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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#1
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212349/household-dengue-prevention-interventions-expenditures-and-barriers-to-aedes-aegypti-control-in-machala-ecuador
#2
Naveed Heydari, David A Larsen, Marco Neira, Efraín Beltrán Ayala, Prissila Fernandez, Jefferson Adrian, Rosemary Rochford, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211852/plasmodium-falciparum-crk4-directs-continuous-rounds-of-dna-replication-during-schizogony
#3
Markus Ganter, Jonathan M Goldberg, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Joao A Paulo, Jonas G King, Abhai K Tripathi, Aditya S Paul, Jing Yang, Isabelle Coppens, Rays H Y Jiang, Brendan Elsworth, David A Baker, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Steven P Gygi, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have evolved a unique cell division cycle in the clinically relevant asexual blood stage of infection(1). DNA replication commences approximately halfway through the intracellular development following invasion and parasite growth. The schizont stage is associated with multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis, resulting in a multinucleated cell. Nuclei divide asynchronously through schizogony, with only the final round of DNA replication and segregation being synchronous and coordinated with daughter cell assembly(2,3)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211535/arylmethylamino-steroids-as-antiparasitic-agents
#4
Reimar Krieg, Esther Jortzik, Alice-Anne Goetz, Stéphanie Blandin, Sergio Wittlin, Mourad Elhabiri, Mahsa Rahbari, Selbi Nuryyeva, Kerstin Voigt, Hans-Martin Dahse, Axel Brakhage, Svenja Beckmann, Thomas Quack, Christoph G Grevelding, Anthony B Pinkerton, Bruno Schönecker, Jeremy Burrows, Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker
In search of antiparasitic agents, we here identify arylmethylamino steroids as potent compounds and characterize more than 60 derivatives. The lead compound 1o is fast acting and highly active against intraerythrocytic stages of chloroquine-sensitive and resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites (IC50 1-5 nM) as well as against gametocytes. In P. berghei-infected mice, oral administration of 1o drastically reduces parasitaemia and cures the animals. Furthermore, 1o efficiently blocks parasite transmission from mice to mosquitoes...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210942/how-we-treat-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Akihisa Sawada, Masami Inoue, Keisei Kawa
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a prototype of the EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, which also include hypersensitivity to mosquito bites and severe-type hydroavacciniforme. The manifestations of CAEBV are often self-limiting with minimum supportive care or only prednisolone and cyclosporine A with or without etoposide. However, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only cure, without which patients with CAEBV die within several years...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209211/comparative-expression-profile-of-micrornas-in-anopheles-anthropophagus-midgut-after-blood-feeding-and-plasmodium-infection
#6
Wenquan Liu, Zhenhua Hao, Liyang Huang, Lingzi Chen, Qimei Wei, Liya Cai, Shaohui Liang
BACKGROUND: Anopheles anthropophagus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. In a former study, we have investigated the global miRNA profiles in relation to sex in An. anthropophagus. However, the miRNAs contributing to the blood-feeding and infection with Plasmodium are still unknown. METHODS: High-throughput sequencing was performed to identify miRNA profiles of An...
February 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208639/biological-control-strategies-for-mosquito-vectors-of-arboviruses
#7
REVIEW
Yan-Jang S Huang, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents...
February 10, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#8
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207688/transmission-of-zika-virus-haiti-october-12-2015-september-10-2016
#9
Ito Journel, Lesly L Andrécy, Dudley Metellus, Jean S Pierre, Rose Murka Faublas, Stanley Juin, Amber M Dismer, David L Fitter, Daniel Neptune, Marie José Laraque, Salomon Corvil, Manise Pierre, Josiane Buteau, Donald Lafontant, Roopal Patel, Jean Frantz Lemoine, David W Lowrance, Macarthur Charles, Jacques Boncy, Paul Adrien
Zika virus disease is caused by infection with a flavivirus with broad geographic distribution and is most frequently transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. The disease was first identified in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas in 2015 and was followed by a surge in reported cases of congenital microcephaly in Brazil; Zika virus disease rapidly spread to the rest of the region and the Caribbean (1), including Haiti. Infection with the virus is associated with adverse fetal outcomes (1) and rare neurologic complications in adults...
