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Developmental plasticity

Emma M Gibbin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Piero Calosi
Marine ecosystems are currently in a state of flux, with ocean warming and acidification occurring at unprecedented rates. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves across multiple generations. We tested this by reciprocally-transplanting the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica between control and global change scenarios (ocean warming and acidification in isolation and combined) over five generations...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicolas J Muñoz, Anthony P Farrell, John W Heath, Bryan D Neff
To evaluate whether oxygen-carrying capacity influences thermal tolerance in fishes, we reared four Chinook salmon families in present-day (+0°C) and possible future (+4°C) temperatures and assessed the response of hematocrit (Hct) to acute temperature stress. In the +4°C treatment, Hct increased above control levels when juvenile fish were exposed to their critical thermal maximum (CTmax). Conversely, no effect of temperature stress on Hct was found in the +0°C treatment. Hct was positively associated with CTmax ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), contributing to the CTmax of the +4°C treatment being significantly higher than that of the +0°C treatment (mean ± SD, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively)...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Andreas Pich, Wael Taamalli, Chedly Abdelly, Hans-Peter Braun
Seed germination recovery aptitude is an adaptive trait of overriding significance for the successful establishment and dispersal of extremophile plants in their native ecosystems. Cakile maritima is an annual halophyte frequent on Mediterranean coasts, which transiently produces transiently dormant seeds under high salinity, but that germinate fast when soil salinity is lowered by rainfall. Here, we report eco-physiological and proteomic data about (i) the effect of high salt (200 mM NaCl) on the early developmental stages (germination and seedling) and (ii) the seed germination recovery capacity of this species...
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Xiaoli Liang, Yi Zhang, Chao Zhang, Chunchun Tang, Yi Wang, Juanjuan Ren, Xi Chen, Yu Zhang, Zhaoqiong Zhu
Currently sevoflurane is the volatile anesthetic most wildly used in pediatric surgery. Whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane brings about a long-lasting adverse impact even at juvenile and adult age, attracts extensive concerns. However, to date the consensus has not been reached and how exposure to sevoflurane in early life affects long-term ability of learning and memory is not fully elucidated. To obtain further insight into this issue, 32 neonatal SD rats were assigned into control group (group C, n=16) and sevoflurane group (group SEV, n=16)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Matteo Piumatti, Ottavia Palazzo, Chiara La Rosa, Paola Crociara, Roberta Parolisi, Federico Luzzati, Frederic Lévy, Luca Bonfanti
A newly proposed form of brain structural plasticity consists of non-newly generated, "immature" neurons of the adult cerebral cortex. Similar to newly generated neurons, these cells express the cytoskeletal protein Doublecortin (DCX), yet they are generated prenatally, then remaining in a state of immaturity for long periods. In rodents, the immature neurons are restricted to the paleocortex, whereas in other mammals are found also in neocortex. Here, we analyzed the DCX-expressing cells in the whole sheep brain of both sexes, to search for an indicator of structural plasticity at a cellular level in a relatively large-brained, long-living mammal...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ken D O'Halloran, Fiona B McDonald
Developmental plasticity in the neural network orchestrating respiratory control is such that pre-term birth is associated with the elaboration of dysrhythmic breathing patterns characterized by periodic suppression of the central drive to breathe, evoking recurrent respiratory pauses termed central apnoeas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Chon-Kit Chou, Ya-Ting Yang, Ho-Chun Yang, Shih-Shin Liang, Tsu-Nai Wang, Po-Lin Kuo, Hui-Min David Wang, Eing-Mei Tsai, Chien-Chih Chiu
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, mainly serves as an additive to render polyvinyl chloride (PVC) soft and flexible. PVC plastics have become ubiquitous in our modern society. Yet, the leaching of DEHP from PVC-based consumables ultimately results in the deposition in certain tissues via inadvertent applications. Health risks for human populations exposed to DEHP has been assumed by studies on rodents and other species, including the DEHP-induced developmental dysregulation, reproductive impairments, tumorigenesis, and diseases in a transgenerational manner...
