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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779178/organophosphate-pesticides-alter-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-behavior-in-single-and-consecutive-exposures
#1
Kelly M Correia, Delbert L Smee
Insecticide effects on nontarget organisms most commonly involve measuring mortality after single exposures. We examined sublethal effects of consecutive exposures of malathion, an organophosphate insecticide used for mosquito abatement, on the behavior of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). We measured righting time (i.e., time to return upright when placed upside down), eyestalk reflexes, foraging ability, and response to predation risk in three malathion treatments of 50 µg/L that varied in duration: (1) static exposure for 96 h followed by a second exposure for 96 h, (2) static exposure for 96 h followed by transfer to pesticide-free water for 96 h, (3) control without malathion for 192 h...
May 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778766/first-genetic-characterization-of-usutu-virus-from-culex-pipiens-mosquitoes-serbia-2014
#2
Gábor Kemenesi, Dóra Buzás, Brigitta Zana, Kornélia Kurucz, Bosiljka Krtinic, Anett Kepner, Fanni Földes, Ferenc Jakab
Since its first appearance in Europe, Usutu virus (USUV) diverged to several different genetic lineages. The virus was reported to date from multiple countries across Europe (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany, Czech Republic and Belgium). Considering the more frequently published impact of the virus on humans it is crucial to investigate locally circulating genetic variants and trace its evolution. We retrospectively analyzed mosquito samples from Serbia Vojvodina region, collected during 2014. In this study we report the results of the screening of 23,753 female mosquitoes (753 pools) for USUV-specific nucleic-acid...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778082/a-review-of-the-impacts-of-tobacco-heating-system-on-indoor-air-quality-versus-conventional-pollution-sources
#3
REVIEW
Violeta Kaunelienė, Marija Meišutovič-Akhtarieva, Dainius Martuzevičius
With the introduction of novel and potentially less polluting nicotine containing products to the market, the impacts of their usage to indoor air quality as opposed to conventional pollution sources must be reviewed and considered. This review study aimed to comparatively analyse changes in indoor air quality as the consequence of tobacco heating system (THS) generated pollution against general indoor air quality in various micro-environments, especially with combustion-based pollution sources present. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, nicotine and PM2...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777650/modeling-dengue-vector-population-using-remotely-sensed-data-and-machine-learning
#4
Juan M Scavuzzo, Francisco Trucco, Manuel Espinosa, Carolina B Tauro, Marcelo Abril, Carlos M Scavuzzo, Alejandro C Frery
Mosquitoes are vectors of many human diseases. In particular, Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus) is the main vector for Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses in Latin America and it represents a global threat. Public health policies that aim at combating this vector require dependable and timely information, which is usually expensive to obtain with field campaigns. For this reason, several efforts have been done to use remote sensing due to its reduced cost. The present work includes the temporal modeling of the oviposition activity (measured weekly on 50 ovitraps in a north Argentinean city) of Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus), based on time series of data extracted from operational earth observation satellite images...
May 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777177/controlling-vector-borne-diseases-by-releasing-modified-mosquitoes
#5
REVIEW
Heather A Flores, Scott L O'Neill
Aedes mosquito-transmitted diseases, such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya, are becoming major global health emergencies while old threats, such as yellow fever, are re-emerging. Traditional control methods, which have focused on reducing mosquito populations through the application of insecticides or preventing breeding through removal of larval habitat, are largely ineffective, as evidenced by the increasing global disease burden. Here, we review novel mosquito population reduction and population modification approaches with a focus on control methods based on the release of mosquitoes, including the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes and strategies to genetically modify the vector, that are currently under development and have the potential to contribute to a reversal of the current alarming disease trends...
