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Xun Sheng, Li Gao, Xiancui Lu, Yunfei Wang, Yalan Han, Ping Meng, Wenlin Chen, Qiumin Lu
Enzymes from various natural resources are valuable in management of thrombosis. Blood-sucking arthropods are one of these resources because they have a wide array of anti-hemostasis molecules in their salivary gland. However, it is difficult to purify enough protein samples from the salivary glands for pharmacological studies. In this work, a fibrinogenolytic enzyme (tablysin 2) identified from salivary glands of the horsefly Tabanus yao was expressed in Escherichia coli to further study its biological activities...
April 29, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
C R González, L Llanos, M Saldarriaga-Córdoba
The terrestrial larva of the austral horsefly, Parosca latipalpis (Macquart), identified by molecular techniques, is described. The larva of P. latipalpis resembles Scaptia auriflua (Donovan), Copidapha vicina (Taylor), Myioscaptia muscula (English), and Osca lata (Guérin-Meneville) in many morphological characters, as well as in their terrestrial habitats. Some characters that are shared between these species are unique among Tabanidae and provide evidence of their monophyletic origin, suggesting a typical Gondwanaland group...
April 2, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Ewa Cisak, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Violetta Zając, Anna Sawczyn, Jacek Sroka, Jacek Dutkiewicz
Spiroplasma is a genus of wall-less, low-GC, small Gram-positive bacteria of the internal contractile cytoskeleton, with helical morphology and motility. The genus is classified within the class Mollicutes. Spiroplasma / host interactions can be classified as commensal, pathogenic or mutualist. The majority of spiroplasmas are found to be commensals of insects, arachnids, crustaceans or plants, whereas a small number of species are pathogens of plants, insects, and crustaceans. Insects are particularly rich sources of spiroplasmas...
2015: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
F Rodhain
Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara)...
April 2015: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Wen-Sui Lo, Yi-Ching Lai, Yun-Wei Lien, Tzu-Haw Wang, Chih-Horng Kuo
Spiroplasma litorale TN-1(T) (DSM 21781) was isolated from the gut of a green-eyed horsefly (Tabanus nigrovittatus), collected at Ocracoke Island in North Carolina in 1983. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology.
2015: Genome Announcements
Tamás Herczeg, Dénes Száz, Miklós Blahó, András Barta, Mónika Gyurkovszky, Róbert Farkas, Gábor Horváth
Although the tabanid species and populations occurring in eastern central Europe (Carpathian Basin) are thoroughly studied, there are only sporadic data about the influence of weather conditions on the abundance and activity of horseflies. To fill in this lack, in Hungary, we performed a 3-month summer survey of horsefly catches registering the weather parameters. Using common canopy traps and polarization liquid traps, we found the following: (i) rainfall, air temperature, and sunshine were the three most important factors influencing the trapping number of tabanids...
March 2015: Parasitology Research
Zhiye Zhang, Lan Gao, Chuanbin Shen, Mingqiang Rong, Xiuwen Yan, Ren Lai
Vasotab TY is a KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp)-containing peptide identified from salivary glands of the horsefly of Tabanus yao. We have previously reported that vasotab TY showed a strong vasodilator activity. In the present study, vasotab TY was found to inhibit platelet aggregation effectively. It completely inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) at the concentration of 9.6μg/ml. Vasotab TY significantly reduced thrombus weight in rat arteriovenous shunt model and inhibited thrombosis in carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis model in vivo...
September 2014: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
N Pemola Devi, R K Jauhari
Haematophagous dipterans belonging to 10 genera - Aedes (12), Anopheles (14), Armigeres (01), Culex (09), Toxorhynchites (01), Uranotaenia (01), Sergentomyia (02), Phlebotomus (01), Atylotus (01) and Tabanus (03) were encountered from 12 localities under 6 blocks of Dehradun district (Uttarakhand) during January 2011 to December 2012. The Culicines (50.69%) were more dominant than the Anophelines (38.9%), Toxorhynchites (1.72%), horse flies (6.63%) and sandflies (2.01%). The following species viz., Toxorhynchites splendens and Phlebotomus argentipes have been recorded for the first time while Aedes pseudotaeniatus as reappeared species from the study area...
December 2013: Tropical Biomedicine
S G Medvedev
The paper gives a historical account of investigations of mosquitoes, black flies and horseflies carried out by the staff of the Laboratory of Parasitology, Zoological Institute RAS, supervised by a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof Yu. S. Balashov, during 1979-1994. The research team of the laboratory explored the local fauna, relative abundance, seasonal dynamics, diurnal activity, longevity of a mass flight activity, annual fluctuations of the number, and age content of populations of various mosquito, black fly and horsefly species in the territory of Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov Provinces...
June 2013: Parazitologiia
Guo-Xiang Mo, Si-Ming Wang
As important traditional Chinese medicine materials, medicinal animals have been highly appreciated due to their strong bioactivities. Among these, medicinal insects have been thought to be significant, especially in preventing and treating modern diseases and tumors. Some of the most famous medicinal insects, such as horseflies, blister beetles and American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) have been well known due to their reported effects in anti-thrombosis and fighting cancer. In general, identifying the medicinal functions and active components of medicinal insects has been a gradual processes...
