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Mo Zhou, Shinuo Cao, Ferda Sevinc, Mutlu Sevinc, Onur Ceylan, Sepil Ekici, Charoonluk Jirapattharasate, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Mingming Liu, Guanbo Wang, Aiko Iguchi, Patrick Vudriko, Hiroshi Suzuki, Xuenan Xuan
Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia ovis, Theileria ovis and Anaplasma ovis in 343 small ruminants (249 sheep and 94 goats) from 13 towns in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. ovis ssu rRNA (BoSSUrRNA), T. ovis ssu rRNA (ToSSUrRNA) and A. ovis major surface protein 4 (AoMSP4) genes, respectively...
November 16, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Margarida Santos-Silva, Pedro Melo, Nuno Santos, Sandra Antunes, Luís Raposo Duarte, Joana Ferrolho, Natacha Milhano, Patrícia Tavares Santos, Ana Domingos, Ana Sofia Santos
The Southeast region of Portugal, particularly the Guadiana valley, is currently the reintroduction territory of Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx), one of the most endangered felids in the world that is only found in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last century, populations have declined, placing L. pardinus at extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and relying on reintroduction projects. Among the aspects taken into account in the establishment of new populations is the sanitary status of the selected habitats, especially concerning infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens (TBPs)...
November 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Weiqing Zheng, Mingming Liu, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Xiaoqing Liu, Artemis Efstratiou, Zhanbin Liu, Yangqing Liu, Huiying Tao, Huanping Guo, Guanbo Wang, Yang Gao, Zifen Li, Aaron Edmund Ringo, Charoonluk Jirapattharasate, Haiying Chen, Xuenan Xuan
In this study, blood samples obtained from 162 dogs in Jiangxi, China, were employed in molecular screening of canine tick-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. Babesia spp. gene fragment was detected in 12 (7.41%) dogs. All samples were negative for Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma platys. Species-specific PCR analysis further confirmed that 8 (4.94%) and 4 (2.47%) dogs were infected by Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni, respectively. Based on our analyses, Babesia spp...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Qingli Niu, Claire Bonsergent, Hélène Rogniaux, Guiquan Guan, Laurence Malandrin, Emmanuelle Moreau
Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) is one of the parasites isolated from infected sheep in China that belongs to the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group. The rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (rap-1) locus in this group consists of a complex organization of 12 genes of three main types: 6 rap-1a variants intercalated with 5 identical copies of rap-1b and a single 3' ending rap-1c gene. In the present study, transcription analysis performed by standard RT-PCR demonstrated that the three different rap-1 gene types and the four rap-1a variants were transcribed by the parasite cultivated in vitro...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Herakles A Garcia, Oneyda J Ramírez, Carla M F Rodrigues, Rafael G Sánchez, Angelica M Bethencourt, Gabriela Del M Pérez, Antonio H H Minervino, Adriana C Rodrigues, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma vivax has been associated with asymptomatic infections in African and South American buffalo. In this study, T. vivax was analyzed in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Venezuela in a molecular survey involving 293 blood samples collected from 2006 to 2015 across the Llanos region. Results demonstrated constant infections (average 23%) during the years analyzed. In general, animals were healthy carriers of T. vivax with low levels of parasitemia and were diagnosed exclusively by TviCATL-PCR. However, an outbreak of severe acute infections mostly in dairy animals was reported during a prolonged drought affecting 30...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
F D Wesonga, J M Gachohi, P M Kitala, J M Gathuma, M J Njenga
Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina are important tick-borne pathogens of cattle. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of A. marginale and B. bigemina infections and identify associated risk factors on traditional smallholder farms in Machakos County, Kenya. A total of 421 cattle from 127 farms from four divisions in the county were sampled and visited between September and November 2007. The farms were selected by a proportional allocation approach based on the number of farms in the four divisions previously selected by stratified random sampling method...
