keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Developmental plasticity

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684872/developmental-toxicity-of-dibutyl-phthalate-and-citrate-ester-plasticizers-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos
#1
Yang Xu, Myung Chan Gye
Citrate esters have been considered as alternatives to phthalate plasticizers. Being considered to have low toxicity in mammals, their toxicological information for aquatic animals remains poorly understood. We examined the developmental toxicity of citrate esters including tributyl O-acetylcitrate (ATBC), triethyl 2-acetylcitrate (ATEC), and trihexyl O-acetylcitrate (ATHC) together with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) based on the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). ATBC has the lowest 96 h LC50 and 96 h EC50 values...
April 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682910/developmental-plasticity-in-reptiles-insights-into-thermal-and-maternal-effects-on-chameleon-phenotypes
#2
Robin M Andrews
Embryonic environments affect a range of phenotypic traits including sex and reproductive success. I determined (1) how the interaction between incubation temperature and egg size affects sex allocation of Chamaeleo calyptratus and (2) how incubation temperature and maternal parent (clutch) affect water uptake by eggs and body size, growth, and climbing speed of hatchlings and juveniles. Eggs from five clutches were exposed to five temperature treatments with clutches replicated within and among treatments...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677476/cd4-helper-and-cd8-cytotoxic-t-cell-differentiation
#3
Ichiro Taniuchi
A fundamental question in developmental immunology is how bipotential thymocyte precursors generate both CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell lineages. The MHC specificity of αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) on precursors is closely correlated with cell fate-determining processes, prompting studies to characterize how variations in TCR signaling are linked with genetic programs establishing lineage-specific gene expression signatures, such as exclusive CD4 or CD8 expression. The key transcription factors ThPOK and Runx3 have been identified as mediating development of helper and cytotoxic T cell lineages, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674112/cadherin-profiling-for-therapeutic-interventions-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-tumorigenesis
#4
REVIEW
Mintu Pal, Sourya Bhattacharya, Gazal Kalyan, Saugata Hazra
The major hallmarks of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is the loss of epithelial cell polarity and loss of expression of the cell- cell adhesion molecule like E-cadherin and acquired mesenchymal cells marker called N-Cadherin. This phenotypical changes of E-M plasticity of cells is extensively considered to be a crucial factor for tumor cells invasion and cancer metastasis; landmark events for transforming a locally growing tumor (benign tumor) into a systemic and live-threatening disease (malignant tumor)...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672994/constraints-on-the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-clonal-plant-hydrocotyle-vulgaris
#5
Mozhu Wang, Xiangqi Bu, Lin Li, Bi-Cheng Dong, Hong-Li Li, Fei-Hai Yu
The evolution of phenotypic plasticity of plant traits may be constrained by costs and limits. However, the precise constraints are still unclear for many traits under different ecological contexts. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew ramets of 12 genotypes of a clonal plant Hydrocotyle vulgaris under the control (full light and no flood), shade, and flood conditions, and tested the potential costs and limits of plasticity in 13 morphological and physiological traits in response to light availability and flood variation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672665/evolutionary-and-functional-potential-of-ploidy-increase-within-individual-plants-somatic-ploidy-mapping-of-the-complex-labellum-of-sexually-deceptive-bee-orchids
#6
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669517/larval-transcriptomic-response-to-host-plants-in-two-related-phytophagous-lepidopteran-species-implications-for-host-specialization-and-species-divergence
#7
M Orsucci, P Audiot, F Dorkeld, A Pommier, M Vabre, B Gschloessl, S Rialle, D Severac, D Bourguet, R Streiff
BACKGROUND: Most phytophagous insects have morphological, behavioral and physiological adaptations allowing them to specialize on one or a few plant species. Identifying the mechanisms involved in host plant specialization is crucial to understand the role of divergent selection between different environments in species diversification, and to identify sustainable targets for the management of insect pest species. In the present study, we measured larval phenotypic and transcriptomic responses to host plants in two related phytophagous lepidopteran species: the European corn borer (ECB), a worldwide pest of maize, and the adzuki bean borer (ABB), which feeds of various dicotyledons...
