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Shekerah Primus, Lavoisier Akoolo, Samantha Schlachter, Nikhat Parveen
Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Transmitted by Ixodes ticks, the causative agent Babesia microti is an intraerythrocytic parasite that causes mild to deadly disease. Transmission of B. microti can also occur by transfusion of infected blood and blood products resulting in transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB), which carries a high risk of fatality. To effectively manage this rise in B. microti infections, better screening tools are needed, which require minimal manipulation of the samples before testing...
November 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Minerva Camacho-Nuez, Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Elizabeth Jacqueline Castañeda-Ortiz, María Elena Paredes-Martínez, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Ricardo Francisco Mercado-Curiel, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamu, Juan Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Nídia Cangi, Valérie Pinarello, Laure Bournez, Thierry Lefrançois, Emmanuel Albina, Luís Neves, Nathalie Vachiéry
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal tropical disease affecting ruminants with important economic impacts. This bacterium is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks and is present in sub-Saharan Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean, where it represents a threat to the American mainland. METHODS: An automated DNA extraction method was adapted for Amblyomma ticks and a new qPCR targeting the pCS20 region was developed to improve E...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Patrick John Kelly, Liza Köster, Jing Li, Jilei Zhang, Ke Huang, Gillian Carmichael Branford, Silvia Marchi, Michel Vandenplas, Chengming Wang
BACKGROUND: As there is little data on vector-borne diseases of cats in the Caribbean region and even around the world, we tested feral cats from St Kitts by PCR to detect infections with Babesia, Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and surveyed them for antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii and Ehrlichia canis. RESULTS: Whole blood was collected from apparently healthy feral cats during spay/ neuter campaigns on St Kitts in 2011 (N = 68) and 2014 (N = 52)...
November 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Karin Werther, Mayara de Cássia Luzzi, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Juliana Paula de Oliveira, José Roberto Ferreira Alves Junior, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Although Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) is an anatid species widely distributed in South America, scarce are the reports on the occurrence of arthropod-borne pathogens in this avian species. The present work aimed to verify, by serological and molecular methods, the occurrence of haemosporida piroplasmids and Anaplasmataceae agents in wild Orinoco geese captured in Brazil. Between 2010 and 2014, 62 blood samples were collected from free-living geese captured in the Araguaia River, Goiás State, Brazil. Six geese (10%) were seropositive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, showing titers ranging from 40 and 80...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Masahiro Yamasaki, Nao Watanabe, Natsuki Idaka, Tohru Yamamori, Ken-Ichi Otsuguro, Naohiro Uchida, Aiko Iguchi, Hiroshi Ohta, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
The mechanism of the development of diminazene aceturate (DA) resistance in Babesia gibsoni is still unknown even though DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate was previously developed in vitro. To clarify the mechanisms of DA-resistance in B. gibsoni, we initially examined the intracellular DA content in the DA-resistant isolate using high-performance liquid chromatography, and compared it with that in the wild-type. As a result, the intracellular DA content in the DA-resistant isolate was significantly lower than that in the wild-type, suggesting that the decreased DA content may contribute to DA-resistance...
November 6, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Corinne P Oechslin, Daniel Heutschi, Nicole Lenz, Werner Tischhauser, Olivier Péter, Olivier Rais, Christian M Beuret, Stephen L Leib, Sergei Bankoul, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann
BACKGROUND: Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. RESULTS: Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub-) urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), 2...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Justyna Dunaj, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Izabela Swiecicka, Martin Andersson, Piotr Czupryna, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Grzegorz Zambrowski, Joanna Zajkowska, Sambor Grygorczuk, Maciej Kondrusik, Renata Świerzbińska, Sławomir Pancewicz
AIM: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the frequency of infections and co-infections among patients hospitalized because of non-specific symptoms after a tick bite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 118 patients hospitalised for non-specific symptoms up to 8 weeks after tick bite from 2010 to 2013 were examined for tick-borne infections. ELISA, Western blot and/or molecular biology (PCR; fla gene; 16S rRNA; sequencing) and thin blood smears (MDD) were used...