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207337/engaging-human-rights-in-the-response-to-the-evolving-zika-virus-epidemic
#10
Jennifer J K Rasanathan, Sarah MacCarthy, Debora Diniz, Els Torreele, Sofia Gruskin
In late 2015, an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in poor communities in northeast Brazil prompted investigation of antenatal Zika infection as the cause. Zika now circulates in 69 countries, and has affected pregnancies of women in 29 countries. Public health officials, policymakers, and international organizations are considering interventions to address health consequences of the Zika epidemic. To date, public health responses have focused on mosquito vector eradication, sexual and reproductive health services, knowledge and technology including diagnostic test and vaccine development, and health system preparedness...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207332/leaking-containers-success-and-failure-in-controlling-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-in-brazil
#11
Ilana Löwy
In 1958, the Pan American Health Organization declared that Brazil had successfully eradicated the mosquito Aedes aegypti, responsible for the transmission of yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus. Yet in 2016 the Brazilian minister of health described the situation of dengue fever as "catastrophic." Discussing the recent epidemic of Zika virus, which amplified the crisis produced by the persistence of dengue fever, Brazil's president declared in January 2016 that "we are in the process of losing the war against the mosquito Aedes aegypti...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206905/discovery-of-a-novel-alphavirus-related-to-eilat-virus
#12
Kyra Hermanns, Florian Zirkel, Anne Kopp, Marco Marklewitz, Innocent B Rwego, Alejandro Estrada, Thomas R Gillespie, Christian Drosten, Sandra Junglen
Most alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods and infect vertebrate hosts. An exception is Eilat virus (EILV), the only described alphavirus with a host range restricted to insects. We established a new generic reverse transcription PCR assay for alphaviruses and tested 8860 tropical mosquitoes. We detected a novel alphavirus, tentatively named Taï Forest alphavirus (TALV), in Culex decens mosquitoes collected in Ivory Coast. The full genome was sequenced, and closest similarity was found to EILV. Pairwise amino acid identities to EILV ranged between 67 and 88 % for the corresponding proteins, suggesting that TALV defines a proposed new alphavirus species...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206870/culiseta-annulata-a-new-mosquito-for-kuwait
#13
Will K Reeves, Benjamin Connors, Myrna M Miller, David Berry, Stephanie White, Rebecca R Morey, Carolyn Brooks
We report new records for Culiseta annulata from Kuwait. Prior to our records, Culiseta longiareolata was the only Culiseta sp. known from Kuwait. Culiseta annulata is a vector of Tahyna virus (Bunyaviridae) to humans throughout Asia. We tested a limited number of mosquitoes for Tahyna virus and other viruses. Tahyna virus was not detected, but we did discover a mosquito Densovirus in a pool of Cs. annulata using next generation sequencing.