December 2013: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
F Baldacchino, S Manon, L Puech, B Buatois, L Dormont, P Jay-Robert
Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of females of two tabanid species, Tabanus bromius L. and Atylotus quadrifarius (Loew) (Diptera: Tabanidae), to ammonia, octenol (1-octen-3-ol), phenols and aged horse urine were compared. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses in both species to octenol, 4-methylphenol (4MP), 3-propylphenol (3PP) and a phenol mixture (4MP and 3PP at a ratio of 16 : 1) increased in a dose-dependent fashion. The most effective stimulus was 4MP and synergism between the two phenols may exist...
June 2014: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Miklós Blahó, Adám Egri, Dénes Száz, György Kriska, Susanne Akesson, Gábor Horváth
As with mosquitoes, female tabanid flies search for mammalian hosts by visual and olfactory cues, because they require a blood meal before being able to produce and lay eggs. Polarotactic tabanid flies find striped or spotted patterns with intensity and/or polarisation modulation visually less attractive than homogeneous white, brown or black targets. Thus, this reduced optical attractiveness to tabanids can be one of the functions of striped or spotty coat patterns in ungulates. Ungulates emit CO2 via their breath, while ammonia originates from their decaying urine...
July 2, 2013: Physiology & Behavior
F Baldacchino, A Porciani, C Bernard, P Jay-Robert
In high-altitude summer pastures, horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance to livestock, as well as mechanical vectors of animal diseases such as besnoitiosis, an enzootic disease in the Pyrenees. However, the activity of horseflies in mountainous environments is poorly documented. To study the seasonality and distribution of tabanids in the Pyrenees Mountains, a sampling design was set up in two valleys on opposite sides of the mountain, one north-facing and one south-facing, along high-elevation gradients and at different distances from a water body between May and October 2011...
February 2014: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Ádám Egri, Miklós Blahó, Dénes Száz, András Barta, György Kriska, Györgyi Antoni, Gábor Horváth
Trapping flies with sticky paper sheets is an ancient method. The classic flypaper has four typical characteristics: (i) its sticky paper is bright (chamois, light yellow or white), (ii) it is strip-shaped, (iii) it hangs vertically, and (iv) it is positioned high (several metres) above ground level. Such flypapers, however, do not trap horseflies (tabanids). There is a great need to kill horseflies with efficient traps because they are vectors of dangerous diseases, and due to their continuous annoyance livestock cannot graze, horses cannot be ridden, and meat and milk production from cattle is drastically reduced...
June 2013: International Journal for Parasitology
Zulema Menéndez Díaz, Eulises Manso Valdés, Mayda Castex Rodríguez, Omar Fuentes González, Natividad Hernández Contreras, Israel García Avila
One thousand and three hundred twenty one fish from Cyprinodon variegatus, Gambusia punticulata, Fundulus grandis saguanus. Cubanichthys cubensis y Girardinus metallicus were collected for the purpose of locating and identifying fish of interest in the control of mosquito larvae in Cayo Santa Maria, Villa Clara province. Ecological indexes such as diversity (H') and equity (J') were estimated through a program named BIODIVERSITY Pro v2 and also the contents in the stomach of 341 specimens (25,81%) of the total was analyzed...
September 2007: Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical
Teresa C F Assumpcao, José M C Ribeiro, Ivo M B Francischetti
Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches...
May 2012: Toxins
Miklós Blahó, Ádám Egri, András Barta, Györgyi Antoni, György Kriska, Gábor Horváth
Horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can cause severe problems for humans and livestock because of the continuous annoyance performed and the diseases vectored by the haematophagous females. Therefore, effective horsefly traps are in large demand, especially for stock-breeders. To catch horseflies, several kinds of traps have been developed, many of them attracting these insects visually with the aid of a black ball. The recently discovered positive polarotaxis (attraction to horizontally polarized light) in several horsefly species can be used to design traps that capture female and male horseflies...
October 26, 2012: Veterinary Parasitology
Su An, Lingling Chen, Ji-Fu Wei, Xuening Yang, Dongying Ma, Xuemei Xu, Xueqing Xu, Shaoheng He, Jia Lu, Ren Lai
Due to poor diagnostic facilities and a lack of medical alertness, allergy to Vespa wasps may be underestimated. Few allergens have been identified from Vespa wasps.Possible native allergen proteins were purified from the wasp venoms (WV) (Vespa magnifica Smith) by gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, respectively. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests (ELISA-IT), immunoblots, and skin prick tests (SPTs)...
2012: PloS One
Adám Egri, Miklós Blahó, György Kriska, Róbert Farkas, Mónika Gyurkovszky, Susanne Akesson, Gábor Horváth
The characteristic striped appearance of zebras has provoked much speculation about its function and why the pattern has evolved, but experimental evidence is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that a zebra-striped horse model attracts far fewer horseflies (tabanids) than either homogeneous black, brown, grey or white equivalents. Such biting flies are prevalent across Africa and have considerable fitness impact on potential mammalian hosts. Besides brightness, one of the likely mechanisms underlying this protection is the polarization of reflected light from the host animal...
March 1, 2012: Journal of Experimental Biology
S An, D Ma, J F Wei, X Yang, H W Yang, H Yang, X Xu, S He, R Lai
BACKGROUND: Horsefly sting causes allergic reactions in human body. However, our knowledge on horsefly allergens remains poor. OBJECTIVES: To identify the novel horsefly allergens and characterize their properties. METHODS: A native allergen protein Tab y 1 (apyrase) was purified from the salivary glands of the horsefly Tabanus yao Macquart by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Its sequence was determined by Edman degradation and cDNA cloning...
November 2011: Allergy
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