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Developmental plasticity

Gordana Momčilo Leposavić, Ivan M Pilipović
The thymus is sexually differentiated organ providing microenvironment for T-cell precursor differentiation/maturation in the major histocompatibility complex-restricted self-tolerant T cells. With increasing age, the thymus undergoes involution leading to the decline in efficacy of thymopoiesis. Noradrenaline from thymic nerve fibers and "(nor)adrenergic" cells is involved in the regulation of thymopoiesis. In rodents, noradrenaline concentration in thymus and adrenoceptor (AR) expression on thymic cells depend on sex and age...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Tala Khazen, Kuldeep Shrivastava, Reem Jada, Ossama Abu Hatoum, Mouna Maroun
Metaplasticity is the dynamic regulation of the ability to induce activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and is governed by the prior history of the synapses. Previous reports by others and us have shown that behavioral stress induces a form of emotional metaplasticity that affects the ability to induce LTP in the subiculum-medial prefrontal cortex pathway, which depends on NMDA receptors (NMDAr). However, studies addressing the effects of stress on LTP and metaplasticity have mainly focused on the adult animal...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
Luca Telesca, Kati Michalek, Trystan Sanders, Lloyd S Peck, Jakob Thyrring, Elizabeth M Harper
Shape variability represents an important direct response of organisms to selective environments. Here, we use a combination of geometric morphometrics and generalised additive mixed models (GAMMs) to identify spatial patterns of natural shell shape variation in the North Atlantic and Arctic blue mussels, Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus, with environmental gradients of temperature, salinity and food availability across 3980 km of coastlines. New statistical methods and multiple study systems at various geographical scales allowed the uncoupling of the developmental and genetic contributions to shell shape and made it possible to identify general relationships between blue mussel shape variation and environment that are independent of age and species influences...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Juho-Antti Junno, Antoine Mudakikwa, Christophe P E Zollikofer, Marcia S Ponce de León, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVES: The effects of phylogeny and locomotor behavior on long bone structural proportions are assessed through comparisons between adult and ontogenetic samples of extant gorillas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 281 wild-collected individuals were included in the study, divided into four groups that vary taxonomically and ecologically: western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla), lowland and highland grauer gorillas (G. b. graueri), and Virunga mountain gorillas (G...
February 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Priya Pimprikar, Caroline Gutjahr
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is an ancient symbiosis between land plants and fungi of the glomeromycotina that is wide-spread in the plant kingdom. AM improves plant nutrition, stress resistance and general plant performance, and thus represents a promising addition to sustainable agricultural practices. In return for delivering mineral nutrients, the obligate biotrophic AM fungi receive up to 20% of the photosynthetically fixed carbon from the plant. AM fungi colonize the inside of roots and form highly branched tree-shaped structures, called arbuscules, in cortex cells...
February 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Maaike A de Jong, Marjo Saastamoinen
Thermal tolerance has a major effect on individual fitness and species distributions, and can be determined by genetic variation as well as phenotypic plasticity. We investigate the effects of developmental and adult thermal conditions on cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery (CCR) time, during the early and late adult stage in the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We also investigate the genetic basis of cold tolerance by associating CCR variation with polymorphisms in candidate genes that have a known role in insect physiology...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Shyam Dewan, Samantha Schimmel, Cesar V Borlongan
Neonatal traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of developmental disorders. Autologous stem cell therapy may enhance neonatal brain plasticity towards repair of the injured neonatal brain. Areas Covered: The endogenous neonatal anti-inflammatory response can be enhanced by biological treatments. Stem cell therapy stands as a robust approach for sequestering the inflammation-induced cell death in the injured brain. Here, we discuss the use of umbilical cord blood cells and bone marrow stromal cells for acute and chronic treatment of experimental neonatal TBI...
February 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
C Hansel
A puzzling observation in the study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mouse models has been the deregulation of long-term synaptic depression (LTD), a form of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity, across brain areas and across syndromic and non-syndromic forms of autism. This review attempts to approach this phenomenon from a largely, but not exclusively, cerebellar perspective. Three potential consequences of LTD deregulation are discussed that are relevant for ASD phenotypes: resulting impairment of proper developmental synaptic pruning, impairment of motor coordination and motor learning, and impairment of the processing of sensory input...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Joseph E Rupert, J Ethan Joll, Wiaam Y Elkhatib, Jason M Organ
The musculoskeletal system is remarkably plastic during growth. The purpose of this study was to examine the muscular plasticity in functional and structural properties in a model known to result in significant developmental plasticity of the postcranial skeleton. Fifteen weanling C57BL/6 mice were raised to 16 weeks of age in one of two enclosures: a climbing enclosure that simulates a fine branch arboreal habitat and is traversed by steel wires crossing at 45° relative to horizontal at multiple intersections, and a control enclosure that resembles a parking deck with no wires but the same volume of habitable space...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Teresa Lenser, Danuše Tarkowská, Ondřej Novák, Per K I Wilhelmsson, Tom Bennett, Stefan A Rensing, Miroslav Strnad, Günter Theißen
Life in unpredictably changing habitats is a great challenge, especially for sessile organisms like plants. Fruit and seed heteromorphism is one way to cope with such variable environmental conditions. It denotes the production of distinct types of fruits and seeds that often mediate distinct life-history strategies in terms of dispersal, germination and seedling establishment. But although the phenomenon can be found in numerous species and apparently evolved several times independently, its developmental time course or molecular regulation remains largely unknown...
