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Developmental plasticity

Takao K Hensch, Elizabeth M Quinlan
The shift in ocular dominance (OD) of binocular neurons induced by monocular deprivation is the canonical model of synaptic plasticity confined to a postnatal critical period. Developmental constraints on this plasticity not only lend stability to the mature visual cortical circuitry but also impede the ability to recover from amblyopia beyond an early window. Advances with mouse models utilizing the power of molecular, genetic, and imaging tools are beginning to unravel the circuit, cellular, and molecular mechanisms controlling the onset and closure of the critical periods of plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1)...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
D B Torres, A Lopes, A J Rodrigues, J J Cerqueira, N Sousa, J A R Gontijo, P A Boer
Animal evidence has suggested that maternal emotional and nutritional stress during pregnancy is associated with behavioral outcomes in offspring. The nature of the stresses applied may differ, but it is often assumed that the mother's hippocampus-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HHPA) axis response releases higher levels of glucocorticoid hormones. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is in a pivotal position to regulate the HHPA axis and the stress response, and it has been implicated in anxiety behavior...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
France Charest, Zerina Johanson, Richard Cloutier
Within jawed vertebrates, pelvic appendages have been modified or lost repeatedly, including in the most phylogenetically basal, extinct, antiarch placoderms. One Early Devonian basal antiarch, Parayunnanolepis , possessed pelvic girdles, suggesting the presence of pelvic appendages at the origin of jawed vertebrates; their absence in more derived antiarchs implies a secondary loss. Recently, paired female genital plates were identified in the Late Devonian antiarch, Bothriolepis canadensis , in the position of pelvic girdles in other placoderms...
June 2018: Biology Letters
Manuella da L D Barros, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Daniele T Alves, Omar Guzmán Quevedo, Ana Elisa Toscano, Alexandre Bonnin, Ligia Galindo
Serotonin exerts a modulating function on the development of the central nervous system, including hypothalamic circuits controlling feeding behavior and energy expenditure. Based on the developmental plasticity theory, early disturbances of synaptic availability of serotonin may promote phenotypic adaptations and late disorders of energy balance regulation leading to obesity and associated diseases. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the effects of pharmacological neonatal inhibition of serotonin reuptake by fluoxetine, on parameters related to feeding behavior and energy balance...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Xiaokuang Ma, Hilary M Dorton, Jie Wu, Alexander M Solomon, Michael G Frantz, Shenfeng Qiu, Aaron W McGee
Degrading vision by one eye during a developmental critical period yields enduring deficits in both eye dominance and visual acuity. A predominant model is that "reactivating" ocular dominance (OD) plasticity after the critical period is required to improve acuity in amblyopic adults. However, here we demonstrate that plasticity of eye dominance and acuity are independent and restricted by the nogo-66 receptor (ngr1) in distinct neuronal populations. Ngr1 mutant mice display greater excitatory synaptic input onto both inhibitory and excitatory neurons with restoration of normal vision...
May 24, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Stephanie L Rogers, Elyse Rankin-Gee, Rashmi M Risbud, Brenda E Porter, Eric D Marsh
The perineuronal net (PN), a highly organized extracellular matrix structure, is believed to play an important role in synaptic function, including maturation and stabilization. In addition to its role in restricting plasticity, alterations in the PN are implicated in disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. However, the time course of PN development is not known in humans. Therefore we set out to document the developmental timeline of the PN formation in humans in 14 frontal and hippocampal specimens from donors aged 27 days to 31 years old...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Melinda Csongová, Radana Gurecká, Ivana Koborová, Peter Celec, Emese Domonkos, Oľga Uličná, Veronika Somoza, Katarína Šebeková
Maternal exposure to a Western type diet during pregnancy might predispose the offspring to manifestation of metabolic and behavioral disturbances in later life. The Western type diet contains large amounts of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In humans and experimental rodents, the intake of an AGE-rich diet (AGE-RD) negatively affected glucose homeostasis, and initiated the production of reactive oxygen species. Rats consuming the AGE-RD presented changes in behavior. It remains unclear whether maternal intake of the AGE-RD might affect developmental plasticity in offspring...
