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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087772/possible-roles-of-new-mutations-shared-by-asian-and-american-zika-viruses
#1
Shozo Yokoyama, William T Starmer
Originating in Africa, the Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread to Asia, Pacific Islands and now to the Americas and beyond. Since the first isolation in 1947, ZIKV strains have been sampled at various times in the last 69 years, but this history has not been reflected in studying the patterns of mutation accumulation in their genomes. Implementing the viral history, we show that the ZIKV ancestor appeared sometime in 1930-1945 and, at that point, its mutation rate was probably less than 0.2 x 10(-3)/nucleotide site/year and subsequently increased significantly in most of its descendants...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087534/mechanisms-of-horizontal-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-wolbachia-spp-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Pamela M White, Jose E Pietri, Alain Debec, Shelbi Russell, Bhavin Patel, William Sullivan
: Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germline, though horizontal transmission has also been documented. Several studies indicate that Wolbachia is capable of transfer between somatic and germline cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087198/cloning-characterization-and-transmission-blocking-potential-of-midgut-carboxypeptidase-a-in-anopheles-stephensi
#3
V VenkatRao, Surendra K Kumar, P Sridevi, Vijaykumar Muley, R K Chaitanya
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) interrupt malaria parasite transmission and hence form an important component for malaria eradication. Mosquito midgut exopeptidases such as aminopeptidase N & carboxypeptidase B have demonstrated TBV potential. In the present study, we cloned and characterized carboxypeptidase A (CPA) from the midgut of an important malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. ClustalW amino acid alignment and in silico 3-dimensional structure analysis of CPA predicted the presence of active sites involved in zinc and substrate binding that are conserved among all the known mosquito species...
January 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086941/diversity-in-breeding-sites-and-distribution-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-in-selected-urban-areas-of-southern-ghana
#4
Precious A Dzorgbe Mattah, Godfred Futagbi, Leonard K Amekudzi, Memuna M Mattah, Dziedzorm K de Souza, Worlasi D Kartey-Attipoe, Langbong Bimi, Michael D Wilson
BACKGROUND: Anopheles vectors of malaria are supposedly less common in urban areas as a result of pollution, but there is increasing evidence of their adaptation to organically polluted water bodies. This study characterized the breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes in the two major urban areas in southern Ghana; Accra (AMA) and Sekondi-Takoradi (STMA) Metropolitan Areas, during dry and wet seasons. METHODS: Anopheles mosquito larvae were sampled using standard dipping methods to determine larval densities...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086897/application-of-the-analytic-hierarchy-approach-to-the-risk-assessment-of-zika-virus-disease-transmission-in-guangdong-province-china
#5
Xing Li, Tao Liu, Lifeng Lin, Tie Song, Xiaolong Du, Hualiang Lin, Jianpeng Xiao, Jianfeng He, Liping Liu, Guanghu Zhu, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Zheng Cao, Wenjun Ma, Yonghui Zhang
BACKGROUND: An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has attracted global attention in 2015. The infection also affected Guangdong province, which is located in southern China. Multiple factors, including frequent communication with South America and Southeast Asia, suitable climate (sub-tropical) for the habitat of Aedes species, may increase the risk of ZIKV disease transmission in this region. METHODS: An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to develop a semi-quantitative ZIKV risk assessment model...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086874/new-developments-in-anti-malarial-target-candidate-and-product-profiles
#6
REVIEW
Jeremy N Burrows, Stephan Duparc, Winston E Gutteridge, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Wiweka Kaszubska, Fiona Macintyre, Sébastien Mazzuri, Jörg J Möhrle, Timothy N C Wells
A decade of discovery and development of new anti-malarial medicines has led to a renewed focus on malaria elimination and eradication. Changes in the way new anti-malarial drugs are discovered and developed have led to a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of new molecules presently in pre-clinical and early clinical development. The twin challenges faced can be summarized by multi-drug resistant malaria from the Greater Mekong Sub-region, and the need to provide simplified medicines. This review lists changes in anti-malarial target candidate and target product profiles over the last 4 years...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086840/evidence-of-multiple-insecticide-resistance-mechanisms-in-anopheles-gambiae-populations-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#7
Marina Lidwine Olé Sangba, Aboubakar Sidick, Renaud Govoetchan, Christian Dide-Agossou, Razaki A Ossè, Martin Akogbeto, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of insecticide resistance status in the main malaria vectors is an essential component of effective malaria vector control. This study presents the first evaluation of the status of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations from Bangui, the Central African Republic. METHODS: Anopheles mosquitoes were reared from larvae collected in seven districts of Bangui between September to November 2014. The World Health Organisation's bioassay susceptibility tests to lambda-cyhalothrin (0...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086776/comparison-of-two-adult-mosquito-sampling-methods-with-human-landing-catches-in-south-central-ethiopia
