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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324177/a-detailed-analysis-of-codon-usage-patterns-and-influencing-factors-in-zika-virus
#1
Niraj K Singh, Anuj Tyagi
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Southeast Asia have resulted in serious health concerns. To understand more about evolution and transmission of ZIKV, detailed codon usage analysis was performed for all available strains. A high effective number of codons (ENC) value indicated the presence of low codon usage bias in ZIKV. The effect of mutational pressure on codon usage bias was confirmed by significant correlations between nucleotide compositions at third codon positions and ENCs...
March 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323468/potential-high-risk-areas-for-zika-virus-transmission-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#2
Enbal Shacham, Erik J Nelson, Daniel F Hoft, Mario Schootman, Alexander Garza
OBJECTIVES: To understand where transmission of Zika virus has the highest likelihood to occur in the contiguous United States with regard to its transmission both sexually and via Aedes aegypti mosquito bites. METHODS: We evaluated the 2 routes of transmission risk with predictors of sexually transmitted infections (percentage women of childbearing age, birthrate, gonorrhea and chlamydia rates, concentrated disadvantage) as a surrogate for unprotected sexual activity and the demographic distribution of the A...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319188/reduced-performance-of-a-pvc-coated-biogents-sentinel-prototype-in-comparison-to-the-original-biogents-sentinel-for-monitoring-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-in-temperate-north-america
#3
Isik Unlu, Ary Faraji, Michael Morganti, Randy Vaeth, Karen Akaratovic, Jay Kiser, Charles Abadam, Dan Kline
Aedes albopictus is a major nuisance pest and also a public health concern because of the role it plays in the transmission of arboviruses. There is a continuing demand for effective surveillance tools for this species. The first generation of Biogents Sentinel (BGS1) traps have proven to be an effective tool for surveillance of Ae. albopictus throughout its range, however, some defects in construction led to the eventual development of the next generation. We compared the performance of the new generation prototype trap (BGS2P) to the original...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318966/structural-biology-of-the-zika-virus
#4
REVIEW
Yi Shi, George F Gao
Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flaviviridae family member transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, has emerged as a major health concern. ZIKV infections can cause serious neurological complications in adults, and infection in pregnant women can cause congenital malformations, including fetal and newborn microcephaly. In response to this emerging concern, the structural virology field was quick to explore the features of ZIKV. These efforts have provided significant insights into ZIKV pathogenesis, and have identified targets for drug design...
March 15, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318359/zika-virus-and-eye
#5
Rupesh Agrawal, Hnin Hnin Oo, Praveen Kumar Balne, Lisa Ng, Louis Tong, Yee Sin Leo
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the latest global health concern. Transmission is mainly via Aedes mosquitoes and the infection can be diagnosed on molecular or serologic testings. It typically causes a mild self-remitting illness of low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, and myalgia, but when severe, it is associated with neurological deficits and congenital structural defects. Ocular manifestations are usually mild like nonpurulent conjunctivitis in adults, though it may be linked to uveitis, maculopathy, and hypertensive iridocyclitis...
March 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317911/chimeric-viruses-between-rocio-and-west-nile-the-role-for-rocio-prm-e-proteins-in-virulence-and-inhibition-of-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-signaling
#6
Alberto A Amarilla, Yin X Setoh, Parthiban Periasamy, Nias Y Peng, Gabor Pali, Luiz T Figueiredo, Alexander A Khromykh, Victor H Aquino
Mosquito-transmitted flavivirus Rocio (ROCV) was responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the Ribeira Valley, located in the south coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975-1976. ROCV also causes fatal encephalitis in adult mice. Seroprevalence studies in humans, horses and water buffaloes in different regions of Brazil have suggested that ROCV is still circulating in the country, indicating the risk of re-emergence of this virus. West Nile virus (WNV) is also a mosquito-transmitted encephalitic flavivirus, however, WNV strains circulating in Australia have not been associated with outbreaks of disease in humans and exhibit low virulence in adult mice...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317032/first-report-of-the-east-african-kdr-mutation-in-an-anopheles-gambiae-mosquito-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#7
Mouhamadou Chouaïbou, Fodjo Behi Kouadio, Emmanuel Tia, Luc Djogbenou
Background. The intensive use of insecticides in public health and agriculture has led to the development of insecticide resistances in malaria vectors across sub-Saharan Africa countries in the last two decades. The kdr target site point mutation which is among the best characterised resistance mechanisms seems to be changing its distribution patterns on the African continent. The 1014F  kdr mutation originally described only in West Africa is spreading to East Africa while the 1014S  kdr mutation originally described in East Africa, is spreading to West and Central Africa...
