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Neurology, movement, development, child neurology, pediatric neurology

Eleni Papageorgiou, Rebecca J McLean, Irene Gottlob
Nystagmus is an involuntary rhythmic oscillation of the eyes, which leads to reduced visual acuity due to the excessive motion of images on the retina. Nystagmus can be grouped into infantile nystagmus (IN), which usually appears in the first 3-6 months of life, and acquired nystagmus (AN), which appears later. IN can be idiopathic or associated to albinism, retinal disease, low vision, or visual deprivation in early life, for example due to congenital cataracts, optic nerve hypoplasia, and retinal dystrophies, or it can be part of neurological syndromes and neurologic diseases...
October 2014: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Avanthi Mandaleson, Yaozong Lee, Claire Kerr, H Kerr Graham
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood in developed countries and encompasses a wide range of clinical phenotypes. Classification of CP according to movement disorder or topographical distribution is widely used. However, these classifications are not reliable nor do they accurately predict musculoskeletal pathology. More recently, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) has been introduced and its validity, reliability, and clinical utility have been confirmed...
March 2015: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Denis George Duca, Dana Craiu, Monica Boer, Sorina Mihaela Chirieac, Aurora Arghir, Andreea Tutulan-Cunita, Diana Barca, Catrinel Iliescu, Agripina Lungeanu, Sanda Magureanu, Magdalena Budisteanu
ABSTRACT: HASH(0x48aa458) BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic condition, characterized by severe mental retardation, ataxic gait, severe speech delay, dysmorphic features, abnormal behaviour, movement disorder. It is caused by a variety of genetic mechanisms which all interfere with expression of the UBE3A gene on chromosome 15q11-13. OBJECTIVES: To present our experience regarding diagnosis of children with Angelman syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 15 children were clinically and genetically diagnosed with AS in the Department of Pediatric Neurology of the "Prof...
September 2013: Mædica
Jamie M Pinto, Kavita Babu, Carole Jenny
Child neglect can be difficult to recognize. Parental substance abuse may place a child at increased risk of neglect. This report reviews 2 cases of dystonic reaction in children after accidental exposure to cocaine in their home environments. The reports are followed by a review of proposed physiologic mechanisms for cocaine-induced dystonia and a discussion on neurological symptoms that may develop after cocaine exposure. Pediatric emergency physicians should consider cocaine exposure when a child of any age presents with abnormal movements...
September 2013: Pediatric Emergency Care
Thaís Armangue, Maarten J Titulaer, Ignacio Málaga, Luis Bataller, Iñigo Gabilondo, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features of 20 pediatric patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. STUDY DESIGN: Review of clinical data, long-term follow-up, and immunologic studies performed in a single center in Spain in the last 4 years. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 13 years (range, 8 months-18 years), 70% were female. In 12 patients (60%), the initial symptoms were neurologic, usually dyskinesias or seizures, and in the other 40% psychiatric...
April 2013: Journal of Pediatrics
Yasuo Hachiya, Rie Miyata, Naoyuki Tanuma, Kazuhisa Hongou, Keiko Tanaka, Konomi Shimoda, Sachiko Kanda, Ai Hoshino, Yukiko Hanafusa, Satoko Kumada, Eiji Kurihara, Masaharu Hayashi
Although central nervous system (CNS) disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection occur only rarely, Sydenham's chorea is a well-recognized disease that can arise following infection. Children may develop a tic, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and extrapyramidal movement subsequent to GABHS infection. These disorders have been termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS). Herein we report one case each of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), PANDAS and subacute encephalitis associated with GABHS infection...
August 2013: Brain & Development
Susan E Fasoli, Barbara Ladenheim, Joelle Mast, Hermano Igo Krebs
The field of rehabilitation robotics has grown substantially during the past 15 yrs. Studies of upper limb robot-assisted therapy for adults with moderate to severe hemiparesis after stroke have shown significant gains compared with usual care in isolated control, coordination, and strength in the paretic arm (J Rehabil Res Dev 2006;43:171-84; Top Stroke Rehabil 2007;14:22-44; Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2008;22:111-21). While attempts to increase the understanding of the key active ingredients of these interventions continue, researchers have recently extended their focus to children with neurologically based movement disorders arising from cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury or stroke...
November 2012: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Véronique H Flamand, Louis-David Beaulieu, Line Nadeau, Cyril Schneider
Muscle spasticity in pediatric cerebral palsy limits movement and disrupts motor performance, thus its reduction is important in rehabilitation to optimize functional motor development. Our pilot study used repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation, because this emerging technology influences spinal and cerebral synaptic transmission, and its antispastic effects were reported in adult neurologic populations. We tested whether five sessions of tibial and common peroneal nerve stimulation exerted acute and long-term effects on spasticity of the ankle plantar flexor muscles in five spastic diparetic children (mean age, 8 years and 3 months; standard deviation, 1 year and 10 months)...
November 2012: Pediatric Neurology
Diego Martinelli, Michela Catteruccia, Fiorella Piemonte, Anna Pastore, Giulia Tozzi, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Giuseppe Pontrelli, Tiziana Corsetti, Susanna Livadiotti, Viktoria Kheifets, Andrew Hinman, William D Shrader, Martin Thoolen, Matthew B Klein, Enrico Bertini, Guy Miller
BACKGROUND: Genetically defined Leigh syndrome is a rare, fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects children. No treatment is available. EPI-743 is a novel small molecule developed for the treatment of Leigh syndrome and other inherited mitochondrial diseases. In compassionate use cases and in an FDA Expanded Access protocol, children with Leigh syndrome treated with EPI-743 demonstrated objective signs of neurologic and neuromuscular improvement. To confirm these initial findings, a phase 2A open label trial of EPI-743 for children with genetically-confirmed Leigh syndrome was conducted and herein we report the results...