#8
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn, Hans J Overgaard
BACKGROUND: The human landing catch (HLC) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. However, HLC is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. These necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. This study was undertaken to determine the relative sampling efficiency (RSE) of light traps with or without yeast-produced carbon dioxide bait vs. HLC in south-central Ethiopia...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081440/a-knockout-screen-of-apiap2-genes-reveals-networks-of-interacting-transcriptional-regulators-controlling-the-plasmodium-life-cycle
#9
Katarzyna Modrzynska, Claudia Pfander, Lia Chappell, Lu Yu, Catherine Suarez, Kirsten Dundas, Ana Rita Gomes, David Goulding, Julian C Rayner, Jyoti Choudhary, Oliver Billker
A family of apicomplexa-specific proteins containing AP2 DNA-binding domains (ApiAP2s) was identified in malaria parasites. This family includes sequence-specific transcription factors that are key regulators of development. However, functions for the majority of ApiAP2 genes remain unknown. Here, a systematic knockout screen in Plasmodium berghei identified ten ApiAP2 genes that were essential for mosquito transmission: four were critical for the formation of infectious ookinetes, and three were required for sporogony...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081253/probability-of-transmission-of-malaria-from-mosquito-to-human-is-regulated-by-mosquito-parasite-density-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-vaccinated-hosts
#10
Thomas S Churcher, Robert E Sinden, Nick J Edwards, Ian D Poulton, Thomas W Rampling, Patrick M Brock, Jamie T Griffin, Leanna M Upton, Sara E Zakutansky, Katarzyna A Sala, Fiona Angrisano, Adrian V S Hill, Andrew M Blagborough
Over a century since Ronald Ross discovered that malaria is caused by the bite of an infectious mosquito it is still unclear how the number of parasites injected influences disease transmission. Currently it is assumed that all mosquitoes with salivary gland sporozoites are equally infectious irrespective of the number of parasites they harbour, though this has never been rigorously tested. Here we analyse >1000 experimental infections of humans and mice and demonstrate a dose-dependency for probability of infection and the length of the host pre-patent period...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081143/engineered-aedes-aegypti-jak-stat-pathway-mediated-immunity-to-dengue-virus
#11
Natapong Jupatanakul, Shuzhen Sim, Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Jayme Souza-Neto, Suchismita Das, Kristin E Poti, Shannan L Rossi, Nicholas Bergren, Nikos Vasilakis, George Dimopoulos
We have developed genetically modified Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that activate the conserved antiviral JAK/STAT pathway in the fat body tissue, by overexpressing either the receptor Dome or the Janus kinase Hop by the blood feeding-induced vitellogenin (Vg) promoter. Transgene expression inhibits infection with several dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in the midgut as well as systemically and in the salivary glands. The impact of the transgenes Dome and Hop on mosquito longevity was minimal, but it resulted in a compromised fecundity when compared to wild-type mosquitoes...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081133/the-power-of-malaria-vaccine-trials-using-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#12
Luc E Coffeng, Cornelus C Hermsen, Robert W Sauerwein, Sake J de Vlas
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events. To optimize power calculations for CHMI-based malaria vaccine trials, we developed a novel non-linear statistical model for parasite kinetics as measured by qPCR, using data from mosquito-based CHMI experiments in 57 individuals...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080959/sentinel-surveillance-of-imported-dengue-via-travellers-to-europe-2012-to-2014-tropnet-data-from-the-denguetools-research-initiative
#13
Andreas Neumayr, Jose Muñoz, Mirjam Schunk, Emmanuel Bottieau, Jakob Cramer, Guido Calleri, Rogelio López-Vélez, Andrea Angheben, Thomas Zoller, Leo Visser, Núria Serre-Delcor, Blaise Genton, Francesco Castelli, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Alberto Matteelli, Laurence Rochat, Elena Sulleiro, Florian Kurth, Federico Gobbi, Francesca Norman, Ilaria Torta, Jan Clerinx, David Poluda, Miguel Martinez, Antonia Calvo-Cano, Maria Paz Sanchez-Seco, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Christoph Hatz, Leticia Franco
We describe the epidemiological pattern and genetic characteristics of 242 acute dengue infections imported to Europe by returning travellers from 2012 to 2014. The overall geographical pattern of imported dengue (South-east Asia > Americas > western Pacific region > Africa) remained stable compared with 1999 to 2010. We isolated the majority of dengue virus genotypes and epidemic lineages causing outbreaks and epidemics in Asia, America and Africa during the study period. Travellers acted as sentinels for four unusual dengue outbreaks (Madeira, 2012-13; Luanda, 2013; Dar es Salaam, 2014; Tokyo, 2014)...