November 7, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
B C Roy, J Krücken, J S Ahmed, S Majumder, M P Baumann, P-H Clausen, A M Nijhof
Tick-borne diseases are considered a major hindrance to the health and productive performance of cattle in Bangladesh. To elucidate the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in local cattle, a cross-sectional study was performed in the 12 subdistricts (Upazilas) of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 384 clinically healthy cattle kept by 135 farmers from 96 randomly selected villages. DNA extracted from the blood samples was subsequently screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay using an in-house prepared chemiluminescence solution for the presence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Babesia and Theileria spp...
November 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Azirwan Guswanto, Puttik Allamanda, Euis Siti Mariamah, Sodirun Sodirun, Putut Eko Wibowo, Liliek Indrayani, Rudi Harso Nugroho, I Ketut Wirata, Nur Jannah, Lepsi Putri Dias, Hadi Purnama Wirawan, Rochmadi Yanto, Bumduuren Tuvshintulga, Thillaiampalam Sivakumar, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis, mainly caused by Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, is a huge threat to the livestock industry. In Indonesia, the current distribution of the disease is unknown due to a lack of scientific study. METHODS: In the present study, 487 blood samples were collected from cattle with different breeding and age groups in a broad geographical area across the archipelago. The presence of antibodies and current infections of B. bovis and B. bigemina were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunochromatographic test (ICT), and nested PCR (nPCR) targeting B...
November 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Sonja Rueckert, Aleš Horák
BACKGROUND: Gregarines represent an important transition step from free-living predatory (colpodellids s.l.) and/or photosynthetic (Chromera and Vitrella) apicomplexan lineages to the most important pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites of humans and domestic animals such as coccidians and haemosporidians (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Babesia, etc.). While dozens of genomes of other apicomplexan groups are available, gregarines are barely entering the molecular age. Among the gregarines, archigregarines possess a unique mixture of ancestral (myzocytosis) and derived (lack of apicoplast, presence of subpellicular microtubules) features...
2017: PloS One
Shahbazi Gholamreza, Matin Somaieh, Shahbazi Roya, Babapour Alireza, Adhami Ghazale, Bageri Yasin
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Babesia is an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite which is transmitted by hard ticks of the Ixodidae family. One of the problems associated with protozoan infection is the determination and characterization of the vectors. The aim of the present study was to detect Babesia ovis in the salivary gland of Dermacentor spp. METHODS: A total of 200 adult Dermacentor ticks (139 D. niveus and 61 D. marginatus) were collected from sheep suspected to be infected with babesiosis in the Ardabil region of Iran from April to September 2015 (active season of ticks); and were identified using standard taxonomic keys...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Jyotsna Sharma, Stefan Baumeister, Jude M Przyborski, Klaus Lingelbach
Human red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum show an increased permeability to a number of solutes. We have previously demonstrated that such infected cells take up glutamate via a member of the excitatory amino acid transporter protein family (EAAT), namely EAAT3. Babesia divergens is a parasite that also infects human erythrocytes, and also induces increased solute permeability, including for glutamate. Here we have investigated whether glutamate uptake in B. divergens infected human red blood cells is also dependent on EAAT3 activity...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Jason Drake, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Dogs worldwide are at risk of Babesia spp. infections. Preventive efficacy of lotilaner tablets (Credelio™, Elanco) against Babesia canis was evaluated in two studies. METHODS: Sixteen dogs in Study 1 and 12 dogs in Study 2, all seronegative and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for B. canis, were randomized to a sham-treated control group or a lotilaner (20-43 mg/kg) treatment group, administered on Day 0 (Study 1: n = 8/group; Study 2: n = 6/group)...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Shalini Chakraborty, Sonti Roy, Hiral Uday Mistry, Shweta Murthy, Neena George, Vasundhra Bhandari, Paresh Sharma
Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Babesia, and Theileria are the major apicomplexan parasites affecting humans or animals worldwide. These pathogens represent an excellent example of host manipulators who can overturn host signaling pathways for their survival. They infect different types of host cells and take charge of the host machinery to gain nutrients and prevent itself from host attack. The mechanisms by which these pathogens modulate the host signaling pathways are well studied for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Theileria, except for limited studies on Babesia...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Junya Yamagishi, Masahito Asada, Hassan Hakimi, Takeshi Q Tanaka, Chihiro Sugimoto, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
BACKGROUND: Babesia ovata, belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa, is an infectious parasite of bovids. It is not associated with the manifestation of severe symptoms, in contrast to other types of bovine babesiosis caused by B. bovis and B. bigemina; however, upon co-infection with Theileria orientalis, it occasionally induces exacerbated symptoms. Asymptomatic chronic infection in bovines is usually observed only for B. ovata. Comparative genomic analysis could potentially reveal factors involved in these distinguishing characteristics; however, the genomic and molecular basis of these phenotypes remains elusive, especially in B...
