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Yunyun Jiang, Jian Zhang, Xiao Zhao, Wen Zhao, Zhijian Yu, Chao Chen, Zhennai Yang
Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) K25 is a probiotic strain isolated from Tibetan kefir. Previous studies showed that this exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain was antimicrobial active and cold tolerant. These functional traits were evidenced by complete genome sequencing of strain K25 with a circular 3,175,846-bp chromosome and six circular plasmids, encoding 3365 CDSs, 16 rRNA genes and 70 tRNA genes. Genomic analysis of L. plantarum K25 illustrates that this strain contains the previous reported mechanisms of probiotic functionality and cold tolerance, involving plantaricins, lysozyme, bile salt hydrolase, chaperone proteins, osmoprotectant, oxidoreductase, EPSs and terpenes...
March 22, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Alessandra Vecchione, Francesco Celandroni, Diletta Mazzantini, Sonia Senesi, Antonella Lupetti, Emilia Ghelardi
Recent guidelines indicate that oral probiotics, living microorganisms able to confer a health benefit on the host, should be safe for human consumption, when administered in a sufficient amount, and resist acid and bile to exert their beneficial effects (e.g., metabolic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, competitive). This study evaluated quantitative and qualitative aspects and the viability in simulated gastric and intestinal juices of commercial probiotic formulations available in Italy. Plate counting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to enumerate and identify the contained organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Friedrich Leblhuber, Michael Egger, Burkhard Schuetz, Dietmar Fuchs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Renata N Florindo, Valquiria P Souza, Lívia R Manzine, Cesar M Camilo, Sandro R Marana, Igor Polikarpov, Alessandro S Nascimento
Bifidobacterium is an important genus of probiotic bacteria colonizing the human gut. These bacteria can uptake oligosaccharides for the fermentative metabolism of hexoses and pentoses, producing lactate, acetate as well as short-chain fatty acids and propionate. These end-products are known to have important effects on human health. β-glucosidases (EC are pivotal enzymes for the metabolism and homeostasis of Bifidobacterium, since they hydrolyze small and soluble saccharides, typically producing glucose...
March 16, 2018: Biochimie
Cheng-En Dai, Hai-Long Li, Xiao-Ping He, Fen-Fen Zheng, Hua-Liu Zhu, Liang-Feng Liu, Wei Du
The pharmacological activity of active ingredients from Chinese medicine depends greatly on the microecological environment of probiotics in the human body. After effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by probiotics, their metabolites can increase pharmacological activity, and can be absorbed more easily to improve the bioavailability. Therefore, the combination of Chinese medicines with probiotics is the innovation point in R&D of functional food and Chinese medicines, and also a new thinking for the modernization of Chinese medicine...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Trevor W Stone, Megan McPherson, L Gail Darlington
Existing explanations of obesity-associated cancer emphasise direct mutagenic effects of dietary components or hormonal imbalance. Some of these hypotheses are reviewed briefly, but recent evidence suggests a major role for chronic inflammation in cancer risk, possibly involving dietary content. These ideas include the inflammation-induced activation of the kynurenine pathway and its role in feeding and metabolism by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and by modulating synaptic transmission in the brain...
February 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
Lora J Kasselman, Nicholas A Vernice, Joshua DeLeon, Allison B Reiss
Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Jing-Jing Liu, Guo-Chang Zhang, In Iok Kong, Eun Ju Yun, Jia-Qi Zheng, Dae-Hyuk Kweon, Yong-Su Jin
The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii has been extensively studied for preventing and treating diarrheal diseases and is now commercially available in some countries. S. boulardii displays notable phenotypes, such as high optimal growth temperature, high tolerance against acidic conditions, and the inability to form ascospores, which differentiate S. boulardii from S. cerevisiae The majority of prior studies stated that S. boulardii exhibits sluggish or halted galactose utilization. Nonetheless, molecular mechanisms underlying inefficient galactose uptake have yet to be elucidated...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mengxia Wang, Yongxiong Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Yuan Li, Haihui Zheng, Fangli Ma, ChungWah Ma, Xiaojun Zhang, Biyu Lu, Zhiyong Xie, Qiongfeng Liao
Weaning is an essential and important event for infants and rodent animals, and the dietary supplementation plays a crucial role in regulating the composition and function of gut microbiota in the initial period after weaning. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of two probiotics along with three polysaccharides (PP) in weaned rats. Male SD rats, 21 days of age, were divided into two groups: one group was administered with PP for four weeks and the other was not. Body weight, food intake, gut epithelial barrier function, digestive enzyme activities, and the composition and function of gut microbiota were analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Food & Function
Paige V Bauer, Frank A Duca, T M Zaved Waise, Helen J Dranse, Brittany A Rasmussen, Akshita Puri, Mozhgan Rasti, Catherine A O'Brien, Tony K T Lam
