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Nigel W Beebe
Mosquitoes' importance as vectors of pathogens that drive disease underscores the importance of precise and comparable methods of taxa identification among their species. While several molecular targets have been used to study mosquitoes since the initiation of PCR in the 1980s, its application to mosquito identification took off in the early 1990s. This review follows the research's recent journey into the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI or COX1) as a DNA barcode target for mosquito species identification - a target whose utility for discriminating mosquitoes is now escalating...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology
Mary-Carmen Torres-Quintero, Isabel Gómez, Sabino Pacheco, Jorge Sánchez, Humberto Flores, Joel Osuna, Gretel Mendoza, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
The Cyt and Cry toxins are different pore-forming proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria, and used in insect-pests control. Cry-toxins have a complex mechanism involving interaction with several proteins in the insect gut such as aminopeptidase N (APN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cadherin (CAD). It was shown that the loop regions of domain II of Cry toxins participate in receptor binding. Cyt-toxins are dipteran specific and interact with membrane lipids. We show that Cry1Ab domain II loop3 is involved in binding to APN, ALP and CAD receptors since point mutation Cry1Ab-G439D affected binding to these proteins...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
I K Ragan, A S Davis, D S McVey, J A Richt, R R Rowland, W C Wilson
Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus that infects ruminants including cattle, sheep, goats, camels and buffalo. Multiplexing diagnostic assays that can simultaneously detect antibodies against multiple RVFV antigens offer a high throughput test for disease surveillance and vaccine evaluations. We describe the improvement and evaluation of a previously developed fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against the RVFV glycoproteins (Gn) and the immunogenic nucleocapsid protein (Np)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Gi-Geun Yang, Dohyeong Kim, Anh Pham, Christopher John Paul
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been widely used as an effective alternative to conventional insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for over a decade. Due to the growing number of field trials and interventions reporting the effectiveness of LLINs in controlling malaria, there is a need to systematically review the literature on LLINs and ITNs to examine the relative effectiveness and characteristics of both insecticide nettings. A systematic review of over 2000 scholarly articles published since the year 2000 was conducted...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gabriella Maria Pitt Gameiro Sales, Izabel Crystine Pereira Barbosa, Laura Maia Sampaio Canejo Neta, Paloma Lopes de Melo, Raphael de Azevedo Leitão, Hugo Moura de Albuquerque Melo
INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya (CHIK) is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. Usually, CHIK presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months or even years. During this period, autoimmune diseases can be triggered, making the picture even more complicated...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Vanessa Couras Regadas, Márcio de Castro E Silva, Lucas Giansante Abud, Luiz Mario Pereira Lopes Labadessa, Rafael Gouvêa Gomes de Oliveira, Cecília Hissae Miyake, Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz
Currently Latin America is undergoing a major epidemic of Zika virus, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Concern for Zika virus infection has been increasing as it is suspected of causing brain defects in newborns such as microcephaly and, more recently, potential neurological and autoimmune complications including Guillian-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We describe a case of virus infection in a 25-year-old woman during the first trimester of her pregnancy, confirmed by laboratory tests only for the detection of viral particles in maternal urine, with imaging studies demonstrating the progression of cranial and encephalic changes in the fetus and later in the newborn, such as head circumference reduction, cerebral calcifications and ventriculomegaly...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Joseph R Fauver, James Weger-Lucarelli, Lawrence S Fakoli, Kpehe Bolay, Fatorma K Bolay, Joseph W Diclaro, Doug E Brackney, Brian D Foy, Mark D Stenglein, Gregory D Ebel
BACKGROUND: Novel surveillance strategies are needed to detect the rapid and continuous emergence of infectious disease agents. Ideally, new sampling strategies should be simple to implement, technologically uncomplicated, and applicable to areas where emergence events are known to occur. To this end, xenosurveillance is a technique that makes use of blood collected by hematophagous arthropods to monitor and identify vertebrate pathogens. Mosquitoes are largely ubiquitous animals that often exist in sizable populations...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amelia R I Lindsey, Tamanash Bhattacharya, Irene L G Newton, Richard W Hardy
At the forefront of vector control efforts are strategies that leverage host-microbe associations to reduce vectorial capacity. The most promising of these efforts employs Wolbachia , a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium naturally found in 40% of insects. Wolbachia can spread through a population of insects while simultaneously inhibiting the replication of viruses within its host. Despite successes in using Wolbachia -transfected mosquitoes to limit dengue, Zika, and chikungunya transmission, the mechanisms behind pathogen-blocking have not been fully characterized...