February 9, 2017: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316896/vector-competence-of-anopheles-and-culex-mosquitoes-for-zika-virus
#8
Brittany L Dodson, Jason L Rasgon
Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316881/occurrence-of-concurrent-infections-with-multiple-serotypes-of-dengue-viruses-during-2013-2015-in-northern-kerala-india
#9
Manchala Nageswar Reddy, Ranjeet Dungdung, Lathika Valliyott, Rajendra Pilankatta
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a global human public health threat, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of sequential infection by more than one serotype of dengue virus (DENV) is a major contributing factor for the induction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), two major medical conditions caused by DENV infection. However, there is no specific drug or vaccine available against dengue infection. There are reports indicating the increased incidence of concurrent infection of dengue in several tropical and subtropical regions...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315476/comparative-analysis-of-protein-evolution-in-the-genome-of-pre-epidemic-and-epidemic-zika-virus
#10
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Lei Dai, Deisy Contreras, Sanjeev Sinha, Ren Sun, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly in congenital infection, neurological disorders, and poor pregnancy outcome and no vaccine is available for use in humans or approved. Although ZIKV was first discovered in 1947, the exact mechanism of virus replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in the Americas clearly suggest a human-mosquito cycle or urban cycle of transmission. Understanding the conserved and adaptive features in the evolution of ZIKV genome will provide a hint on the mechanism of ZIKV adaptation to a new cycle of transmission...
March 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315365/mosquito-cells-c6-36-fail-to-support-the-complete-replication-of-penaeus-merguiensis-hepandensovirus
#11
D Syahidah, J Elliman, C Constantinoiu, L Owens
Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) were reported in the literature to support the propagation of Penaeus monodon hepandensovirus (PmoHDV). We aim to evaluate the susceptibility and viral propagation of P. merguiensis hepandensovirus (PmeHDV) which is ∼22% different to PmoHDV in Aedes albopictus cell line (C6/36). Cellular changes in the infected cell culture were detected. Vacuole formation was seen in both infected and uninfected cell cultures. The average number of disrupted cellular membranes in the infected cells (presumptive dead cells) was significantly higher than that of uninfected cells at passage two (F=9...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315305/bionomics-of-anopheles-diptera-culicidae-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-of-sungai-nyamuk-village-sebatik-island-north-kalimantan-indonesia
#12
Sugiarto, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Susi Soviana, Lukman Hakim
The bionomics of Anopheles was investigated in coastal Sungai Nyamuk Village, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Province from August 2010 to January 2012. Mosquitoes were captured using human landing collections. A total of 5,103 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 11 species were caught and 2,259 adult parous females were tested by ELISA for Plasmodium antigen. Anopheles vagus, An. sundaicus and An. subpictus were the most abundant species caught. Overall, Anopheles vagus were zoophilic and exophagic, but there was variation between species...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314109/a-dynamic-survival-detection-and-analysis-system-for-mosquito-larvae-viability-in-drug-assays
#13
Biao Guo, Yuesheng Zhu, Guibo Luo, Xiaorong Zuo
Bioinformatics studies have emerged in the domain of larval behavior analysis in recent years. A dynamic survival detection and analysis system for automatically monitoring a large amount of mosquito larvae in bioassays with multiwell plates by acquiring and processing videos is proposed in this article. In our system, equipment is designed for acquiring the video of the mosquito larvae in several multiwell plates simultaneously by a camera, and a video analysis module is developed for detecting the survival states of larvae in each well in real time...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306665/molecular-mechanisms-that-mediate-invasion-and-egress-of-malaria-parasites-from-red-blood-cells
#14
Aditi Alaganan, Pallavi Singh, Chetan E Chitnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria parasites invade and multiply in diverse host cells during their complex life cycle. Some blood stage parasites transform into male and female gametocytes that are transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes. The gametocytes are activated in the mosquito midgut to form male and female gametes, which egress from RBCs to mate and form a zygote. Here, we will review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress by malaria parasites at different life cycle stages...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303549/-the-anopheles-gambiae-species-complex-and-kdr-resistance-gene-at-the-periphery-of-douala-cameroon
#15
P Ntonga Akono, A Mbouangoro, A Mbida Mbida, C Ndo, M F Peka Nsangou, S Kekeunou
This study was conducted from May to June 2015 in Yassa (industrialized area) and Logbessou (non-industrialized area), two peri-urban areas of the city of Douala, Cameroon with the aim of an assessment of the spatial distribution of the gambiae complex, the determination of their resistance to insecticides and the distribution of the Kdr mutation. Mosquito larvae were collected by the dipping method and nursed to adult stage. The sensitivity of adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations to DDT and pyrethroids was assessed following WHO protocol...