February 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael P O'Donnell, Pin-Hao Chao, Jan E Kammenga, Piali Sengupta
Animals integrate external cues with information about internal conditions such as metabolic state to execute the appropriate behavioral and developmental decisions. Information about food quality and quantity is assessed by the intestine and transmitted to modulate neuronal functions via mechanisms that are not fully understood. The conserved Target of Rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) controls multiple processes in response to cellular stressors and growth factors. Here we show that TORC2 coordinates larval development and adult behaviors in response to environmental cues and feeding state in the bacterivorous nematode C...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Willem E Frankenhuis, Karthik Panchanathan, Andrew G Barto
This article focuses on the division of labor between evolution and development in solving sequential, state-dependent decision problems. Currently, behavioral ecologists tend to use dynamic programming methods to study such problems. These methods are successful at predicting animal behavior in a variety of contexts. However, they depend on a distinct set of assumptions. Here, we argue that behavioral ecology will benefit from drawing more than it currently does on a complementary collection of tools, called reinforcement learning methods...
February 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Aubrey M Kelly, Alexander G Saunders, Alexander G Ophir
Although prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) social behavior is well-characterized in adults, surprisingly little is known about the development of social behavior in voles. Further, the overwhelming majority of studies in prairie voles examine social behavior in a reproductive context. Here, we examine developmental plasticity in affiliation and aggression and their underlying neural correlates. Using sexually naïve males, we characterized interactions with an age-matched, novel, same-sex conspecific in four different age groups that span pre-weaning to adulthood...
February 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Helit Cohen, Hila Barash, Irit Meivar-Levy, Kfir Molakandov, Marina Ben-Shimon, Michael Gurevich, Fatima Zoabi, Adi Har-Zahav, Rolf Gebhardt, Frank Gaunitz, Michael Gurevitz, Eytan Mor, Philippe Ravassard, Shoshana Greenberger, Sarah Ferber
Transdifferentiation (TD) is the direct reprogramming of adult cells into cells of alternate fate and function. We were the first to show that liver cells can be transdifferentiated into beta-like, insulin producing cells, by ectopic expression of pancreatic transcription factors (pTFs). However, the efficiency of the process was consistently limited to <15% of the human liver cells treated in culture. The data in the current study suggest that liver to pancreas TD is restricted to a specific population of liver cells that is predisposed to undergo reprogramming...
February 2, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
C M Goeke, M L Roberts, J G Hashimoto, D A Finn, M Guizzetti
Some of the neurobehavioral deficits identified in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been recapitulated in a binge model of gestational third trimester-equivalent ethanol (EtOH) exposure, in which Sprague-Dawley rats are intragastrically intubated between post-natal day (PD) 4 and PD9 with high doses of EtOH. In this model, the ameliorating effects of choline (Chol) administration on hippocampus-dependent behaviors altered by EtOH have also been extensively documented. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EtOH (5 g/kg/day) and/or Chol (100 mg/kg/day) on morphometric parameters of CA1 pyramidal neurons by Golgi-Cox staining followed by Neurolucida tracing and analysis...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience
Caroline M Alexander
Attention has been focused on Wnt signaling in the mouse mammary gland for several decades, firstly by the discovery of several Wnt loci among the oncogenes revealed by MMTV-based insertional mutagenesis screening of mouse mammary gland, and then by the remarkable visualization of Wnt-dependent specification of mammary placodes in embryonic skin. This review aims to summarize the impact of recent data for our understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in these roles. The amount and identity of both familiar and novel Wnt signaling components is examined for mouse mammary epithelial cells...
January 2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Nicholas Zoulias, Emily L Harrison, Stuart A Casson, Julie E Gray
Plants have evolved developmental plasticity which allows the up- or down-regulation of photosynthetic and water loss capacities as new leaves emerge. This developmental plasticity enables plants to maximise fitness and to survive under differing environments. Stomata play a pivotal role in this adaptive process. These microscopic pores in the epidermis of leaves control gas exchange between the plant and its surrounding environment. Stomatal development involves regulated cell fate decisions that ensure optimal stomatal density and spacing, enabling efficient gas exchange...
January 31, 2018: Biochemical Journal
R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that renin-expressing cells have developed throughout evolution as a mechanism to preserve blood pressure and fluid volume homeostasis as well as to counteract a number of homeostatic and immunological threats. In the developing embryo, renin precursor cells emerge in multiple tissues, where they differentiate into a variety of cell types. The function of those precursors and their progeny is beginning to be unravelled. In the developing kidney, renin-expressing cells control the morphogenesis and branching of the renal arterial tree...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Roberta Tatti, Olivia K Swanson, Melinda S E Lee, Arianna Maffei
Cortical circuits are profoundly shaped by experience during postnatal development. The consequences of altered vision during the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity have been extensively studied in rodent primary visual cortex (V1). However, little is known about how eye opening, a naturally occurring event, influences the maturation of cortical microcircuits. Here we used a combination of slice electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry in rat V1 to ask whether manipulating the time of eye opening for 3 or 7 d affects cortical excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission onto excitatory neurons uniformly across layers or induces laminar-specific effects...
November 2017: ENeuro
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