April 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667780/variability-in-vertebral-numbers-does-not-contribute-to-sexual-size-dimorphism-interspecific-variability-or-phenotypic-plasticity-in-body-size-in-geckos-squamata-gekkota-paroedura
#8
Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička, Martin Vohralík, Zuzana Starostová
Body size is a fundamental trait correlated with nearly every aspect of animal life. It is influenced by numerous genetic and non-genetic factors. Despite its central importance, proximate mechanisms of intra- and interspecific variability in body size are still not well understood even in such a largely studied group as reptiles. For our study, we concentrated on the gecko species Paroedura picta. We investigated whether differences in sexual size dimorphism and in final and asymptotic snout-vent length (induced by a range of incubation and rearing temperatures) are correlated with differences in the number of presacral vertebrae...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666565/postnatal-vitamin-d-intake-modulates-hippocampal-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#9
Qiujuan Liang, Chunhui Cai, Dongxia Duan, Xinyu Hu, Wanhao Hua, Peicheng Jiang, Liu Zhang, Jun Xu, Zhengliang Gao
Vitamin D (VD) is a neuroactive steroid crucial for brain development, function and homeostasis. Its deficiency is associated with numerous brain conditions. As such, VD and its variants are routinely taken by a broad of groups with/without known VD deficiency. In contrast, the harmful effects of VD overdose have been poorly studied. Similarly, the developmental stage-specific VD deficiency and overdose have been rarely explored. In the present work, we showed that postnatal VD supplementation enhanced the motor function transiently in the young adult, but not in the older one...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666195/effect-of-larval-nutrition-on-maternal-mrna-contribution-to-the-drosophila-egg
#10
Amanda E Crofton, Emily L Cartwright, Anna A Feitzinger, Susan E Lott
Embryonic development begins under the control of maternal gene products, mRNAs and proteins that the mother deposits into the egg; the zygotic genome is activated some time later. Maternal control of early development is conserved across metazoans. Gene products contributed by mothers are critical to many early developmental processes, and set up trajectories for the rest of development. Maternal deposition of these factors is an often-overlooked aspect of parental investment. If the mother experiences challenging environmental conditions, such as poor nutrition, previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated a plastic response wherein these mothers may produce larger eggs to buffer the offspring against the same difficult environment...
April 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665010/developmental-trajectories-and-influences-of-environmental-complexity-on-oxytocin-receptor-and-vasopressin-1a-receptor-expression-in-male-and-female-prairie-voles
#11
George S Prounis, Kyle Thomas, Alexander G Ophir
Nonapeptide receptors, like oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR), modulate a variety of functions across taxa, and mediate phenotypic variation within and between species. Despite the popularity of studying nonapeptides in adults, developmental perspectives on properties of OTR and V1aR expression are lacking. Study of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) has facilitated an understanding of mechanisms of social behavior, and provides great potential to inform how early life experiences alter phenotype...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664997/opportunities-for-neurodevelopmental-plasticity-from-infancy-through-early-adulthood
#12
Amanda E Guyer, Koraly Pérez-Edgar, Eveline A Crone
Multiple and rapid changes in brain development occur in infancy and early childhood that undergird behavioral development in core domains. The period of adolescence also carries a second influx of growth and change in the brain to support the unique developmental tasks of adolescence. This special section documents two core conclusions from multiple studies. First, evidence for change in brain-based metrics that underlie cognitive and behavioral functions are not limited to narrow windows in development, but are evident from infancy into early adulthood...