March 16, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302529/gene-expression-modulation-of-abc-transporter-genes-in-response-to-permethrin-in-adults-of-the-mosquito-malaria-vector-anopheles-stephensi
#16
Valentina Mastrantonio, Marco Ferrari, Sara Epis, Agata Negri, Giulia Scuccimarra, Matteo Montagna, Guido Favia, Daniele Porretta, Sandra Urbanelli, Claudio Bandi
Living organisms have evolved an array of genes coding for detoxifying enzymes and efflux protein pumps, to cope with endogenous and xenobiotic toxic compounds. The study of the genes activated during toxic exposure is relevant to the area of arthropod vector control, since these genes are one of the targets upon which natural selection acts for the evolution of insecticide resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate to insecticide detoxification acting as efflux pumps, that reduce the intracellular concentration of toxic compounds, or of their metabolic derivatives...
March 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302156/mapping-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-japanese-encephalitis-vector-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-giles-1901-diptera-culicidae-within-areas-of-japanese-encephalitis-risk
#17
Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, David M Pigott, Marianne E Sinka, Nick Golding, Simon I Hay, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most significant aetiological agents of viral encephalitis in Asia. This medically important arbovirus is primarily spread from vertebrate hosts to humans by the mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of this vector species is lacking, and efforts to define areas of disease risk greatly depend on a thorough understanding of the variation in this mosquito's geographical distribution. RESULTS: We assembled a contemporary database of Cx...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302093/determination-of-the-predictive-factors-of-long-lasting-insecticide-treated-net-ownership-and-utilisation-in-the-bamenda-health-district-of-cameroon
#18
Eric B Fokam, Germaine F Kindzeka, Leonard Ngimuh, Kevin T J Dzi, Samuel Wanji
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a serious health concern in Africa. In Cameroon, an endemic country where malaria remains a major public health problem, several control measures have been put in place among which the use of insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs/ITNs) is considered one of the core vector control strategies. However, the greatest challenges include ownership and utilisation by individuals and households. Factors such as age, marital status, gender, education and occupation of the household head, household size, knowledge of bednets, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors have been suggested to have an impact on bednet ownership and utilisation in different settings...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301607/green-tea-proanthocyanidins-cause-impairment-of-hormone-regulated-larval-development-and-reproductive-fitness-via-repression-of-juvenile-hormone-acid-methyltransferase-insulin-like-peptide-and-cytochrome-p450-genes-in-anopheles-gambiae-sensu-stricto
#19
Jackson M Muema, Steven G Nyanjom, James M Mutunga, Sospeter N Njeru, Joel L Bargul
Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301568/toxicity-of-spinosad-to-temephos-resistant-aedes-aegypti-populations-in-brazil
#20
Luciana Dos Santos Dias, Maria de Lourdes da Graça Macoris, Maria Teresa Macoris Andrighetti, Vanessa Camargo Garbeloto Otrera, Adriana Dos Santos Dias, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Rocha Bauzer, Cynara de Melo Rodovalho, Ademir Jesus Martins, José Bento Pereira Lima
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of different arboviruses and represents a major public health problem. Several Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti have developed resistance to temephos, the most used organophosphate larvicide. New tools which are less harmful to the environment and safer for humans are becoming increasingly important to control this insect vector. Spinosad, an aerobic fermentation product of a soil actinobacteria, has a favorable environmental profile. It presents selective insecticide properties, a mechanism of action that differs from those of many synthetic chemical insecticides...
2017: PloS One
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