November 2012: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Judy Carmick
PURPOSE: This case report addresses the assumption that ankle and foot orthoses assist children with cerebral palsy. KEY POINTS: Outcome research reports are not consistent. Clinical observations and research studies suggest that inappropriate fit and design of orthoses may contribute to poor outcomes. In particular, problems occur when the subtalar joint is out of alignment as children often compensate with unwanted movement patterns that affect progress, development, and function...
2012: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Jonathan B Ford, Timothy E Albertson, Kelly P Owen, Mark E Sutter, W Blake McKinney
Amphetamine-derived medications are being prescribed with increasing frequency to younger pediatric patients to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although choreiform movements were reported in adults with amphetamine abuse and in those under therapeutic treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, previous literature concerning the pediatric population is spare. We describe two children who developed chorea after ingesting amphetamine-derived medications prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
September 2012: Pediatric Neurology
Mustafa Komur, Samim Ozen, Cetin Okuyaz, Khatuna Makharoblıdze, Semra Erdogan
BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common reason of mental retardation, and normal neurological development can be provided by early and effective treatment. In this present study, it is aimed to compare neurological developments of patients in 6-42 months of age with congenital hypothyroidism and healthy controls of the same age group prospectively by Bayley III test. METHODS: In this present study, neurological developments of 41 congenital hypothyroidism cases and 39 healthy controls, who applied to Pediatric Endocrinology Section of Mersin Children Hospital and Pediatric Neurology Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School at Mersin University between years 2009 and 2011, were evaluated by Bayley III test...
May 2013: Brain & Development
Burak Tatlı, Irmak Özer, Barış Ekici, Ibrahim Kalelioğlu, Recep Has, Emine Eraslan, Atıl Yüksel
AIM: We present the neurodevelopmental outcome of patients with isolated borderline fetal ventriculomegaly. METHODS: The present study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University in July-December 2010. Prenatal second trimester detailed ultrasound examinations were performed by obstetricians at the Prenatal Diagnosis Department of Istanbul Medical School, and 31 consecutive patients aged 8-33 months have been included in the study...
September 2012: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Harvey S Singer
The discipline of childhood movement disorders is an exciting new area of specialization within the field of pediatric neurology. Establishing a formal educational system is an ongoing challenge that should include the standardization of movement definitions, the development of a formal classification system for existing disorders, the adequate exposure of trainees to both common and rare disorders, and the ongoing formulation of topic guidelines and consensus papers. Specific suggestions and recommendations are provided for further discussion...
June 2011: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
K Pelc, N Deconinck, A Monier, T Sékhara, J Bormans, B Dan
Cerebral palsy was recently redefined as a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication or behaviour, by epilepsy or by secondary musculoskeletal problems (Bax et al. 2005). It has an estimated incidence of 0.2 %, i.e., 200 new cases per year in Belgium and a total of about 18,000 patients (in a population of 10 millions)...
2006: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Jeffrey D Lebensburger, Lee M Hilliard, Tony M McGrath, Naomi S Fineberg, Thomas H Howard
Children with sickle cell anemia are at risk for brain injury. Physicians obtain brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical indications to determine if a patient has developed a brain injury. Controversy exists whether all children with sickle cell anemia should undergo MRI screening. This retrospective study evaluates the clinical and laboratory correlates for brain injury in 124 MRIs obtained for a variety of clinical indications. Seizure, sensory, or motor events were statistically associated with the highest risk for brain injury while less specific neurologic complaints of headache or poor school performance were not associated...
October 2011: Journal of Child Neurology
Jerzy Starzyk, Stanisław Kwiatkowski, Marek Kaciński, Sławomir Kroczka, Małgorzata Wójcik
BACKGROUND: In the population of children and adolescents, epilepsy affects 0.5-1% of individuals; approximately 3% of general population suffer from non-epileptic seizures, while endocrine disorders are several times more frequent. All of the above factors result in a relatively common non-accidental occurrence of endocrine disorders, epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, structural central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities that cause both endocrine and neurologic disorders seem to be markedly less common...
2010: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Umakanth Khatwa, Sanjeev V Kothare
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) are common neurological disorders in childhood which are usually underdiagnosed. As many pediatricians and pediatric pulmonologists with interest in sleep medicine will be encountering children with RLS and PLMS in their practice, we feel a comprehensive review of these disorders from a pediatric perspective would be very important in understanding basic pathophysiology, clinical features in early diagnosis, and effective management...
November 2010: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
J Burns, S Ramchandren, M M Ryan, M Shy, R A Ouvrier
OBJECTIVE: We have shown that health-related quality of life (QOL) in children with inherited neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT]) is significantly reduced compared to population norms, thus establishing its utility as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. However, the Australian ascorbic acid trial in children with CMT type 1A (CMT1A) identified no change in QOL scores despite a trend toward improvement in nerve conduction velocities in the treated group. The objective of this study was to identify clinical, electrophysiologic, and functional correlates of QOL in children with CMT1A, to guide future investigations of strategies to improve QOL and reduce disability in these patients...
August 24, 2010: Neurology
Francesca Romana Fusco, Alessandra Pompa, Giorgio Bernardi, Fabrizio Ottaviani, Carmela Giampà, Daunia Laurenti, Maria Morello, Sergio Bernardini, Marzia Nuccetelli, Umberto Sabatini, Stefano Paolucci
PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of tics, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or chorea in the context of an immediately precedent streptococcal infection. In this report, we describe the case of an 11-year-old boy who developed PANDAS with severe choreic movements. The criteria for PANDAS diagnosis were met. Moreover, serum antibrain antibodies were present. The patient was initially treated with tetrabenazine 12...
May 2010: Journal of Child Neurology
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