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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608355/-neuronal-glycolipids-regulate-glial-cell-division-negatively-during-development-and-following-a-lesion
#1
REVIEW
M Nieto-Sampedro, V C Muneton-Gomez
Glial cells in the central nervous system of adult mammals outnumber neurons 10-fold. Their number remains stationary throughout adulthood, controlled by the concomitant presence of mitogens and mitogen inhibitors. The most abundant inhibitor, neurostatin, is ganglioside GD1b O-acetylated on hydroxyl 9 of its outermost sialic acid. Neurostatin inhibited the proliferation of primary microglia and astroblasts in culture (cytostatic) as well as both rodent and human glioma cells (cytotoxic) at nanomolar concentrations...
June 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604556/immunologic-response-elicited-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-a-neugcgm3-based-vaccine-as-adjuvant-therapy
#2
Anet Valdes-Zayas, Zuyen Gonzalez, Vladimir Mulens, Aliz M Vega, Kirenia Perez, Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces, Maria C Rubio, Anabely Estevez, Idelmis Curbelo, Luis E Fernandez, Tania Crombet, Zaima Mazorra
This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity of a cancer vaccine consisting of the NeuGcGM3 ganglioside combined with the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitides to form very small size particles. The vaccine is administered together with Montanide ISA51, as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer patients. After surgical resection and standard first-line chemo/radiotherapy, breast cancer patients in stage II-III were enrolled in a phase III clinical trial and allocated into 2 strata, according to the number of positive lymph nodes [stratum I (0-3); stratum II (≥4)]...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602513/glycolipids-essential-regulator-of-neuro-inflammation-metabolism-and-gliomagenesis
#3
REVIEW
Koichi Furukawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Shuting Ji, Pu Zhang, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Yuki Ohkawa, Orie Tajima, Noboru Hashimoto, Keiko Furukawa
Gene knockout mice of glycosyltransferases have clearly showed roles of their products in the bodies, while there are examples where phenotype of knockout was much less severe than expected probably due to functional redundancy. The most striking novel finding obtained from ganglioside-deficient mice was that progressive inflammatory reaction took place, leading to neurodegeneration. In particular, dysfunction of complement-regulatory proteins due to deteriorated architecture of lipid rafts seemed to be essential mechanisms for the inflammation...
June 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601604/axonal-dystrophy-in-the-brain-of-mice-with-sanfilippo-syndrome
#4
Helen Beard, Sofia Hassiotis, Wei-Ping Gai, Emma Parkinson-Lawrence, John J Hopwood, Kim M Hemsley
Axonal dystrophy has been described as an early pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Axonal inclusions have also been reported to occur in several neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders including Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA; Sanfilippo syndrome). This disorder results from a mutation in the gene encoding the lysosomal sulphatase sulphamidase, and as a consequence heparan sulphate accumulates, accompanied by secondarily-stored gangliosides...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585705/ganglioside-gm3-induces-cumulus-cell-apoptosis-through-inhibition-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mediated-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-pig-oocytes
#5
Hyo-Jin Park, Sung-Kyu Chae, Jin-Woo Kim, Seul-Gi Yang, Jae-Min Jung, Min-Ji Kim, Gabbine Wee, Dong-Seok Lee, Sun-Uk Kim, Deog-Bon Koo
Gangliosides are components of the mammalian plasma membrane that help regulate receptor signaling. Ganglioside GM3, for example, plays an important role in initiating apoptosis in cancer cells; however, physiological roles for GM3 in normal processes, such as during pig oocyte maturation, are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional link between GM3 and cellular apoptosis in porcine cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) during in vitro maturation. Our results indicated that denuded oocytes possess less ST3GAL5, a GM3-synthesizing enzyme, than cumulus cells or COCs after 44 h of in vitro maturation...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579983/effect-of-dietary-minerals-on-virulence-attributes-of-vibrio-cholerae
#6
Varunkumar Bhattaram, Abhinav Upadhyay, Hsin-Bai Yin, Shankumar Mooyottu, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Vibrio cholerae is a water-borne pathogen responsible for causing a toxin-mediated profuse diarrhea in humans, leading to severe dehydration and death in unattended patients. With increasing reports of antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae, there is a need for alternate interventional strategies for controlling cholera. A potential new strategy for treating infectious diseases involves targeting bacterial virulence rather than growth, where a pathogen's specific mechanisms critical for causing infection in hosts are inhibited...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576383/cholesterol-metabolism-and-glaucoma-modulation-of-muller-cell-membrane-organization-by-24s-hydroxycholesterol
#7
Ségolène Gambert, Pierre-Henry Gabrielle, Elodie Masson, Elise Leger-Charnay, Arthur Ferrerro, Arthur Vannier, Clément Gendrault, Méline Lachot, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Alain Bron, Stéphane Gregoire, Laurent Leclere, Lucy Martine, Géraldine Lucchi, Caroline Truntzer, Delphine Pecqueur, Lionel Bretillon
Glaucoma is a progressive and irreversible blinding neuropathy that is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Muller Glial Cell (MGC) activation is induced in retinal gliosis. MGCs are the most numerous glial cells in the retina and one of their roles is to sustain cholesterol homeostasis. 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) is one of the form of cholesterol elimination from the retina and is overexpressed during glaucoma. The objective of this study was to determine whether 24S-OHC triggers MGC membrane dynamics involving lipid rafts and contributes to gliosis at early and late time points...