January 5, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078104/discovery-of-flavivirus-derived-endogenous-viral-elements-in-anopheles-mosquito-genomes-supports-the-existence-of-anopheles-associated-insect-specific-flaviviruses
#14
Sebastian Lequime, Louis Lambrechts
The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077583/a-live-attenuated-chimeric-west-nile-virus-vaccine-rwn-den4%C3%AE-30-is-well-tolerated-and-immunogenic-in-flavivirus-naive-older-adult-volunteers
#15
Kristen K Pierce, Stephen S Whitehead, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Palmtama L Grier, Adrienne Jarvis, Heather Kenney, Marya P Carmolli, Cynthia Reynolds, Cecilia M Tibery, Janece Lovchik, Anna Janiak, Catherine J Luke, Anna P Durbin, Alexander G Pletnev
West Nile virus (WNV) is a major cause of mosquito-borne illness in the United States. Human disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe fatal neurologic infection. Adults aged >60 years are more susceptible to neuroinvasive disease accompanied by a high mortality rate or long-lasting neurologic sequelae. A chimeric live attenuated West Nile virus vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, was shown to be safe and immunogenic in healthy adults aged 18-50 years. This study evaluated rWN/DEN4Δ30 in flavivirus-naive adults aged 50-65 years and found it to be safe and immunogenic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#16
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077251/theoretical-implications-of-a-pre-erythrocytic-plasmodium-vivax-vaccine-for-preventing-relapses
#17
Michael White, Rogerio Amino, Ivo Mueller
Preventing malaria infection through vaccination requires preventing every sporozoite inoculated by mosquito bite: a major challenge for Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium vivax sporozoites consist of tachysporozoites causing primary infection and bradysporozoites leading to relapses. We hypothesise that a candidate P. vivax vaccine with low efficacy against primary infection may substantially reduce transmission by preventing relapses.
January 8, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077167/role-of-anopheles-cellia-rufipes-gough-1910-and-other-local-anophelines-in-human-malaria-transmission-in-the-northern-savannah-of-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-survey
#18
Raymond N Tabue, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Jean Atangana, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Jean C Toto, Salomon Patchoke, Rose G F Leke, Etienne Fondjo, Abraham P Mnzava, Tessa B Knox, Alexis Tougordi, Martin J Donnelly, Jude D Bigoga
BACKGROUND: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission. METHODS: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon...
January 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075354/the-state-of-the-art-of-lethal-oviposition-trap-based-mass-interventions-for-arboviral-control
#19
Brian J Johnson, Scott A Ritchie, Dina M Fonseca
The intensifying expansion of arboviruses highlights the need for effective invasive Aedes control. While mass-trapping interventions have long been discredited as inefficient compared to insecticide applications, increasing levels of insecticide resistance, and the development of simple affordable traps that target and kill gravid female mosquitoes, show great promise. We summarize the methodologies and outcomes of recent lethal oviposition trap-based mass interventions for suppression of urban Aedes and their associated diseases...
January 8, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075325/detection-of-zika-virus-in-desiccated-mosquitoes-by-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-and-plaque-assay
#20
Kristen L Burkhalter, Harry M Savage
We assayed Zika virus-infected mosquitoes stored at room temperature for <30 days for live virus by using plaque assay and virus RNA by using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Viable virus was detected in samples stored <10 days, and virus RNA was detected in samples held for 30 days.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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