March 21, 2018: Viruses
Vanessa V Sarathy, Mellodee White, Li Li, Jaclyn A Kaiser, Gerald A Campbell, Gregg N Milligan, Nigel Bourne, Alan D T Barrett
The mosquito-borne disease dengue is caused by four serologically- and genetically-related viruses, termed DENV-1 to DENV-4. Historical setbacks due to lack of human-like mouse models of dengue were partially remedied with characterization of lethal DENV-2 infection in immunocompromised AG129 mice (deficient in IFN-α/β/γ receptors). Recently, our group established lethal AG129 mouse infection models of DENV-1, DENV-3, and DENV-4 using human isolates. Here we compare a non-lethal, disseminated model of DENV-3 infection using strain D83-144 to that of the lethal outcome following infection by strain C0360/94...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kenji Kikuchi, Mark A Stremler, Souvick Chatterjee, Wah-Keat Lee, Osamu Mochizuki, John J Socha
Mosquitoes transport liquid foods into the body using two muscular pumps in the head. In normal drinking, these pumps reciprocate in a stereotyped pattern of oscillation, with a high frequency but small stroke volume. Do mosquitoes modulate their neuromotor programs for pumping to produce different drinking modes? More broadly, what are the mechanical consequences of a two-pump system in insects? To address these questions, we used synchrotron x-ray imaging and fluid mechanical modeling to investigate drinking performance in mosquitoes...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lauren D Aarreberg, Courtney Wilkins, Hilario J Ramos, Richard Green, Michael A Davis, Kwan Chow, Michael Gale
Induction of interferon beta (IFN-β), IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and inflammatory responses is critical for control of viral infection. We recently identified an essential linkage of stimulation of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and induction of ISGs that function as host restriction pathways against the emerging flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo Here we utilized ex vivo global transcriptome analysis of primary dendritic cells, known targets of WNV replication, to define gene signatures required for this IL-1β-driven antiviral response...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Ana Margarida Alho, José Meireles, Manuela Schnyder, Luís Cardoso, Silvana Belo, Peter Deplazes, Luís Madeira de Carvalho
Cardiopulmonary nematodes are life-threatening pet parasites increasingly reported throughout Europe, with overlapping endemic areas. Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne whilst Angiostrongylus vasorum is a snail-borne pathogen. Both adult nematodes reside in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic and wild canids, causing a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from cough, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance to severe vascular and pulmonary disease with hearth failure that may lead to death...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Mine Altinli, Filiz Gunay, Bulent Alten, Mylene Weill, Mathieu Sicard
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria that can manipulate their hosts' reproduction causing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is a sperm-egg incompatibility resulting in embryonic death. Due to this sterilising effect on mosquitoes, Wolbachia are considered for vector control strategies. Important vectors for arboviruses, filarial nematodes and avian malaria, mosquitoes of Culex pipiens complex are suitable for Wolbachia-based vector control. They are infected with Wolbachia wPip strains belonging to five genetically distinct groups (wPip-I to V) within the Wolbachia B supergroup...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ottavia Romoli, Mathilde Gendrin
The microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes interferes with mosquito infection by Plasmodium and influences mosquito fitness, therefore affecting vectorial capacity. This natural barrier to malaria transmission has been regarded with growing interest in the last 20 years, as it may be a source of new transmission-blocking strategies. The last decade has seen tremendous progress in the functional characterisation of the tripartite interactions between the mosquito, its microbiota and Plasmodium parasites. In this review, we provide insights into the effects of the mosquito microbiota on Plasmodium infection and on mosquito physiology, and on how these aspects together influence vectorial capacity...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Shehu S Awandu, Jaishree Raman, Takalani I Makhanthisa, Philip Kruger, John Frean, Teun Bousema, Jandeli Niemand, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz
BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) is recommended as an addition to standard malaria treatments in pre-elimination settings due to its pronounced activity against mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the parasite stage responsible for onward transmission to mosquitoes. However, PQ may trigger haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals. Additional human genetic factors, including polymorphisms in the human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) complex, may negatively influence the efficacy of PQ...
