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Developmental plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088077/rhoa-knockdown-by-cationic-amphiphilic-copolymer-sirhoa-polyplexes-enhances-axonal-regeneration-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#1
So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Da Un Jeong, Mark Kindy, Michael Lynn, Ken Webb, Jeoung Soo Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to developmentally-related and injured-induced changes in the extrinsic microenvironment and intrinsic neuronal biochemistry that limit plasticity and axonal regeneration. Our long term goal is to develop cationic, amphiphilic copolymers (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs targeting these different barriers. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PgP to deliver siRNA targeting RhoA, a critical signaling pathway activated by multiple extracellular inhibitors of axonal regeneration...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077662/stability-and-plasticity-in-neural-encoding-of-linguistically-relevant-pitch-patterns
#2
Zilong Xie, Rachel Denise Reetzke, Bharath Chandrasekaran
While life-long language experience modulates subcortical encoding of pitch patterns, there is emerging evidence that short-term training introduced in adulthood also shapes subcortical pitch encoding. Here, we use a cross-language design to examine the stability of language experience-dependent subcortical plasticity over multiple days. We then examine the extent to which behavioral relevance induced by speech sound-to-category training leads to plastic changes in subcortical pitch encoding in adulthood relative to adolescence, a period of ongoing maturation of subcortical and cortical auditory processing...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070859/mouse-bone-marrow-vsels-exhibit-differentiation-into-three-embryonic-germ-lineages-and-germ-hematopoietic-cells-in-culture
#3
Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Sona Kapoor, Ranita Ganguly, Deepa Bhartiya
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been reported in various adult tissues, express pluripotent and primordial germ cells (PGCs) specific markers, are mobilized under stress/disease conditions, give rise to tissue committed progenitors and thus help regenerate and maintain homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro differentiation potential of VSELs using a quantitative approach. VSELs were collected from mouse bone marrow after 4 days of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 150 mg/Kg) treatment, further enriched by size based filtration and cultured on a feeder support in the presence of specific differentiation media...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067313/redundant-functions-of-i-bar-family-members-irsp53-and-irtks-are-essential-for-embryonic-development
#4
Ai Mei Chou, Kai Ping Sem, Wei Jun Lam, Sohail Ahmed, Chin Yan Lim
The insulin receptor substrate of 53 kDa, IRSp53, is an adaptor protein that works with activated GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac, to modulate actin dynamics and generate membrane protrusions in response to cell signaling. Adult mice that lack IRSp53 fail to regulate synaptic plasticity and exhibit hippocampus-associated learning deficiencies. Here, we show that 60% of IRSp53 null embryos die at mid to late gestation, indicating a vital IRSp53 function in embryonic development. We find that IRSp53 KO embryos displayed pleiotropic phenotypes such as developmental delay, oligodactyly and subcutaneous edema, and died of severely impaired cardiac and placental development...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053060/caste-biased-gene-expression-in-a-facultatively-eusocial-bee-suggests-a-role-for-genetic-accommodation-in-the-evolution-of-eusociality
#5
Beryl M Jones, Callum J Kingwell, William T Wcislo, Gene E Robinson
Developmental plasticity may accelerate the evolution of phenotypic novelty through genetic accommodation, but studies of genetic accommodation often lack knowledge of the ancestral state to place selected traits in an evolutionary context. A promising approach for assessing genetic accommodation involves using a comparative framework to ask whether ancestral plasticity is related to the evolution of a particular trait. Bees are an excellent group for such comparisons because caste-based societies (eusociality) have evolved multiple times independently and extant species exhibit different modes of eusociality...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048979/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-is-impaired-by-transient-and-moderate-developmental-thyroid-hormone-disruption
#6
M E Gilbert, J H Goodman, J Gomez, A F M Johnstone, R L Ramos
The hippocampus maintains a capacity for neurogenesis throughout life, a capacity that is reduced in models of adult onset hypothyroidism. The effects of developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency on neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, however, has not been examined. Graded degrees of TH insufficiency were induced in pregnant rat dams by administration of 0, 3 or 10ppm of 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) in drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 until weaning. Body, brain, and hippocampal weight were reduced on postnatal day (PN) 14, 21, 78 and hippocampal volume was smaller at the 10 but not 3ppm dose level...