April 17, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664993/scaling-relationships-and-vessel-packing-in-petioles
#13
Dustin M Ray, Cynthia S Jones
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: While tradeoffs among mechanical and conductive functions have been well investigated in woody stems, these tradeoffs are relatively unexplored in petioles, the structural link between stems and laminas. We investigated size-independent scaling relationships between cross-sectional areas of structural and vascular tissues, relationships between tissue areas of xylem and phloem, vessel packing within xylem, and scaling of vascular and structural tissues with lamina traits...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661037/lysosomes-and-brain-health
#14
Jaiprakash Sharma, Alberto di Ronza, Parisa Lotfi, Marco Sardiello
One of the fundamental properties of the cell is the capability to digest and remodel its own components according to metabolic and developmental needs. This is accomplished via the autophagy-lysosome system, a pathway of critical importance in the brain, where it contributes to neuronal plasticity and must protect nonreplaceable neurons from the potentially harmful accumulation of cellular waste. The study of lysosomal biogenesis and function in the context of common and rare neurodegenerative diseases has revealed that a dysfunctional autophagy-lysosome system is the shared nexus where multiple, interconnected pathogenic events take place...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660313/the-convergent-roles-of-cd271-p75-in-neural-crest-derived-melanoma-plasticity
#15
Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Paul M Kulesa
The embryonic microenvironment is an important source of signals that promote multipotent cells to adopt a specific fate and direct cells along distinct migratory pathways. Yet, the ability of the embryonic microenvironment to retain multipotent progenitors or reprogram de-differentiated cells is less clear. Mistakes in cell differentiation or migration often result in developmental defects and tumorigenesis, including aggressive cancers that share many characteristics with embryonic progenitor cells. This is a striking feature of the vertebrate neural crest, a multipotent and highly migratory cell population first identified by Wilhelm His (His, 1868) with the potential to metamorphose into aggressive melanoma cancer...
April 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660255/trans-life-cycle-acclimation-to-experimental-ocean-acidification-affects-gastric-ph-homeostasis-and-larval-recruitment-in-the-sea-star-asterias-rubens
#16
Marian Y Hu, Etienne Lein, Markus Bleich, Frank Melzner, Meike Stumpp
AIM: Experimental simulation of near-future ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to affect growth and development of echinoderm larval stages through energy allocation towards ion and pH compensatory processes. To date, it remains largely unknown how major pH regulatory systems and their energetics are affected by trans-generational exposure to near-future acidification levels. METHODS: Here we used the common sea star Asterias rubens in a reciprocal transplant experiment comprising different combinations of OA scenarios, in order to study trans-generational plasticity using morphological and physiological endpoints...
April 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659607/phenotypic-plasticity-of-pre-adult-egg-maturation-in-a-parasitoid-effects-of-host-starvation-and-brood-size
#17
Yael Keinan, Rachel Braun, Tamar Keasar
Larvae of parasitoid wasps develop on a single arthropod host, and often face resource limitation that induces a tradeoff between egg maturation and somatic growth. Part of the variation in the growth-reproduction allocation was shown to be heritable, but how the larval developmental environment affects this allocation is not well-known. Detection of life history tradeoffs is often facilitated under stress conditions. We therefore exposed developing female larvae of the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) to laboratory manipulations aimed to restrict host resources (either host-starvation or high larval density)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657818/developmental-plasticity-of-the-stress-response-in-female-but-not-in-male-guppies
#18
L Chouinard-Thuly, A R Reddon, I Leris, R L Earley, S M Reader
To survive, animals must respond appropriately to stress. Stress responses are costly, so early-life experiences with potential stressors could adaptively tailor adult stress responses to local conditions. However, how multiple stressors influence the development of the stress response remains unclear, as is the role of sex. Trinidadian guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) are small fish with extensive life-history differences between the sexes and population variation in predation pressure and social density. We investigated how sex and early-life experience influence hormonal stress responses by manipulating conspecific density and perceived predation risk during development...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645275/central-and-peripheral-chemoreceptors-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#19
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro
The pathogenesis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has been ascribed to an underlying biological vulnerability to stressors during a critical period of development. This paper reviews the main data in the literature supporting the role of central (e.g. retrotrapezoid nucleus, serotoninergic raphe nuclei, locus coeruleus, orexinergic neurons, ventral medullary surface, solitary tract nucleus) and peripheral (e.g. carotid body) chemoreceptors in the pathogenesis of SIDS. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that central and peripheral chemoreceptors undergo critical development during the initial postnatal period, consistent with the age range of SIDS (< 1 year)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626662/can-early-life-growth-disruptions-predict-longevity-testing-the-association-between-vertebral-neural-canal-vnc-size-and-age-at-death
#20
Alexandra Amoroso, Susana J Garcia
This study tests the association of vertebral neural canal (VNC) size and age-at-death in a Portuguese skeletal collection from the 19th -20th century. If the plasticity and constraint model best explains this association, VNC size would be negatively related to mortality risk. If the predictive adaptive response (PAR) model is a better fit, no association can be inferred between VNC size and age-at-death. Ninety individuals were used in this study. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of all vertebrae were measured...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
keyword
keyword
2706
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"