December 5, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Christian Scherer, Nicole Brennholt, Georg Reifferscheid, Martin Wagner
Microscopic plastic items (microplastics) are ubiquitously present in aquatic ecosystems. With decreasing size their availability and potential to accumulate throughout food webs increase. However, little is known on the uptake of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates. To address this, we exposed species with different feeding strategies to 1, 10 and 90 µm fluorescent polystyrene spheres (3-3 000 particles mL-1). Additionally, we investigated how developmental stages and a co-exposure to natural particles (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicolás Marichal, Cecilia Reali, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
The ependyma of the spinal cord is currently proposed as a latent neural stem cell niche. This chapter discusses recent knowledge on the developmental origin and nature of the heterogeneous population of cells that compose this stem cell microenviroment, their diverse physiological properties and regulation. The chapter also reviews relevant data on the ependymal cells as a source of plasticity for spinal cord repair.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lei Li, Stephen P Bonser, Zhichun Lan, Ligang Xu, Jiakuan Chen, Zhiping Song
In freshwater ecosystems, shifts in hydrological regimes have profound effects on reproductive output (R), along with vegetative biomass (V) and survival of plants. Because reproductive allocation (RA) is allometric, it remains unclear whether the observed variation of RA in response to water level variability is due to fixed patterns of development or plasticity in the developmental trajectories. Here, we investigated shifts in RA of a submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans in response to water depth to test the hypothesis that allometric trajectories of RA are highly plastic...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luba Sominsky, Simone De Luca, Sarah J Spencer
Microglia are the primary innate immune cells in the CNS. Since their initial discovery and characterization, decades of research have revealed their unique roles not only in maintaining immune homeostasis, but also being indispensable to brain development and cognitive function. As such, microglia drive synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, neurogenesis and neuronal activity. Microglia-specific mutations are implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders, and dysregulation of microglial function is strongly linked to several pathologies, including cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Tara Madhyastha, Matthew Peverill, Natalie Koh, Connor McCabe, John Flournoy, Kate Mills, Kevin King, Jennifer Pfeifer, Katie A McLaughlin
The human brain is remarkably plastic. The brain changes dramatically across development, with ongoing functional development continuing well into the third decade of life and substantial changes occurring again in older age. Dynamic changes in brain function are thought to underlie the innumerable changes in cognition, emotion, and behavior that occur across development. The brain also changes in response to experience, which raises important questions about how the environment influences the developing brain...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Eric J Neuberger, Akshay Gupta, Deepak Subramanian, Akshata A Korgaonkar, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar
Epilepsy, characterized by recurrent seizures and abnormal electrical activity in the brain, is one of the most prevalent brain disorders. Over two million people in the United States have been diagnosed with epilepsy and 3% of the general population will be diagnosed with it at some point in their lives. While most developmental epilepsies occur due to genetic predisposition, a class of "acquired" epilepsies results from a variety of brain insults. A leading etiological factor for epilepsy that is currently on the rise is traumatic brain injury (TBI), which accounts for up to 20% of all symptomatic epilepsies...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Zulfiqar Ali Sahito, Lixiang Wang, Zhengxi Sun, Qiqi Yan, Xingke Zhang, Qiong Jiang, Ihteram Ullah, Yiping Tong, Xia Li
BACKGROUND: Plant roots are highly plastic to high salinity. However, the molecular mechanism by which root developmental plasticity is regulated remains largely unknown. Previously we reported that miR172c-NNC1 module plays a key role in soybean-rhizobial symbiosis. The fact that the miR172c promoter contains several stress-related cis elements indicates that miR172c may have a role in root response to abiotic stress. RESULTS: Here we showed that miR172c is greatly induced by salt stress in soybean...
December 1, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Marie-Claire Chelini, Eileen Hebets
Female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female-biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for small male size/large female size...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Carlos Ramírez, Luis Mendoza
Motivation: Blood cell formation has been recognized as a suitable system to study cellular differentiation mainly because of its experimental accessibility, and because it shows characteristics such as hierarchical and gradual bifurcated patterns of commitment, which are present in several developmental processes. While hematopoiesis has been extensively studied and there is a wealth of molecular and cellular data about it, it is not clear how the underlying molecular regulatory networks define or restrict cellular differentiation processes...
November 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
Tomohisa Toda, Fred H Gage
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process by which new functional neurons are added to the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Animal studies have shown that the degree of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated by local environmental cues as well as neural network activities. Furthermore, accumulating evidence has suggested that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays prominent roles in hippocampus-dependent brain functions. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms underlying the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis at various developmental stages and propose how adult-born neurons contribute to structural and functional hippocampal plasticity...
November 29, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Cellular dedifferentiation, the transition of differentiated somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells, ensures developmental plasticity and contributes to wound healing in plants. Wounding induces cells to form a mass of unorganized pluripotent cells called callus at the wound site. Explanted cells can also form callus tissues in vitro. Reversible cellular differentiation-dedifferentiation processes in higher eukaryotes are controlled mainly by chromatin modifications. We demonstrate that ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2), a histone lysine methyltransferase that promotes the accumulation of histone H3 proteins that are trimethylated on lysine 36 (H3K36me3) during callus formation, promotes early stages of cellular dedifferentiation through activation of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) genes...
November 28, 2017: Science Signaling
Yishi Jin, Yingchuan B Qi
The ability of neurons to modify or remodel their synaptic connectivity is critical for the function of neural circuitry throughout the life of an animal. Understanding the mechanisms underlying neuronal structural changes is central to our knowledge of how the nervous system is shaped for complex behaviors and how it further adapts to developmental and environmental demands. Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for examining developmental processes and for discovering mechanisms controlling neural plasticity...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Andreas Berghänel, Michael Heistermann, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Across mammals, prenatal maternal stress (PREMS) affects many aspects of offspring development, including offspring growth. However, how PREMS translates to offspring growth is inconsistent, even within species. To explain the full range of reported effects of prenatal adversity on offspring growth, we propose an integrative hypothesis: developmental constraints and a counteracting adaptive growth plasticity work in opposition to drive PREMS effects on growth. Mothers experiencing adversity reduce maternal investment leading to stunted growth (developmental constraints)...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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