May 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776384/competence-of-mosquitoes-native-to-the-united-kingdom-to-support-replication-and-transmission-of-rift-valley-fever-virus
#6
Sarah Lumley, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Daniel L Horton, Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Jolyon M Medlock, Roger Hewson, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and livestock. It is endemic in Africa and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in 2000 raising concerns it could emerge in Europe. The ability of temperate mosquitoes from the United Kingdom (UK) to support replication and transmission of RVFV is unknown. METHODS: In this study, two colonised lines of Culex pipiens, wild-caught Aedes detritus and Ae. rusticus from the UK were infected with pathogenic strains of RVFV to assess their vector competence...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776379/development-of-a-rapid-field-applicable-molecular-diagnostic-for-knockdown-resistance-kdr-markers-in-an-gambiae
#7
Vera T Unwin, Shaun Ainsworth, Emily J Rippon, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Mark J I Paine, David Weetman, Emily R Adams
BACKGROUND: The spread of insecticide resistance (IR) is a major threat to vector control programmes for mosquito-borne diseases. Early detection of IR using diagnostic markers could help inform these programmes, especially in remote locations where gathering reliable bioassay data is challenging. Most current molecular tests for genetic IR markers are only suitable for use in well-equipped laboratory settings. There is an unmet need for field-applicable diagnostics. METHODS: A single-cartridge test was designed to detect key IR mutations in the major African vector of malaria, Anopheles gambiae...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776369/prevention-and-treatment-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-what-do-pregnant-women-and-health-care-workers-in-east-india-know-and-do-about-it
#8
Lora Sabin, Evan M S Hecht, Mohamad I Brooks, Mrigendra P Singh, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Abanish Rizal, Blair J Wylie, Philip A Bondzie, Matthew Banos, Jordan Tuchman, Neeru Singh, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: Limited qualitative research has been performed in India to investigate views and behaviours of pregnant women regarding malaria despite the threat of malaria-related adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. To address this gap, a comprehensive study on malaria prevention and treatment attitudes, knowledge and behaviour among pregnant women in India was conducted. METHODS: Pregnant women and healthcare workers (HCWs), encompassing clinic-based providers, traditional birth attendants, and auxiliary nurse-midwives were enrolled for in-depth interviews (IDIs) at 7 hospital sites and nearby communities in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776361/emergence-of-knock-down-resistance-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex-in-the-upper-river-region-the-gambia-and-its-relationship-with-malaria-infection-in-children
#9
Anne L Wilson, Margaret Pinder, John Bradley, Martin J Donnelly, Majidah Hamid-Adiamoh, Lamin B S Jarju, Musa Jawara, David Jeffries, Ballah Kandeh, Emily J Rippon, Kolawole Salami, Umberto D'Alessandro, Steven W Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance threatens malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Knockdown resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) is commonly caused by mutations in the gene encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel which is the target site for the insecticide. The study aimed to examine risk factors for knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.l. and its relationship with malaria infection in children in rural Gambia. Point mutations at the Vgsc-1014 locus, were measured in An...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774861/use-of-bead-based-serologic-assay-to-evaluate-chikungunya-virus-epidemic-haiti
#10
Eric W Rogier, Delynn M Moss, Kimberly E Mace, Michelle Chang, Samuel E Jean, Stevan M Bullard, Patrick J Lammie, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
The index case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Haiti was reported during early 2014; the vector, the pervasive Aedes aegypti mosquito, promoted rapid spread throughout the country. During December 2014-February 2015, we collected blood samples from 4,438 persons at 154 sites (62 urban, 92 rural) throughout Haiti and measured CHIKV IgG by using a multiplex bead assay. Overall CHIKV seroprevalence was 57.9%; differences between rural (mean 44.9%) and urban (mean 78.4%) areas were pronounced. Logistic modeling identified the urban environment as a strong predictor of CHIKV exposure (adjusted odds ratio 3...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774519/zika-virus-baculovirus-expressed-virus-like-particles-induce-neutralizing-antibodies-in-mice
#11
Shiyu Dai, Tao Zhang, Yanfang Zhang, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng
The newly emerged mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) strains pose a global challenge owing to its ability to cause microcephaly and neurological disorders. Several ZIKV vaccine candidates have been proposed, including inactivated and live attenuated virus vaccines, vector-based vaccines, DNA and RNA vaccines. These have been shown to be efficacious in preclinical studies in mice and nonhuman primates, but their use will potentially be a threat to immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty particles composed merely of viral proteins, which can serve as a safe and valuable tool for clinical prevention and treatment strategies...
May 17, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774299/spatial-distribution-and-cluster-analysis-of-dengue-using-self-organizing-maps-in-andhra-pradesh-india-2011-2013
#12
Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni, Rajasekhar Mopuri, Suchithra Naish, Deepak Gunti, Suryanarayana Murty Upadhyayula
Background and objectives: Dengue is an emerging and re-emerging infectious disease, transmitted by mosquitoes. It is mostly prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, particularly, in Asia-Pacific region. To understand the epidemiology and spatial distribution of dengue, a retrospective surveillance study was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India during 2011-2013. Material and methods: District-wise disease endemicity levels were mapped through geographical information system (GIS) tools...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774296/integrated-risk-mapping-and-landscape-characterisation-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-loiasis-in-south-west-nigeria
#13
Tara A Brant, Patricia N Okorie, Olushola Ogunmola, Nureni Bolaji Ojeyode, S B Fatunade, Emmanuel Davies, Yisa Saka, Michelle C Stanton, David H Molyneux, J Russell Stothard, Louise A Kelly-Hope
Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA) across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774292/evaluation-of-phytosynthesised-silver-nanoparticles-from-leaf-extracts-of-leucas-aspera-and-hyptis-suaveolens-and-their-larvicidal-activity-against-malaria-dengue-and-filariasis-vectors
#14
Devan Elumalai, Maduraiveeran Hemavathi, Chandrasekar Vijayalakshmi Deepaa, Patheri Kunyil Kaleena
The present study deals with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticle from the aqueous leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and Hyptis suaveolens as reducing agent and to investigate the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray spectroscopy (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and High-resonance transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis...
