico Otranto, Filipe Dantas-Torres
This survey was conducted in four Brazilian cities, from three federative units (Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, and Federal District), representing different socioeconomic settings, to determine the presence of antibodies to or antigens and DNA of selected pathogens in privately owned dogs. From January to April 2015, blood and serum samples were collected and assayed using different tests. In particular, antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia spp., and antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas antibodies to Babesia spp...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792853/small-scale-die-offs-in-woodrats-support-long-term-maintenance-of-plague-in-the-u-s-southwest
#4
Michael Kosoy, Pamela Reynolds, Ying Bai, Kelly Sheff, Russell E Enscore, John Montenieri, Paul Ettestad, Kenneth Gage
Our longitudinal study of plague dynamics was conducted in north-central New Mexico to identify which species in the community were infected with plague, to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of the dynamics of plague epizootics, and to describe the dynamics of Yersinia pestis infection within individual hosts. A total of 3156 fleas collected from 535 small mammals of 8 species were tested for Y. pestis DNA. Nine fleas collected from six southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) and from one rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus) were positive for the pla gene of Y...
August 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789836/relationships-among-different-facets-of-host-specificity-in-three-taxa-of-haematophagous-ectoparasites
#5
Luther van der Mescht, Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova, Maxim V Vinarski, Natalia P Korallo-Vinarskaya, Boris R Krasnov
Host specificity is a fundamental trait of a parasite species. Recently, multiple aspects of host specificity have been recognized, but the relationships between these facets are still poorly understood. Here, we studied pairwise relationships between basic, structural, phylogenetic and geographic host specificity in three taxa of haematophagous ectoparasitic arthropods that differ in tightness of their association with the host. We asked which metrics of host specificity are correlated within each parasite taxon and whether the patterns of the association between different facets of host specificity are similar among parasite taxa...
August 5, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783031/patterns-in-the-distribution-and-directional-asymmetry-of-fleas-living-on-the-northern-white-breasted-hedgehog-erinaceus-roumanicus
#6
Krzysztof Dudek, Gabor Foldvari, Viktoria Majlathova, Igor Majlath, Krisztina Rigo, Viktor Molnar, Maria Toth, Lukasz Jankowiak, Piotr Tryjanowski
Fleas infecting northern white-breasted hedgehogs, Erinaceus roumanicus (Barrett-Hamilton), collected from 2009-2011 in Budapest (Hungary) were studied. A total of 305 white-breasted hedgehogs were captured and 1,251 fleas were collected. The flea community comprised two species, the hedgehog flea Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouche, 1835) and the dog flea Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis, 1826), although the latter was only found on three hedgehogs. Fleas were found on half of the host specimens (51%; n = 156) where their distribution was strongly aggregated...
August 4, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781890/self-reported-pregnancy-exposures-and-placental-dna-methylation-in-the-marbles-prospective-autism-sibling-study
#7
Rebecca J Schmidt, Diane I Schroeder, Florence K Crary-Dooley, Jacqueline M Barkoski, Daniel J Tancredi, Cheryl K Walker, Sally Ozonoff, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Janine M LaSalle
Human placenta is a fetal-derived tissue that offers a unique sample of epigenetic and environmental exposures present in utero. In the MARBLES prospective pregnancy study of high-risk younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), pregnancy and environmental factors collected by maternal interviews were examined as predictors of placental DNA methylation, including partially methylated domains (PMDs), an embryonic feature of the placental methylome. DNA methylation data from MethylC-seq analysis of 47 placentas of children clinically diagnosed at 3 years with ASD or typical development using standardized assessments were examined in relation to: child's gestational age, birth-weight, and diagnosis; maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, education, parity, height, prenatal vitamin and folate intake; home ownership; pesticides professionally applied to lawns or gardens or inside homes, pet flea/tick pouches, collars, or soaps/shampoos used in the 3 months prior to or during pregnancy...
