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Developmental plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053191/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-smaller-hippocampal-volume-in-adolescence
#1
Luciane R Piccolo, Kimberly G Noble
Perceived stress has been associated with decreased hippocampal, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex volume, as well as decreased memory and executive functioning performance in adulthood. Parents' perceived stress has been linked to decreased hippocampal volume in young children. However, no studies have investigated the links between self-perceived stress and brain structure or function in adolescents. Additionally, findings from previous research with younger or older samples are inconsistent, likely in part due to inconsistencies in participants' age range...
October 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052182/profiling-developmentally-and-environmentally-controlled-chromatin-reprogramming
#2
Clara Bourbousse, Moussa Benhamed, Fredy Barneche
Dynamic reshuffling of the chromatin landscape is a recurrent theme orchestrated in many, if not all, plant developmental transitions and adaptive responses. Spatiotemporal variations of the chromatin properties on regulatory genes and on structural genomic elements trigger the establishment of distinct transcriptional contexts, which in some instances can epigenetically be inherited. Studies on plant cell plasticity during the differentiation of stem cells, including gametogenesis, or the specialization of vegetative cells in various organs, as well as the investigation of allele-specific gene regulation have long been impaired by technical challenges in generating specific chromatin profiles in complex or hardly accessible cell populations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049144/the-etiology-of-neuronal-development-in-craniosynostosis-a-working-hypothesis
#3
Eric D Brooks, Joel S Beckett, Jenny Yang, Andrew T Timberlake, Alexander H Sun, Carolyn Chuang, John A Persing
Craniosynostosis is one of the most common craniofacial conditions treated by neurologic and plastic surgeons. In addition to disfigurement, children with craniosynostosis experience significant cognitive dysfunction later in life. Surgery is performed in infancy to correct skull deformity; however, the field is at a crossroads regarding the best approach for correction. Since the cause of brain dysfunction in these patients has remained uncertain, the role and type of surgery might have in attenuating the later-observed cognitive deficits through impact on the brain has been unclear...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048758/phenological-synchrony-between-a-butterfly-and-its-host-plants-experimental-test-of-effects-of-spring-temperature
#4
D Posledovich, T Toftegaard, C Wiklund, J Ehrlén, K Gotthard
1.Climate-driven changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species may potentially alter the outcome of species interactions. 2.Phenotypic plasticity is expected to be important for short-term response to new climate conditions, and differences between species in plasticity are likely to influence their temporal overlap and interaction patterns. As reaction norms of interacting species may be locally adapted, any such climate-induced change in interaction patterns may vary among localities. However, consequences of spatial variation in plastic responses for species interactions are understudied...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048384/the-th17-lineage-from-barrier-surfaces-homeostasis-to-autoimmunity-cancer-and-hiv-1-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Alan Landay, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta
The T helper 17 (Th17) cells represent a subset of CD4+ T-cells with unique effector functions, developmental plasticity, and stem-cell features. Th17 cells bridge innate and adaptive immunity against fungal and bacterial infections at skin and mucosal barrier surfaces. Although Th17 cells have been extensively studied in the context of autoimmunity, their role in various other pathologies is underexplored and remains an area of open investigation. This review summarizes the history of Th17 cell discovery and the current knowledge relative to the beneficial role of Th17 cells in maintaining mucosal immunity homeostasis...