October 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
Qiang Huang, Jie Cao, Yongzhi Zhou, Jingwei Huang, Haiyan Gong, Houshuang Zhang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Jinlin Zhou
The intraerythrocytic apicomplexan Babesia microti is the primary causative agent of human babesiosis, which is an infectious disease that occurs in various regions around the world. Although the aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) of this parasite have been sequenced and annotated, their biological properties remain unknown. AKRs are a superfamily of enzymes with diverse functions in the reduction of aldehydes and ketones. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of a B. microti aldo-keto reductase-like protein (BmAKR) and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequence of the BmAKR protein...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xunan Hai, Houshuang Zhang, Zhonghua Wang, Haiyan Gong, Jie Cao, Yongzhi Zhou, Jinlin Zhou
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that reduce peroxides in the presence of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to resist oxidative stress. In this study, we identified and isolated a 2-Cys Prx designated as 'BmTPx-2' from Babesia microti, with a full-length cDNA of 826 bp and an open reading frame of 756 bp, which encodes a 251-amino acid protein. BLAST analysis demonstrated that BmTPx-2 shows the typical features of members of the 2-Cys Prx family, which includes harboring two conserved VCP motifs with Cys(101) and Cys(221) conserved cysteine residues...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bumduuren Tuvshintulga, Mahmoud AbouLaila, Thillaiampalam Sivakumar, Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Sambuu Gantuya, Khandsuren Naranbaatar, Aki Ishiyama, Masato Iwatsuki, Kazuhiko Otoguro, Satoshi Ōmura, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Azirwan Guswanto, Mohamed Abdo Rizk, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi
Recently, we reported that clofazimine (CF) has an anti-piroplasm activity, but it could not completely eliminate parasites in the host. The currently available anti-piroplasm drug, diminazene aceturate (DA), has sometimes been reported to have toxic side effects. In the present study, we evaluated the combination treatment with CF and DA against piroplasms both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, mRNA level and DNA amounts were analyzed in CF‒ and DA‒treated Babesia bovis by a qPCR. The CF-DA combination had additive effects on Babesia bovis, B...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zi-Hou Gao, Tao-Hua Huang, Bao-Gui Jiang, Na Jia, Zheng-Xiang Liu, Zong-Ti Shao, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Hong-Bo Liu, Ran Wei, Yu-Qiong Li, Hong-Wu Yao, Michael E von Fricken, Jia-Fu Jiang, Chun-Hong Du, Wu-Chun Cao
BACKGROUND: Babesia, usually found in wild and domestic mammals worldwide, have recently been responsible for emerging malaria-like zoonosis in infected patients. Human B. microti infection has been identified in China, primarily in the Southwest along the Myanmar border but little direct surveillance of B. microti infection in rodents has been carried out here (Yunnan province). In this region, a diverse topographic range combined with tropical moisture sustains a high biodiversity of small mammals, which might play important role on Babesia transmission...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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