December 31, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042535/effects-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-administrations-on-oocyte-meiotic-maturation-apoptosis-and-gene-quantification-in-mouse-model
#7
Forouzan Absalan, Sadegh Saremy, Esrafil Mansori, Mahin Taheri Moghadam, Ali Reza Eftekhari Moghadam, Razie Ghanavati
OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038829/tooth-matrix-biomarkers-to-reconstruct-critical-periods-of-brain-plasticity
#8
Hirofumi Morishita, Manish Arora
Developmental brain plasticity involves complex, time-dependent dynamic molecular interactions that cannot be observed directly in humans. We propose that the shared evolutionary homology of teeth and the neurosensory system, and the archival nature of dentine microstructure, allows the development of 'biologic hard drives' that can characterize perinatal temporal dynamics in neuroplasticity.
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035760/plasticity-paves-the-way-in-an-adaptive-radiation
#9
Kristin L Sikkink, Emilie C Snell-Rood
Phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to play a central role in the evolution of phenotypic diversity across species (West-Eberhard ). Through 'genetic assimilation', phenotypes that are initially environmentally induced within species become genetically fixed over evolutionary time. While genetic assimilation has been shown to occur in both the laboratory and the field (Waddington ; Aubret & Shine ), it remains to be shown whether it can account for broad patterns of phenotypic diversity across entire adaptive radiations...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034711/ventilatory-and-chemoreceptor-responses-to-hypercapnia-in-neonatal-rats-chronically-exposed-to-moderate-hyperoxia
#10
Ryan W Bavis, Ke-Yong Li, Kathryn J DeAngelis, Ryan J March, Josefine A Wallace, Sarah Logan, Robert W Putnam
Rats reared in hyperoxia hypoventilate in normoxia and exhibit progressive blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory response, changes which are at least partially attributed to abnormal carotid body development. Since the carotid body also responds to changes in arterial CO2/pH, we tested the hypothesis that developmental hyperoxia would attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) of neonatal rats by blunting peripheral and/or central chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnic challenges. Rats were reared in 21% O2 (Control) or 60% O2 (Hyperoxia) until studied at 4, 6-7, or 13-14days of age...
December 26, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032453/deviating-from-the-norm-peculiarities-of-aplysia-cf-californica-early-cleavage-compared-to-traditional-spiralian-models
#11
Yolanda E Chávez-Viteri, Federico D Brown, Oscar D Pérez
Spiralia represents one of the main clades of bilaterally symmetrical metazoans (Bilateria). This group is of particular interest due to the remarkable conservation of its early developmental pattern despite of the high diversity of larval and adult body plans. Variations during embryogenesis are considered powerful tools to determine ancestral and derived characters under a phylogenetic framework. By direct observation of embryos cultured in vitro, we analyzed the early cleavage of the euopisthobranchs Aplysia cf...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027952/internet-addiction-in-adolescence-neurobiological-psychosocial-and-clinical-issues
#12
REVIEW
L Cerniglia, F Zoratto, S Cimino, G Laviola, M Ammaniti, W Adriani
Despite it has not been formally included in DSM-5 as a disorder, 'Internet addiction (IA)' has become a worldwide issue. It can be broadly defined as a non-chemical, behavioral addiction, which involves human-machine interaction. We pinpoint it as an "instrumental" form of social interaction (i.e. mediated by machines), a notion that appears useful for the sake of possible preclinical modeling. The features of Internet use reveals as addictive when this comes at the expense of genuine real-life sociability, with an overlap towards the hikikomori phenomenon (i...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013029/charting-developmental-dissolution-of-pluripotency
#13
REVIEW
Joerg Betschinger
The formation of tissues and organs during metazoan development begs fundamental questions of cellular plasticity: How can the very same genome program have diverse cell types? How do cell identity programs unfold during development in space and time? How can defects in these mechanisms cause disease and also provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention? And ultimately, can developmental programs be exploited for bioengineering tissues and organs? Understanding principle designs of cellular identity and developmental progression is crucial for providing answers...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012177/how-reversible-is-development-contrast-between-developmentally-plastic-gain-and-loss-of-segments-in-barnacle-feeding-legs
#14
Tomonari Kaji, A Richard Palmer
Segmented organisms and structures have fascinated biologists since William Bateson first described homeotic transformation and recognized the fundamental evolutionary significance of segmental organization. On evolutionary timescales, segments may be lost or gained during major morphological transitions. But how segment loss compares to gain on developmental timescales remains mysterious. Here we examine the ease of reverse development (opposite to normal growth) by comparing developmentally plastic leg-segment loss versus gain in individual barnacles transplanted between different water-flow conditions...