October 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046423/the-intrinsic-physiology-of-inhibitory-neurons-changes-over-auditory-development
#6
Briana J Carroll, Richard Bertram, Richard L Hyson
During auditory development, changes in membrane properties promote the ability of excitatory neurons in the brainstem to code aspects of sound, including the level and timing of a stimulus. Some of these changes coincide with hearing onset, suggesting that sound-driven neural activity produces developmental plasticity of ion channel expression. While it is known that the coding properties of excitatory neurons are modulated by inhibition in the mature system, it is unknown whether there are also developmental changes in the membrane properties of brainstem inhibitory neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046417/life-history-adjustments-to-intestinal-inflammation-in-a-gut-nematode
#7
Cédric Lippens, Emmanuel Guivier, Anthony Ollivier, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Many parasitic nematodes establish chronic infections. This implies a finely tuned interaction with the host immune response in order to avoid infection clearance. Although a number of immune interference mechanisms have been described in nematodes, how parasites adapt to the immune environment provided by their hosts remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus to investigate the plasticity of life history traits and immunomodulatory mechanisms in response to intestinal inflammation...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045732/life-history-adaptations-to-seasonality
#8
Øystein Varpe
Seasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism's full life...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043684/imaging-the-er-and-endomembrane-system-in-cereal-endosperm
#9
Verena Ibl, Jenny Peters, Eva Stöger, Elsa Arcalís
The cereal endosperm is a complex structure comprising distinct cell types, characterized by specialized organelles for the accumulation of storage proteins. Protein trafficking in these cells is complicated by the presence of several different storage organelles including protein bodies (PBs) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and dynamic protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). In addition, trafficking may follow a number of different routes depending on developmental stage, showing that the endomembrane system is capable of massive reorganization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042611/developmental-stage-dependent-regulation-of-spine-formation-by-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii%C3%AE-and-rap1
#10
Solveigh Cornelia Koeberle, Shinji Tanaka, Toshihiko Kuriu, Hirohide Iwasaki, Andreas Koeberle, Alexander Schulz, Dario-Lucas Helbing, Yoko Yamagata, Helen Morrison, Shigeo Okabe
The roles of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha (CaMKIIα) in the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity in the adult brain have been extensively studied. However, how increased CaMKIIα activity controls the maturation of neuronal circuits remains incompletely understood. Herein, we show that pyramidal neurons without CaMKIIα activity upregulate the rate of spine addition, resulting in elevated spine density. Genetic elimination of CaMKIIα activity specifically eliminated the observed maturation-dependent suppression of spine formation...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038337/rna-polymerase-ii-primes-polycomb-repressed-developmental-genes-throughout-terminal-neuronal-differentiation
#11
Carmelo Ferrai, Elena Torlai Triglia, Jessica R Risner-Janiczek, Tiago Rito, Owen Jl Rackham, Inês de Santiago, Alexander Kukalev, Mario Nicodemi, Altuna Akalin, Meng Li, Mark A Ungless, Ana Pombo
Polycomb repression in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is tightly associated with promoter co-occupancy of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) which is thought to prime genes for activation during early development. However, it is unknown whether RNAPII poising is a general feature of Polycomb repression, or is lost during differentiation. Here, we map the genome-wide occupancy of RNAPII and Polycomb from pluripotent ESCs to non-dividing functional dopaminergic neurons. We find that poised RNAPII complexes are ubiquitously present at Polycomb-repressed genes at all stages of neuronal differentiation...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034430/ultraviolet-filters-and-heat-shock-proteins-effects-in-chironomus-riparius-by-benzophenone-3-and-4-methylbenzylidene-camphor
#12
Raquel Martín-Folgar, Mónica Aquilino, Irene Ozáez, José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Benzophenone-3 (BP3) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are common ultraviolet filters (UV filters), compounds considered as emergent contaminants, used in different products like plastics and personal care products. The levels of these compounds are rising in the wild, but the effects they have on invertebrates are poorly understood. Chironomus riparius is a benthic insect widely used in toxicology, and several studies have been previously performed in our laboratory to determine the effects these compounds have on this organism at the molecular level...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033363/convergent-transcriptional-programs-regulate-camp-levels-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-gabaergic-motor-neurons
#13
Bin Yu, Xiaolin Wang, Shuai Wei, Tao Fu, Emmanuel Enoch Dzakah, Ahmed Waqas, Walter W Walthall, Ge Shan
Both transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways play crucial roles in neuronal differentiation and plasticity. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses 19 GABAergic motor neurons (MNs) called D MNs, which are divided into two subgroups: DD and VD. DD, but not VD, MNs reverse their cellular polarity in a developmental process called respecification. UNC-30 and UNC-55 are two critical transcription factors in D MNs. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation with CRISPR/Cas9 knockin of GFP fusion, we uncovered the global targets of UNC-30 and UNC-55...
October 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032595/born-at-the-right-time-a-conceptual-framework-linking-reproduction-development-and-settlement-in-reef-fish
#14
J S Shima, E G Noonburg, S E Swearer, S H Alonzo, C W Osenberg
Parents are expected to make decisions about reproductive timing and investment that maximize their own fitness, even if this does not maximize the fitness of each individual offspring. When offspring survival is uncertain, selection typically favors iteroparity, which means that offspring born at some times can be disadvantaged, while others get lucky. The eventual fate of offspring may be further modified by their own decisions. Are fates of offspring set by birthdates (i.e., determined by parents), or can offspring improve upon the cards they've been dealt? If so, do we see adaptive plasticity in the developmental timing of offspring? We evaluate these questions for a coral reef fish (the sixbar wrasse, Thalassoma hardwicke) that is characterized by extreme iteroparity and flexible larval development...