November 22, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Suresh Gonde, S Chhabra, S K Uppal, L D Singla, S S Randhawa
A 4 year old male Rottweiler was presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinics of GADVASU with a primary complaint of paraplegia, fever and inappetence. The dog was found to be dull with elevated rectal temperature (105 °F), heart rate (158 per minute) and respiration rate (57 per minute). Blood smear examination and PCR assay revealed that dog was positive for Babesia gibsoni. Elevated bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, total leucocyte count, neutrophils and hypoglycaemia were haemato-biochemical alterations...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Biswa Ranjan Maharana, Binod Kumar, Nitinkumar Devrajbhai Hirani
A 30-day old Gir calf was brought to Veterinary Polyclinic with symptoms of high fever, dullness, dyspnea, pale mucus membrane and haemoglobinuria. Blood sample was collected and microscopic examination of thin blood smear confirmed the case of acute babesiosis. It was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction that amplified an approximately 410 bp portion of the ssu-rDNA of Babesia spp. The calf was managed with diminazene aceturate @5 mg/kg (Berenil) intramuscularly followed by supportive therapy including intravenous infusions...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Neda Sharifi, Maryam Ganjali, Reza Nabavi, Dariush Saadati
Infection with Babesia and Theileria Causes high mortality and economical losses in livestock and has a relatively high prevalence in Iran. In Zabol, animals are susceptible to this disease because of presence of vector ticks, weather conditions and smuggle animal across the border and they cause great damages to the economy and production. However, few studies have been done for differentiation of Theileria and Babesia in sheep in this area. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Babesiosis and Theileriosis in sheep in Zabol...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Binod Kumar, B R Maharana, Amit Prasad, Joice P Joseph, Bhavika Patel, J S Patel
The current study was conducted to investigate the incidence of parasitic diseases in bovines which were sick and brought at veterinary hospital for treatment. A total of 366 samples were investigated from cattle (n = 175) and buffaloes (n = 191) presented at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC), Veterinary College, Junagadh, Gujarat during January to December 2014. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 58.6 % of cattle and 41.2 % of buffaloes were infected with haemoparasites comprising Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Anaplasma marginale @ of 54...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Latha Bhaskaran Ravi, Dhivya Bhoopathy, Vairamuthu Subbiah
Epidemiological studies on the incidence and prevalence of disease will help in the monitoring and surveillance of diseases thus preventing occurrence of an epidemic. This study focuses on the variations in the incidences of canine babesiosis over a period of 8 years in Chennai. Variations have been noticed to in the incidence of the species of Babesia affecting dogs. There has been an escalation in the incidence of B.gibsoni infection during the study period. The factors such as seasonal, age, sex and breed influences on the incidence have been studied...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
Toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp and Trypanosoma evansi, respectively. Toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies against T. gondii...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Guanbo Wang, Artemis Efstratiou, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Mingming Liu, Charoonluk Jirapattharasate, Huanping Guo, Yang Gao, Shinuo Cao, Mo Zhou, Hiroshi Suzuki, Ikuo Igarashi, Xuenan Xuan
In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of recombinant Babesia microti apical membrane protein 1 (rBmAMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (rBmRON2) against B. microti infection using a hamster model. The genes encoding the predicted domains I and II of BmAMA1 and the gene encoding the predicted transmembrane regions 2 and 3 of BmRON2 were expressed as His fusion recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Three groups with 5 hamsters in each group were immunized with rBmAMA1, rBmRON2 and rBmAMA1+rBmRON2, then challenged with B...
November 19, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Cecilia Shi Ni Loo, Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Deying Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Many parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. Currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. However, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess activities against other parasitic protozoa...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Tao Wang, Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Neil D Young, Ross S Hall, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
Here, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two operational taxonomic units of Babesia from sheep from China using a deep sequencing-coupled approach. Then, we defined and compared the gene order of these mt genomes (~5.8 to 6.2kb in size), assessed sequence differences in mt genes among Babesia taxa and evaluated genetic relationships among these taxa and related apicomplexans (Theileria) for which mt genomic data sets were available. We also identified mt genetic regions that might be useful as markers for future population genetic and molecular epidemiological studies of Babesia from small ruminants...
November 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Alba Marina Gimenez, Katia S Françoso, Jonatan Ersching, Marcelo Y Icimoto, Vitor Oliveira, Anabel E Rodriguez, Leonhard Schnittger, Monica Florin-Christensen, Mauricio M Rodrigues, Irene S Soares
BACKGROUND: Babesia bovis is a tick-transmitted protozoan hemoparasite and the causative agent of bovine babesiosis, a potential risk to more than 500 million cattle worldwide. The vaccines currently available are based on attenuated parasites, which are difficult to produce, and are only recommended for use in bovines under one year of age. When used in older animals, these vaccines may cause life-threatening clinical symptoms and eventually death. The development of a multi-subunit recombinant vaccine against B...
November 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Marta G Silva, Donald P Knowles, Carlos E Suarez
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne Babesia bigemina is responsible for acute and potentially lethal hemolytic disease in cattle. The development of genetic manipulation tools necessary to the better understanding of parasite biology is currently limited by the lack of a complete parasite genome and experimental tools such as transfection. Effective promoters, required to regulate expression of transgenes, such as the elongation factor-1 alpha (ef-1α), have been identified in other apicomplexans such as Babesia bovis and Plasmodium falciparum...
November 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Megan E Schreeg, Henry S Marr, Jaime L Tarigo, Leah A Cohn, David M Bird, Elizabeth H Scholl, Michael G Levy, Brian M Wiegmann, Adam J Birkenheuer
The taxonomy of the order Piroplasmida, which includes a number of clinically and economically relevant organisms, is a hotly debated topic amongst parasitologists. Three genera (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) are recognized based on parasite life cycle characteristics, but molecular phylogenetic analyses of 18S sequences have suggested the presence of five or more distinct Piroplasmida lineages. Despite these important advancements, a few studies have been unable to define the taxonomic relationships of some organisms (e...
2016: PloS One
Heba F Alzan, Donald P Knowles, Carlos E Suarez
Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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