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Developmental plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645086/toddler-exposure-to-flame-retardant-chemicals-magnitude-health-concern-and-potential-risk-or-protective-factors-of-exposure-observational-studies-summarized-in-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Eva J Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Linda J Schoonmade, Margot van de Bor
Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and toddlers are at increased risk for exposure because of their age-specific behavior. This systematic review encompasses toddler FR exposure studies in three countries, associated health effects and potential environmental, demographic, or behavioral risk- or protective factors for toddler exposure...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643166/structural-disorder-in-plant-proteins-where-plasticity-meets-sessility
#2
REVIEW
Alejandra A Covarrubias, Cesar L Cuevas-Velazquez, Paulette S Romero-Pérez, David F Rendón-Luna, Caspar C C Chater
Plants are sessile organisms. This intriguing nature provokes the question of how they survive despite the continual perturbations caused by their constantly changing environment. The large amount of knowledge accumulated to date demonstrates the fascinating dynamic and plastic mechanisms, which underpin the diverse strategies selected in plants in response to the fluctuating environment. This phenotypic plasticity requires an efficient integration of external cues to their growth and developmental programs that can only be achieved through the dynamic and interactive coordination of various signaling networks...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642137/overexpression-cdc42-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-in-developmental-brain-of-rats
#3
Xi Fang, Shiyong Li, Qiang Han, Yilin Zhao, Jie Gao, Jing Yan, Ailin Luo
Nowadays many children receive operations with general anesthesia. Isoflurane is a commonly-used general anesthetic. Numbers of studies demonstrated that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficiency in young rats, however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) played an important role in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics in neuron, which closely linked to synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation. Meanwhile, cdc42 also involved in many neurodegenerative diseases...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640191/phenotypic-plasticity-and-cell-fate-decisions-in-cancer-insights-from-dynamical-systems-theory
#4
REVIEW
Dongya Jia, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Prakash Kulkarni, Herbert Levine
Waddington's epigenetic landscape, a famous metaphor in developmental biology, depicts how a stem cell progresses from an undifferentiated phenotype to a differentiated one. The concept of "landscape" in the context of dynamical systems theory represents a high-dimensional space, in which each cell phenotype is considered as an "attractor" that is determined by interactions between multiple molecular players, and is buffered against environmental fluctuations. In addition, biological noise is thought to play an important role during these cell-fate decisions and in fact controls transitions between different phenotypes...
June 22, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634325/in-utero-and-lactational-exposure-study-in-rats-to-identify-replacements-for-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate
#5
Thomas C Nardelli, Océane Albert, Claudia Lalancette, Martine Culty, Barbara F Hales, Bernard Robaire
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with endocrine disrupting properties. Two novel plasticizers, 1,4 butanediol dibenzoate (BDB) and dioctyl succinate (DOS), have been proposed as potential replacements. Both have desirable properties as plasticizers and minimal in vitro biological effects. Herein, we present an in utero and lactational exposure study comparing DEHP with BDB, DOS, and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), a commercial alternative...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#6
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632204/successful-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-feeding-aversion-with-mechanistic-insights-from-cross-species-neuronal-remodeling
#7
W G Sharp, A G Allen, K H Stubbs, K K Criado, R Sanders, C E McCracken, R G Parsons, L Scahill, S L Gourley
Pediatric feeding disorders affect up to 5% of children, causing severe food intake problems that can result in serious medical and developmental outcomes. Behavioral intervention (BI) is effective in extinguishing feeding aversions, and also expert-dependent, time/labor-intensive and not well understood at a neurobiological level. Here we first conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing BI with BI plus d-cycloserine (DCS). DCS is a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist shown to augment extinction therapies in multiple anxiety disorders...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631968/improving-kindergarten-readiness-in-children-with-developmental-disabilities-changes-in-neural-correlates-of-response-monitoring
#8
Jennifer Martin McDermott, Katherine C Pears, Jacqueline Bruce, Hyoun K Kim, Leslie Roos, Karen L Yoerger, Philip A Fisher
Among children diagnosed with developmental delays, difficulties in self-regulation are prominent and have been linked to school readiness problems. The current study sought to examine the impact of the Kids in Transition to School (KITS) school readiness intervention program on self-regulation, with a specific focus on response monitoring skills, among children with developmental delays. Children (n = 20 in the KITS group and n = 21 in a services as usual group) were administered a flanker task during which event-related potential data were collected to examine group differences in response monitoring...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630354/not-all-cells-are-equal-effects-of-temperature-and-sex-on-the-size-of-different-cell-types-in-the-madagascar-ground-gecko-paroedura-picta
#9
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Zuzana Starostová, Anna Sikorska, Elżbieta Bonda-Ostaszewska, Katarzyna Woch, Lukáš Kubička, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Jan Kozlowski
Cell size plays a role in evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in body size. To examine this role, we measured the sizes of seven cell types of geckos (Paroedura picta) reared at three constant temperatures (24, 27, and 30 °C). Our results show that the cell size varies according to the body size, sex and developmental temperature, but the pattern of this variance depends on the cell type. We identified three groups of cell types, and the cell sizes changed in a coordinated manner within each group...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628612/novel-interplay-between-jnk-and-egfr-signaling-in-drosophila-dorsal-closure
#10
Tatyana Kushnir, Sharon Mezuman, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Rotem Lange, Ze'ev Paroush, Aharon Helman
Dorsal closure (DC) is a developmental process in which two contralateral epithelial sheets migrate to seal a large hole in the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Two signaling pathways act sequentially to orchestrate this dynamic morphogenetic process. First, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling activity in the dorsal-most leading edge (LE) cells of the epidermis induces expression of decapentaplegic (dpp). Second, Dpp, a secreted TGF-β homolog, triggers cell shape changes in the adjacent, ventrally located lateral epidermis, that guide the morphogenetic movements and cell migration mandatory for DC...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622415/is-bisphenol-a-an-environmental-obesogen
#11
REVIEW
Samuel Legeay, Sébastien Faure
Bisphenol a (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with an estrogenic activity that is widely produced for the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resin and thermal paper. Its ubiquitous presence in the environment contributes to broad and continuous human exposure which has been associated with deleterious health effects. Despite numerous controversial discussions and a lack of consensus about BPA's safety, growing evidence indicates that BPA exposure positively correlates with an increased risk of developing obesity...