December 24, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011694/wind1-promotes-shoot-regeneration-through-transcriptional-activation-of-enhancer-of-shoot-regeneration1-in-arabidopsis
#15
Akira Iwase, Hirofumi Harashima, Momoko Ikeuchi, Bart Rymen, Mariko Ohnuma, Shinichiro Komaki, Kengo Morohashi, Tetsuya Kurata, Masaru Nakata, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Erich Grotewold, Keiko Sugimoto
Many plant species display remarkable developmental plasticity and regenerate new organs after injury. Local signals produced by wounding are thought to trigger organ regeneration but molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain largely unknown. We previously identified an AP2/ERF transcription factor WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION 1 (WIND1) as a central regulator of wound-induced cellular reprogramming in plants. In this study, we demonstrate that WIND1 promotes callus formation and shoot regeneration by up-regulating the expression of the ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 (ESR1) gene, which encodes another AP2/ERF transcription factor in Arabidopsis...
December 23, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999532/genetic-feedback-regulation-of-frontal-cortical-neuronal-ensembles-through-activity-dependent-arc-expression-and-dopaminergic-input
#16
Surjeet Mastwal, Vania Cao, Kuan Hong Wang
Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999112/accelerated-evolution-of-developmentally-biased-genes-in-the-tetraphenic-ant-cardiocondyla-obscurior
#17
Lukas Schrader, Heikki Helanterä, Jan Oettler
Plastic gene expression underlies phenotypic plasticity and plastically expressed genes evolve under different selection regimes compared to ubiquitously expressed genes. Social insects are well-suited models to elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of plastic genes for their genetically and environmentally induced discrete polymorphisms. Here, we study the evolution of plastically expressed genes in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior - a species that produces two discrete male morphs in addition to the typical female polymorphism of workers and queens...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998459/-the-preliminary-study-of-stimulus-input-temporal-changes-on-the-visual-cortex-of-rats-at-different-ages
#18
R Hao, X F Shi, Y Gao, H Y Mu, K X Zhao
Objective: To observe the impact of the input temporal changes on visual cortex of rats cells and the change of the synaptic efficacy, for the study of visual developmental plasticity mechanism. Methods: Experimental research. The brain slice of ten 14d healthy Wistar rats and ten 21d healthy Wistar rats were recorded with whole cell recording technique, using single stimulation and combined stimulate model, to observe the visual cortex of rats neurons changes in synaptic activity. Change the stimulus input sequence, and observe the visual cortex of rats changes of synaptic efficacy...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994130/insulin-receptors-and-wing-dimorphism-in-rice-planthoppers
#19
REVIEW
Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
Wing polymorphism contributes significantly to the success of a wide variety of insects. However, its underlying molecular mechanism is less well understood. The migratory planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the most extensively studied insects for wing polymorphism, due to its natural features of short- and long-winged morphs. Using the BPH as an example, we first surveyed the environmental cues that possibly influence wing developmental plasticity. Second, we explained the molecular basis by which two insulin receptors (InR1 and InR2) act as switches to determine alternative wing morphs in the BPH...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994116/perspectives-on-the-history-of-evo-devo-and-the-contemporary-research-landscape-in-the-genomics-era
#20
Cheryll Tickle, Araxi O Urrutia
A fundamental question in biology is how the extraordinary range of living organisms arose. In this theme issue, we celebrate how evolutionary studies on the origins of morphological diversity have changed over the past 350 years since the first publication of the Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society Current understanding of this topic is enriched by many disciplines, including anatomy, palaeontology, developmental biology, genetics and genomics. Development is central because it is the means by which genetic information of an organism is translated into morphology...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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