November 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774291/significant-decline-in-lymphatic-filariasis-associated-with-nationwide-scale-up-of-insecticide-treated-nets-in-zambia
#15
M Nsakashalo-Senkwe, E Mwase, E Chizema-Kawesha, V Mukonka, P Songolo, F Masaninga, M P Rebollo, B Thomas, M J Bockarie, H Betts, J R Stothard, L A Kelly-Hope
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease, broadly endemic in Zambia, and is targeted for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) to at-risk populations. Anopheline mosquitoes are primary vectors of LF in Africa, and it is possible that the significant scale-up of malaria vector control over the past decade may have also impacted LF transmission, and contributed to a decrease in prevalence in Zambia. We therefore aimed to examine the putative association between decreasing LF prevalence and increasing coverage of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for malaria vector control, by comparing LF mapping data collected between 2003-2005 and 2009-2011 to LF sentinel site prevalence data collected between 2012 and 2014, before any anti-LF MDA was started...
November 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774286/biological-control-of-anopheles-darlingi-aedes-aegypti-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae-using-shrimps
#16
Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho, Juliana de Carvalho Apolinário Coêlho, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Wilma Aparecida Starke Buzetti
Mosquitoes can act as vectors of important diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika virus, yellow fever, Chikungunya and Mayaro fever, in addition to filariasis. The use of insecticides, larvicides, bed nets and repellents, besides the use of drugs as chemoprevention and the treatment of the sick are currently the pillars of the control of these vectors. We studied the biological control against of Anopheles darlingi , Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps of the species M. pantanalense , M...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773818/predicting-transmission-blocking-potential-of-anti-malarial-compounds-in-the-mosquito-feeding-assay-using-plasmodium-falciparum-male-gamete-inhibition-assay
#17
Gonzalo Colmenarejo, Sonia Lozano, Carolina González-Cortés, David Calvo, Juliana Sanchez-Garcia, Jesús-Luís Presa Matilla, Didier Leroy, Janneth Rodrigues
Plasmodium falciparum Standard Membrane Feeding Assay (PfSMFA) is the current gold standard mosquito based confirmatory transmission blocking (TrB) assay for human malaria. However, owing to its complexity only selected gametocytocidal molecules are progressed into SMFA. Predictive tools for evaluation of TrB behavior of compounds in SMFA would be extremely beneficial, but lack of substantially large data sets from many mosquito feeds preempts the ability to perform correlations between outcomes from in vitro assays and SMFA...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773771/bridging-the-divide-us-and-cuban-scientists-speak-up
#18
Gail Reed
This roundtable began with world-renowned US and Cuban experts in arboviruses (particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes) but was quickly transformed with the participation of globally recognized scientists in other fields. All have contributed and continue to contribute to the often frustrating efforts to advance bilateral health cooperation, for the benefit of the USA, Cuba and the world. Each from their own vantage point argues why such cooperation can release potential to create scientific synergies capable of addressing some of the most perplexing and urgent global health problems...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773077/aedes-vittatus-in-spain-current-distribution-barcoding-characterization-and-potential-role-as-a-vector-of-human-diseases
#19
Alazne Díez-Fernández, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Santiago Ruiz, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: Aedes vittatus is currently found in Africa, Asia and Europe, where it acts as a vector of pathogens causing animal and human diseases (e.g. chikungunya, Zika and dengue). Like other Aedes species, Ae. vittatus is able to breed in artificial containers. The ECDC has recently highlighted the need for molecular tools (i.e. barcoding characterization) that enable Aedes species to be identified in entomological surveys. RESULTS: We sampled mosquito larvae and adults in southern Spain and used a molecular approach to amplify and sequence a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (barcoding region) of the mosquitoes...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772674/encapsidated-host-factors-in-alphavirus-particles-influence-midgut-infection-of-aedes-aegypti
#20
David Mackenzie-Liu, Kevin J Sokoloski, Sarah Purdy, Richard W Hardy
Transmission of mosquito-borne viruses requires the efficient infection of both a permissive vertebrate host and a competent mosquito vector. The infectivity of Sindbis virus (SINV), the type species of the Alphavirus genus, is influenced by both the original and new host cell. We have shown that infection of vertebrate cells by SINV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Ross River virus (RRV) produces two subpopulations of virus particles separable based on density. In contrast, a single population of viral particles is produced by mosquito cells...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
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