June 16, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617639/genetic-correlations-among-developmental-and-contextual-behavioral-plasticity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Julia B Saltz, Seana Lymer, Jessica Gabrielian, Sergey V Nuzhdin
Correlations among traits, including behaviors, are important because traits that are genetically correlated may not evolve independently. Recently, behavioral-correlations research has expanded to include correlations not only in mean-level behaviors but also in behavioral plasticity, that is, the degree to which individuals change their behavior in response to environmental stimuli. Positive correlations among behavioral plasticities would imply that individuals or genotypes that are behaviorally plastic in one way may also be plastic in other ways; negative correlations could imply trade-offs...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616151/therapeutic-potential-of-dental-stem-cells
#13
REVIEW
Elna Paul Chalisserry, Seung Yun Nam, Sang Hyug Park, Sukumaran Anil
Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616017/inhibition-and-enhancement-of-neural-regeneration-by-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans
#14
REVIEW
Heikki Rauvala, Mikhail Paveliev, Juha Kuja-Panula, Natalia Kulesskaya
The current dogma in neural regeneration research implies that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit plasticity and regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We argue that the role of the CSPGs can be reversed from inhibition to activation by developmentally expressed CSPG-binding factors. Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM; also designated as pleiotrophin) has been studied as a candidate molecule that might modulate the role of CSPG matrices in plasticity and regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615488/hotter-nests-produce-hatchling-lizards-with-lower-thermal-tolerance
#15
Buddhi Dayananda, Brad R Murray, Jonathan K Webb
In many regions, the frequency and duration of summer heatwaves is predicted to increase in future. Hotter summers could result in higher temperatures inside lizard nests, potentially exposing embryos to thermally stressful conditions during development. Potentially, developmentally plastic shifts in thermal tolerance could allow lizards to adapt to climate warming. To determine how higher nest temperatures affect the thermal tolerance of hatchling geckos, we incubated eggs of the rock-dwelling velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, at two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current nest temperatures (mean 23...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614409/environmental-control-of-asexual-reproduction-and-somatic-growth-of-aurelia-spp-cnidaria-scyphozoa-polyps-from-the-adriatic-sea
#16
Nathan Hubot, Cathy H Lucas, Stefano Piraino
Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind-1 week-1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612755/learning-to-see-again-biological-constraints-on-cortical-plasticity-and-the-implications-for-sight-restoration-technologies
#17
Michael Beyeler, Ariel Rokem, Geoffrey Boynton, Ione Fine
The "bionic eye" - so long a dream of the future - is finally becoming a reality with retinal prostheses available to patients in both the US and Europe. However, clinical experience with these implants has made it apparent that the vision provided by these devices differs substantially from normal sight. Consequently, the ability to learn to make use of this abnormal retinal input plays a critical role in whether or not some functional vision is successfully regained. The goal of the present review is to summarize the vast basic science literature on developmental and adult cortical plasticity with an emphasis on how this literature might relate to the field of prosthetic vision...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610604/age-and-environment-dependent-changes-in-chemical-defences-of-larval-and-post-metamorphic-toads
#18
Bálint Üveges, Gábor Fera, Ágnes M Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, Veronika Bókony, Attila Hettyey
BACKGROUND: Chemical defences are widespread in animals, but how their production is adjusted to ecological conditions is poorly known. Optimal defence theory predicts that inducible defences are favoured over constitutive defences when toxin production is costly and the need for it varies across environments. However, if some environmental changes occur predictably (e.g. coupled to transitions during ontogeny), whereas others are unpredictable (e.g. predation, food availability), changes in defences may have constitutive as well as plastic elements...
June 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608949/commentary-studying-and-testing-the-positive-youth-development-model-a-tale-of-two-approaches
#19
Richard M Lerner
Interest in promoting positive development among children and adolescents has always been a focus of developmental science. Historically, many researchers framed this interest using a deficit model that sought to optimize positive development by reducing problems. In the context of the articles in this special section, the author discuss a different conception of positive youth development that has emerged across the past 25 years, one that capitalizes on human plasticity and tests a strength-based model (instead of a deficit one)...
June 13, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607179/phf6-regulates-phenotypic-plasticity-through-chromatin-organization-within-lineage-specific-genes
#20
Yadira M Soto-Feliciano, Jordan M E Bartlebaugh, Yunpeng Liu, Francisco J Sánchez-Rivera, Arjun Bhutkar, Abraham S Weintraub, Jason D Buenrostro, Christine S Cheng, Aviv Regev, Tyler E Jacks, Richard A Young, Michael T Hemann
Developmental and lineage plasticity have been observed in numerous malignancies and have been correlated with tumor progression and drug resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that enable such plasticity to occur. Here, we describe the function of the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6) in leukemia and define its role in regulating chromatin accessibility to lineage-specific transcription factors. We show that loss of Phf6 in B-cell leukemia results in systematic changes in gene expression via alteration of the chromatin landscape at the transcriptional start sites of B-cell- and T-cell-specific factors...
June 12, 2017: Genes & Development
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