October 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030490/early-sex-dependent-differences-in-response-to-environmental-stress
#15
Serafin Pérez-Cerezales, Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Dimitrios Rizos, Pat Lonergan, Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan
Developmental plasticity enables the appearance of long-term effects in offspring caused by exposure to environmental stressors during embryonic and foetal life. These long-term effects can be traced to pre- and post-implantation development, and in both cases the effects are usually sex-specific. During preimplantation development, male and female embryos exhibit an extensive transcriptional dimorphism mainly driven by incomplete X-chromosome inactivation. These early developmental stages are crucial for the establishment of epigenetic marks that will be conserved throughout development, making it a particularly susceptible period for the appearance of long-term epigenetic-based phenotypes...
October 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025873/ectopic-expression-of-pax4-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-results-in-%C3%AE-like-cell-neogenesis
#16
Noémie Druelle, Andhira Vieira, Aidin Shabro, Monica Courtney, Magali Mondin, Samah Rekima, Tiziana Napolitano, Serena Silvano, Sergi Navarro-Sanz, Biljana Hadzic, Fabio Avolio, Minoo Rassoulzadegan, Herbert A Schmid, Ahmed Mansouri, Patrick Collombat
The recent demonstration that pancreatic α cells can be continuously regenerated and converted into β-like cells upon ectopic expression of Pax4 opened new avenues of research in the endocrine cell differentiation and diabetes fields. To determine whether such plasticity was also shared by δ cells, we generated and characterized transgenic animals that express Pax4 specifically in somatostatin-expressing cells. We demonstrate that the ectopic expression of Pax4 in δ cells is sufficient to induce their conversion into functional β-like cells...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021318/salinity-induced-phenotypic-plasticity-in-threespine-stickleback-sperm-activation
#17
Annette Taugbøl, Anna B Mazzarella, Emily R A Cramer, Terje Laskemoen
Phenotypic expression may be and often is influenced by an organism's developmental environment, referred to as phenotypic plasticity. The sperm cells of teleosts have been found to be inactive in the seminal plasma and are activated by osmotic shock for most fish species, through release in either hypertonic (for marine fish) or hypotonic (for freshwater fish) water. If this is the case, the regulatory system of sperm mobility should be reversed in salt- and freshwater fish. We tested this hypothesis by first activating sperm of salt- and freshwater populations of threespine stickleback in salt- and freshwater...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020746/proteomic-landscape-of-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-upon-sensory-deprivation
#18
Koen Kole, Rik G H Lindeboom, Marijke P A Baltissen, Pascal W T C Jansen, Michiel Vermeulen, Paul Tiesinga, Tansu Celikel
Experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) powerfully shapes neural circuits by inducing long-lasting molecular changes in the brain. Molecular mechanisms of EDP have been traditionally studied by identifying single or small subsets of targets along the biochemical pathways that link synaptic receptors to nuclear processes. Recent technological advances in large-scale analysis of gene transcription and translation now allow systematic observation of thousands of molecules simultaneously. Here we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to address experience-dependent changes in the proteome after sensory deprivation of the primary somatosensory cortex...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019974/the-state-of-the-art-in-stem-cell-biology-regenerative-medicine-the-end-of-the-beginning
#19
REVIEW
Evan Y Snyder
With translational stem cell biology and Regenerative Medicine (the field to which it gave rise) now over a quarter century old, it is time to take stock of where we have been and where we are going. This editorial overview, which serves an introduction to a special issue of Pediatric Research dedicated to these fields, reinforces the notion that stem cells are ultimately intrinsic parts of developmental biology, for which Pediatrics represents the clinical face. While stem cells represent the cellular basis for a great deal of unrecognized plasticity programmed into the developing and post-developmental human, and while there is great promise in harnessing this plasticity for therapeutic advantage, their successful use rests on a deep understanding of their developmental imperatives and the developmental programs in which they engage...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016128/acute-toxicity-teratogenic-and-estrogenic-effects-of-bisphenol-a-and-its-alternative-replacements-bisphenol-s-bisphenol-f-and-bisphenol-af-in-zebrafish-embryo-larvae
#20
John Moreman, Okhyun Lee, Maciej Trznadel, Arthur David, Tetsuhiro Kudoh, Charles R Tyler
Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical incorporated into plastics and resins, has estrogenic activity and is associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Similarly-structured BPA analogues are widely used but far less is known about their potential toxicity or estrogenic activity in vivo. We undertook the first comprehensive analysis on the toxicity and teratogenic effects of the bisphenols BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF in zebrafish embryo-larvae and an assessment on their estrogenic mechanisms in an estrogen-responsive transgenic fish Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP)...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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