December 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780908/temporal-and-spatial-distribution-characteristics-in-the-natural-plague-foci-of-chinese-mongolian-gerbils-based-on-spatial-autocorrelation
#8
Hai-Wen Du, Yong Wang, Da-Fang Zhuang, Xiao-San Jiang
BACKGROUND: The nest flea index of Meriones unguiculatus is a critical indicator for the prevention and control of plague, which can be used not only to detect the spatial and temporal distributions of Meriones unguiculatus, but also to reveal its cluster rule. This research detected the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the plague natural foci of Mongolian gerbils by body flea index from 2005 to 2014, in order to predict plague outbreaks. METHODS: Global spatial autocorrelation was used to describe the entire spatial distribution pattern of the body flea index in the natural plague foci of typical Chinese Mongolian gerbils...
August 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774495/wild-and-domestic-animals-likely-involved-in-rickettsial-endemic-zones-of-northwestern-colombia
#9
Andrés F Londoño, Leidy Y Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Diana Marín, Verónica Contreras, Francisco J Díaz, Gustavo Valbuena, Marcelo B Labruna, Marylin Hidalgo, Margarita Arboleda, Salim Mattar, Sergio Solari, Juan D Rodas
Between 2006 and 2008, three outbreaks of human rickettsiosis occurred in Northwestern Colombia (municipalities of Necoclí, Los Córdobas and Turbo), with case fatality rates between 27% and 54%. The aim of this study was to determine previous exposure of wild and domestic animals to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae through serological tests, to detect rickettsial evidence in their ectoparasites, and to analyze their possible role in the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in this zone of the country...
July 21, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771469/the-prevalence-and-association-with-health-related-quality-of-life-of-tungiasis-and-scabies-in-schoolchildren-in-southern-ethiopia
#10
Stephen L Walker, Eglantine Lebas, Valentina De Sario, Zeleke Deyasso, Shimelis N Doni, Michael Marks, Chrissy H Roberts, Saba M Lambert
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of skin disease in low and middle income countries is high and communicable skin diseases are a significant public health problem. Tungiasis is an ectoparasite infestation caused by the flea Tunga penetrans, which has a widespread geographical distribution. Tungiasis causes painful skin lesions and may affect activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: We wished to determine the prevalence and impact of tungiasis and scabies in schoolchildren in southern Ethiopia...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770675/photoperiodism-of-male-offspring-production-in-the-water-flea-daphnia-pulex
#11
Kenji Toyota, Tomomi Sato, Norihisa Tatarazako, Taisen Iguchi
Photoperiodism is a biological seasonal timing system utilized to regulate development and reproduction in organisms. The freshwater micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex displays environmental sex determination, the precise physiological mechanisms of which are largely unknown due to the lack of an experimental system to induce female or male offspring production by alterations of the rearing environment. We recently found that D. pulex, WTN6 strain, produces female or male offspring in response to long-day or short-day conditions, respectively...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769701/an-update-on-the-distribution-and-nomenclature-of-fleas-order-siphonaptera-of-bats-order-chiroptera-and-rodents-order-rodentia-from-la-rioja-province-argentina
#12
M Fernanda López Berrizbeitia, R Tatiana Sánchez, Ruben M Barquez, M Monica Díaz
The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769677/a-review-of-the-flea-genus-phalacropsylla-rothschild-1915-siphonaptera-ctenophthalmidae-neopsyllinae-phalacropsyllini-with-new-host-and-distributional-records
#13
Roxana Acosta, Michael W Hastriter
A redescription of the genus Phalacropsylla Rothschild is provided. Six species are recognized: Phalacropsylla allos Wagner, P. hamata Tipton and Mendez, P. morlani Eads and Campos, P. nivalis Barrera and Traub, P. oregonensis Lewis and Maser, and P. paradisea Rothschild. Phalacropsylla hamata is designated herein as a junior synonym of P. paradisea. The distribution of P. paradisea is more extensive than previously thought, extending from Arizona through southern Colorado, into New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico (State of Nuevo León)...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764110/urban-environments-alter-parasite-fauna-weight-and-reproductive-activity-in-the-quenda-isoodon-obesulus
#14
Alison E Hillman, Alan J Lymbery, Aileen D Elliot, R C Andrew Thompson
Some wildlife species are capable of surviving in urbanised environments. However, the implications of urbanisation on wildlife health, and public health regarding zoonoses, are often unknown. Quenda (syn. southern brown bandicoots, Isoodon obesulus) survive in many areas of Perth, Australia, despite urbanisation. This study investigated differences in gastrointestinal and macroscopic ecto-parasitic infections, morphometrics and reproductive status between bushland and urban dwelling quenda. 287 quenda in the greater Perth region were captured and sampled for faeces (to detect gastrointestinal parasites), blood (to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies), ectoparasites, and morphometrics...