June 7, 2018: Food & Function
Vanessa Kellermann, Carla M Sgrò
Understanding the capacity for different species to reduce their susceptibility to climate change via phenotypic plasticity is essential for accurately predicting species extinction risk. The climatic variability hypothesis suggests that spatial and temporal variation in climatic variables should select for more plastic phenotypes. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is limited. Here we examine the capacity for ten Drosophila species to increase their critical thermal maxima (CTMAX ) through developmental acclimation and/or adult heat hardening...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Aurélien Macé, Zoltán Kutalik, Armand Valsesia
Differences between genomes can be due to single nucleotide variants (SNPs), translocations, inversions and copy number variants (CNVs, gain or loss of DNA). The latter can range from sub-microscopic events to complete chromosomal aneuploidies. Small CNVs are often benign but those larger than 250 kb are strongly associated with morbid consequences such as developmental disorders and cancer. Detecting CNVs within and between populations is essential to better understand the plasticity of our genome and to elucidate its possible contribution to disease or phenotypic traits...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Emily J Shields, Lihong Sheng, Amber K Weiner, Benjamin A Garcia, Roberto Bonasio
Ants are an emerging model system for neuroepigenetics, as embryos with virtually identical genomes develop into different adult castes that display diverse physiology, morphology, and behavior. Although a number of ant genomes have been sequenced to date, their draft quality is an obstacle to sophisticated analyses of epigenetic gene regulation. We reassembled de novo high-quality genomes for two ant species, Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator. Using long reads enabled us to span large repetitive regions and improve genome contiguity, leading to comprehensive and accurate protein-coding annotations that facilitated the identification of a Gp-9-like gene as differentially expressed in Harpegnathos castes...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Neel Prabh, Mohannad Dardiry, Hanh Witte, Waltraud Röseler, Manuela R Kieninger, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
Switching between alternative complex phenotypes is often regulated by "supergenes," polymorphic clusters of linked genes such as in butterfly mimicry. In contrast, phenotypic plasticity results in alternative complex phenotypes controlled by environmental influences rather than polymorphisms. Here, we show that the developmental switch gene regulating predatory versus non-predatory mouth-form plasticity in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus is part of a multi-gene locus containing two sulfatases and two α-N-acetylglucosaminidases (nag)...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
Jun-Kit Wan, Wan-Loy Chu, Yih-Yih Kok, Choy-Sin Lee
Plastics, with their many useful physical and chemical properties, are widely used in various industries and activities of daily living. Yet, the insidious effects of plastics, particularly long-term effects on aquatic organisms, are not properly understood. Plastics have been shown to degrade to micro- and nanosize particles known as microplastics and nanoplastics, respectively. These minute particles have been shown to cause various adverse effects on aquatic organisms, ranging from growth inhibition, developmental delay and altered feeding behaviour in aquatic animals to decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and induction of oxidative stress in microalgae...
June 6, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Timothy S Mitchell, Fredric J Janzen, Daniel A Warner
Studies of reptiles have contributed greatly to understanding the impacts of developmental environments on offspring phenotypes. A major challenge for these studies, however, is quantifying the effects of embryonic environments on adult phenotypes and reproductive success. Such measurements may be necessary to gain full insight into the evolution of plasticity, as well as the long-term consequences of plasticity under environmental change. Unfortunately, most studies of reptile developmental plasticity only measure phenotypic traits of offspring at hatching, and rarely evaluate effects on subsequent adult phenotypes...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Sarah A Wong, Kevin O Rivera, Theodore Miclau, Eben Alsberg, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
The majority of fractures heal through the process of endochondral ossification, in which a cartilage intermediate forms between the fractured bone ends and is gradually replaced with bone. Recent studies have provided genetic evidence demonstrating that a significant portion of callus chondrocytes transform into osteoblasts that derive the new bone. This evidence has opened a new field of research aimed at identifying the regulatory mechanisms that govern chondrocyte transformation in the hope of developing improved fracture therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sha-Sha Yang, Yan-Chun Li, Austin A Coley, Linda A Chamberlin, Ping Yu, Wen-Jun Gao
H-current, also known as hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), is an inward current generated by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels. Ih plays an essential role in regulating neuronal properties, synaptic integration and plasticity, and synchronous activity in the brain. As these biological factors change across development, the brain undergoes varying levels of vulnerability to disorders like schizophrenia that disrupt prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent function...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Jorge Montesinos, María Pascual, David Millán-Esteban, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a developmental period of brain maturation in which remodeling and changes in synaptic plasticity and neural connectivity take place in some brain regions. A different mechanism participates in adolescent brain maturation, including autophagy processes that play a role in synaptic development and plasticity. Alcohol is a neurotoxic compound whose abuse in adolescence causes TLR4 response activation by triggering neuroinflammation, neural damage and behavioral alterations. However, the potential participation of autophagy in long-term neurochemical and cognitive dysfunctions induced by binge ethanol drinking in adolescence is uncertain...
June 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Noé Cochetel, Eloïse Météier, Isabelle Merlin, Cyril Hévin, Jean-Bernard Pouvreau, Pierre Coutos-Thévenot, Michel Hernould, Philippe Vivin, Sarah Jane Cookson, Nathalie Ollat, Virginie Lauvergeat
In grafted plants, rootstocks assure the mineral nutrition of the scion and modify its development. In this work, we show that two grapevine rootstock genotypes present different shoot branching architectures when cultivated as cuttings and that this trait is transmitted to the scion when grafted. Shoot branching plasticity in response to nitrogen (N) supply was also studied. As strigolactones (SLs) are known for their role in the regulation of shoot development in response to nutrient availability, their involvement in the control of scion architecture by the rootstock was investigated...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lisa C Hiura, Alexander G Ophir
Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Wilaiwan Sriwimol, Pornprot Limprasert
Alpha-synuclein ( α -synuclein) and beta-synuclein ( β -synuclein) are presynaptic proteins playing important roles in neuronal plasticity and synaptic vesicle regulation. To evaluate the association of these two proteins and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we investigated the plasma α -synuclein and β -synuclein levels in 39 male children with ASD (2 subgroups: 25 autism and 14 pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)) comparing with 29 sex- and age-matched controls by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Shmma Quraishe, Lindsey H Forbes, Melissa R Andrews
The extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) becomes highly structured and organized as the nervous system matures. The extracellular space of the CNS along with its subdomains plays a crucial role in the function and stability of the CNS. In this review, we have focused on two components of the neuronal extracellular environment, which are important in regulating CNS plasticity including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and myelin. The ECM consists of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and tenascins, which are organized into unique structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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