March 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Li-Ping Hou, Hongxing Chen, Chang-En Tian, Ye Liang, Rong-Rong Wu, Xing-Mei Zhang, Xu-Wen Fang, Cui-Ping Zhang, Jun-Jie Hu, Li-Ying Song, Yan-Qiu Liang, Daniel Schlenk, Lingtian Xie
Synthetic hormones in wastewater effluents released into the aquatic environments may interfere with the normal endocrine systems of fish in receiving streams. Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin widely used in oral contraceptives and frequently detected in wastewater effluents. In this study, adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to three environmentally relevant concentrations of norgestrel (NGT) (i.e., 3.6, 35.8, and 368.0 ng L-1) for 42 d, fin morphology, histology of the ovary, and reproductive behaviors were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Caetano Souto-Maior, Gabriel Sylvestre, Fernando Braga Stehling Dias, M Gabriela M Gomes, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
Infection is a complex and dynamic process involving a population of invading microbes, the host and its responses, aimed at controlling the situation. Depending on the purpose and level of organization, infection at the organism level can be described by a process as simple as a coin toss, or as complex as a multi-factorial dynamic model; the former, for instance, may be adequate as a component of a population model, while the latter is necessary for a thorough description of the process beginning with a challenge with an infectious inoculum up to establishment or elimination of the pathogen...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jeffrey R Powell
Although numerous viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, four have caused the most human suffering over the centuries and continuing today. These are the viruses causing yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Africa is clearly the ancestral home of yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and likely the dengue virus. Several species of mosquitoes, primarily in the genus Aedes , have been transmitting these viruses and their direct ancestors among African primates for millennia allowing for coadaptation among viruses, mosquitoes, and primates...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Daisuke Kobayashi, Katsunori Murota, Ryosuke Fujita, Kentaro Itokawa, Akira Kotaki, Meng Ling Moi, Hiroko Ejiri, Yoshihide Maekawa, Kohei Ogawa, Yoshio Tsuda, Toshinori Sasaki, Mutsuo Kobayashi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Haruhiko Isawa, Kyoko Sawabe
In 2014 in Japan, 162 autochthonous dengue cases were reported for the first time in nearly 70 years. Here, we report the results of the detection and isolation of dengue virus (DENV) from mosquitoes collected in Tokyo Metropolis in 2014 and 2015. The phylogenetic relationship among DENV isolates from mosquitoes and from patients based on both the entire envelope gene and whole coding sequences was evaluated. Herein, 2,298 female and 956 male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were collected at six suspected locations of DENV infection in Tokyo Metropolis from August to October in 2014 and grouped into 124 and 35 pools, respectively, for viral genome detection and DENV isolation...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nicole P Lindsey, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus found in the eastern United States. Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease in humans is rare but can result in severe, often fatal, illness. This report summarizes the national EEEV surveillance data for 2003 through 2016, including human disease cases and nonhuman infections. Over the 14-year period, 633 counties from 33 states reported EEEV activity; 88% of those counties reported EEEV activity only in nonhuman species. A total of 121 human cases of EEEV disease were reported, with a median of eight cases reported annually...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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