July 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761492/gastrointestinal-helminths-and-ectoparasites-in-the-stray-cats-felidae-felis-catus-of-ahar-municipality-northwestern-iran
#15
Mohammad Yakhchali, Nasser Hajipour, Reza Malekzadeh-Viayeh, Bijan Esmaeilnejad, Taher Nemati-Haravani, Mohammad Fathollahzadeh, Rasool Jafari
BACKGROUND: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran. METHODS: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761469/parasitic-infections-of-bicoloured-white-toothed-shrew-crocidura-leucodon-from-dasht-e-razan-western-iran
#16
Ali Yousefi, Ali Eslami, Sadegh Rahbari, Iraj Mobedi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and intensity of endo and ectoparasites in shrews inhabiting in the Dasht-e Razan of Hamedan Province, Iran, were determined in this study. METHODS: By live traps, 64 shrews belong to species bicoloured white-toothed shrews (Crocidura leucodon) were trapped during 2010-2012. Captured animals were euthanized and their gender recorded. The blood thick and thin smears were stained with Geimsa and examined for protozoan parasites. Then, ectoparasites were collected and preserved in 70% ethanol and after necropsies; different organs were examined for helminthes...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754138/serological-and-pcr-investigation-of-yersinia-pestis-in-potential-reservoir-hosts-from-a-plague-outbreak-focus-in-zambia
#17
S S Nyirenda, B M Hang'ombe, E Mulenga, B S Kilonzo
BACKGROUND: Plague is a bacterial zoonotic disease, caused by Yersinia pestis. Rodents are the natural hosts with fleas as the vehicle of disease transmission. Domestic and wild dogs and cats have also been identified as possible disease hosts. In Zambia, plague outbreaks have been reported in the Southern and Eastern regions in the last 20 years. Based on these observations, Y. pestis could possibly be endemically present in the area. METHODS: To substantiate such possibility, sera samples were collected from rodents, shrews, dogs and cats for detection of antibodies against Fraction 1 gene (Fra1) of Y...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740757/using-electroretinograms-and-multi-model-inference-to-identify-spectral-classes-of-photoreceptors-and-relative-opsin-expression-levels
#18
Nicolas Lessios
Understanding how individual photoreceptor cells factor in the spectral sensitivity of a visual system is essential to explain how they contribute to the visual ecology of the animal in question. Existing methods that model the absorption of visual pigments use templates which correspond closely to data from thin cross-sections of photoreceptor cells. However, few modeling approaches use a single framework to incorporate physical parameters of real photoreceptors, which can be fused, and can form vertical tiers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728938/didelphis-albiventris-naturally-infected-with-hepatozoon-canis-in-southeastern-brazil
#19
Maria Regina Lucas da Silva, Felipe Fornazari, Larissa de Castro Demoner, Carlos Roberto Teixeira, Helio Langoni, Lucia Helena O'Dwyer
Hepatozoon species are vector-borne pathogens that infect domestic and wild animals. Marsupials of the species Didelphis albiventris are adapted to urban and peri-urban areas and act as reservoir hosts for several parasites. The present study evaluated the occurrence of infection by Hepatozoon species in synantropic D. albiventris from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites from 19 D. albiventris were collected from urban and peri-urban areas. Hepatozoon spp. detection was performed by microscopy and molecular analysis...
July 14, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728588/genetic-structure-and-gene-flow-of-the-flea-xenopsylla-cheopis-in-madagascar-and-mayotte
#20
Mireille Harimalala, Sandra Telfer, Hélène Delatte, Phillip C Watts, Adélaïde Miarinjara, Tojo Rindra Ramihangihajason, Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sébastien Boyer
BACKGROUND: The flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is a vector of plague. Despite this insect's medical importance, especially in Madagascar where plague is endemic, little is known about the organization of its natural populations. We undertook population genetic analyses (i) to determine the spatial genetic structure of X. cheopis in Madagascar and (ii) to determine the potential risk of plague introduction in the neighboring island of Mayotte. RESULTS: We genotyped 205 fleas from 12 sites using nine microsatellite markers...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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