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206869/acoustic-control-of-mosquito-larvae-in-artificial-drinking-water-containers
#14
Seth C Britch, Herbert Nyberg, Robert L Aldridge, Tom Swan, Kenneth J Linthicum
Emerging technology designed to kill mosquito larvae with sound waves may present a nonchemical and nonbiological alternative to reduce larval populations of key medically important mosquito species such as Aedes aegypti in containers or catchments of water. These devices could benefit integrated vector management programs facing public resistance to the use of chemical or biological larvicides in stored drinking water. In this study we investigate the efficacy of a Larvasonic SD-Mini Acoustic Larvicide device in reducing larval populations of Ae...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206868/mosquito-vector-biology-and-control-in-latin-america-a-26th-symposium
#15
Lee W Cohnstaedt, Catalina Alfonso-Para, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas
The 26th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the AMCA in Savannah, GA, in February 2016. The principal objective, as for the previous 25 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 19 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and the USA...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206867/mosquito-biology-and-mosquito-borne-disease-awareness-among-island-communities-in-malaysia
#16
Aziz Shafie, Muhammad Aidil Roslan, Romano Ngui, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman
Mosquito-borne diseases have been increasing at an alarming rate over the past decades. In Malaysia, one finds several important mosquito-borne diseases such as Japanese encephalitis, dengue, malaria, and chikungunya. Mosquito surveillance and control programs are the most effective way of detecting and controlling mosquito-borne diseases, but these programs are less effective without an aware and well-informed general public. In 2014 we used a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of awareness of basic mosquito biology and mosquito-borne diseases in 6 villages, Kampung Masjid, Kampung Teluk Gedung, Kampung Teluk Dalam, Kampung Ujung Kelawai, Kampung Sungai Pinang Besar, and Kampung Sungai Pinang Kechil on Pangkor Island, Malaysia...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206866/a-taxonomic-checklist-of-the-mosquitoes-of-montana-with-notes-on-new-geographic-distributions
#17
Marni G Rolston, Gregory D Johnson, D Grant Hokit
An updated checklist of 50 species of mosquitoes found in Montana is presented and includes 2 new records (Aedes niphadopsis and Anopheles walkeri) that can be added to the 2005 state list by Darsie and Ward. The results of a statewide mosquito surveillance program, conducted annually from 2004 to 2015, facilitated the establishment of an abundance rating of the species in the state and expanded the known geographic range for Coquillettidia perturbans, Ae. nigromaculis, and Culiseta minnesotae.
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206865/assessment-of-a-simple-compound-saving-method-to-study-insecticidal-activity-of-natural-extracts-and-pure-compounds-against-mosquito-larvae
#18
Michaël Falkowski, Arnaud Jahn-Oyac, Emma Ferrero, Jean Issaly, Véronique Eparvier, Romain Girod, Alice M S Rodrigues, Didier Stien, Emeline Houël, Isabelle Dusfour
Research on natural insecticides has intensified with the spread of resistance to chemicals among insects, particularly disease vectors. To evaluate compounds, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published standardized procedures. However, those may be excessively compound-consuming when it comes to assessing the activity of natural extracts and pure compounds isolated in limited amount. As part of our work on the discovery of new mosquito larvicides from Amazonian plants, we developed a compound-saving assay in 5-ml glass tubes instead of WHO larval 100-ml cups...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206864/impact-of-topical-application-site-on-the-efficacy-of-permethrin-and-malathion-to-culex-quinquefasciatus
#19
Robert L Aldridge, Phillip E Kaufman, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Salvador A Gezan, Kenneth J Linthicum
Although insecticide spray droplets will potentially impinge on many exoskeletal body regions, traditional mosquito topical bioassays focus insecticide application to the mesothoracic pleural or dorsal area. Concentrations of permethrin and malathion found in droplets from ultra-low volume and low-volume sprays were evaluated for efficacy against adult Culex quinquefasciatus using a topical application bioassay. Results document nonuniform insecticide sensitivity across body regions, which has not been previously assessed in mosquitoes...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206863/comparison-of-volatiles-and-mosquito-capture-efficacy-for-three-carbohydrate-sources-in-a-yeast-fermentation-co2-generator
#20
Robert L Aldridge, Seth C Britch, Sandra A Allan, Maia Tsikolia, Lesly Carolina Calix, Ulrich R Bernier, Kenneth J Linthicum
Mosquito surveillance in remote areas with limited access to canisters of CO2 or dry ice will benefit from an effective alternative CO2 source, such as the natural production of CO2 from yeast fermentation. In this study, we investigate differences in mosquito capture rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps baited with dry ice compared with traps baited with yeast fermentation of several carbohydrate sources over 23 trap-nights. Results demonstrated the ability of yeast-generated CO2 to effectively attract mosquitoes to a CDC trap, regardless of carbohydrate source...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
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