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-dependent upper small intestinal lipid metabolism activates pre-absorptive pathways to regulate metabolic homeostasis, but whether changes in the upper small intestinal microbiota alter specific fatty acid-dependent pathways to impact glucose homeostasis remains unknown. We here first find that upper small intestinal infusion of Intralipid, oleic acid, or linoleic acid pre-absorptively increases glucose tolerance and lowers glucose production in rodents. High-fat feeding impairs pre-absorptive fatty acid sensing and reduces upper small intestinal Lactobacillus gasseri levels and ACSL3 expression...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Elham Karimi, Ashraf Moini, Mehdi Yaseri, Nooshin Shirzad, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Mojgan Hossein-Boroujerdi, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of infertility in women of reproductive age. Insulin resistance is a main pathophysiologic feature in these patients. According to some studies, the intake of probiotic bacteria may improve glucose homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of synbiotics on metabolic parameters and apelin in PCOS patients. This randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on eighty-eight PCOS women aged 19-37 years old...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Kathryn J Burton, Grégory Pimentel, Nadine Zangger, Nathalie Vionnet, Jocelyne Drai, Philip G McTernan, François P Pralong, Mauro Delorenzi, Guy Vergères
The metabolic health benefits of fermented milks have already been investigated using clinical biomarkers but the development of transcriptomic analytics in blood offers an alternative approach that may help to sensitively characterise such effects. We aimed to assess the effects of probiotic yoghurt intake, compared to non-fermented, acidified milk intake, on clinical biomarkers and gene expression in peripheral blood. To this end, a randomised, crossover study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test the two dairy products...
2018: PloS One
Andrea Mancini, Francesca Campagna, Piero Amodio, Kieran M Tuohy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition often associated with acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Advanced liver diseases are characterized by a leaky gut and systemic inflammation. There is strong evidence that the pathogenesis of HE is linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiota and to harmful microbial by-products, such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles and endotoxins. Increased concentrations of these toxic metabolites together with the inability of the diseased liver to clear such products is thought to play an important patho-ethiological role...
February 27, 2018: Food & Function
Diamante Maresca, Teresa Zotta, Gianluigi Mauriello
Oxygen is considered one of the main factors affecting probiotic bacteria survival due to the induction of oxidative damages caused by the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been shown that oxidative stress resistance in lactic acid bacteria is strongly dependent on the type of cell metabolism. Shift from fermentative to respiratory metabolism (through the addition of heme and menaquinone and in presence of oxygen) was associated to increase in biomass, long-term survival, and production of antioxidant enzymes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Stephanie L Collins, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Despite benefits to the global food supply and agricultural economies, pesticides are believed to pose a threat to both human and wildlife health. Chlorpyrifos (CP), a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, has poor target-specificity and causes acute neurotoxicity in a wide range of species via suppression of acetylcholinesterase. This effect is exacerbated 10- to 100-fold by chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), a principal metabolite of CP. Since many animal-associated symbiont microorganisms are known to hydrolyze CP into CPO, we used a Drosophila melanogaster insect model to investigate the hypothesis that indigenous and probiotic bacteria could affect CP metabolism and toxicity...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Charlotte Bamberger, Andreas Rossmeier, Katharina Lechner, Liya Wu, Elisa Waldmann, Sandra Fischer, Renée G Stark, Julia Altenhofer, Kerstin Henze, Klaus G Parhofer
Regular walnut consumption is associated with better health. We have previously shown that eight weeks of walnut consumption (43 g/day) significantly improves lipids in healthy subjects. In the same study, gut microbiome was evaluated. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (eight weeks each); 96 subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet, while 98 subjects followed the diets in reverse order...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Barbara Zartl, Karina Silberbauer, Renate Loeppert, Helmut Viernstein, Werner Praznik, Monika Mueller
Due to their prebiotic potential indigestible oligosaccharides became a major focus of research interest. In this study the growth of selected probiotic strains including lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, Pediococcus ssp. and Enterococcus faecium with the, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) raffinose, stachyose and verbascose and galactomannan from guar bean Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (total guar carbohydrates, oligosaccharides (dp 2-4) and polysaccharides (dp > 5), obtained by size exclusion chromatography) were tested by means of turbidity measurements...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
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