May 30, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575132/abnormal-differentiation-of-sandhoff-disease-model-mouse-derived-multipotent-stem-cells-toward-a-neural-lineage
#8
Yasuhiro Ogawa, Katsutoshi Kaizu, Yusuke Yanagi, Subaru Takada, Hitoshi Sakuraba, Kazuhiko Oishi
In Sandhoff disease (SD), the activity of the lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme, β-hexosaminidase (Hex), is lost due to a Hexb gene defect, which results in the abnormal accumulation of the substrate, GM2 ganglioside (GM2), in neuronal cells, causing neuronal loss, microglial activation, and astrogliosis. We established induced pluripotent stem cells from the cells of SD mice (SD-iPSCs). In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of abnormal differentiation and development of a neural lineage in the asymptomatic phase of SD in vitro using SD mouse fetus-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and SD-iPSCs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571946/gangliosides-and-hearing
#9
Jin-Ichi Inokuchi, Shinji Go, Misato Yoshikawa, Kevin Strauss
Severe auditory impairment observed in GM3 synthase-deficient mice and humans indicates that glycosphingolipids, especially sialic-acid containing gangliosides, are indispensable for hearing. Gangliosides associate with glycoproteins to form membrane microdomains, the composition of which plays a special role in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of hair cells. These microdomains, also called lipid rafts, connect with intracellular signaling and cytoskeletal systems to link cellular responses to environmental cues...
May 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554572/electrospray-ionization-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-provides-novel-insights-into-the-pattern-and-activity-of-fetal-hippocampus-gangliosides
#10
Mirela Sarbu, Željka Vukelic, David E Clemmer, Alina D Zamfir
Gangliosides (GGs), a particular class of glycosphingolipids ubiquitously found in tissues and body fluids, exhibit the highest expression in the central nervous system, especially in brain. GGs are involved in crucial processes, such as neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, growth and proliferation. For these reasons, efforts are constantly invested into development and refinement of specific methods for GG analysis. We have recently shown that ion mobility separation (IMS) mass spectrometry (MS) has the capability to provide consistent compositional and structural information on GGs at high sensitivity, resolution and mass accuracy...
May 26, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551069/gene-expression-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-pathways-is-altered-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#11
Mohammed Dany, Dirk Elston
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating skin disease characterized by painful recurrent nodules and abscesses caused by chronic inflammation. Early events in the development of HS are believed to occur in the folliculopilosebaceous unit; however, the signaling pathways behind this mechanism are unknown. Sphingolipids, such as ceramide, are essential components of the skin and appendages and have important structural and signaling roles. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore whether the gene expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolic pathways is altered in HS...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544772/ganglioside-gm3-content-in-skeletal-muscles-is-increased-in-type-2-but-decreased-in-type-1-diabetes-rat-models-implications-of-glycosphingolipid-metabolism-in-pathophysiology-of-diabetes
#12
Josko Bozic, Anita Markotic, Vedrana Cikes-Culic, Anela Novak, Josip Andelo Borovac, Hrvoje Vucemilovic, Gorana Trgo, Tina Ticinovic Kurir
BACKGROUND: Ganglioside GM3 is an abundant constituent of the plasma membrane where its accumulation attenuates insulin receptor signaling. Considering the role of skeletal muscles for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of GM3 and its precursors in skeletal muscle of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) rat models. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (55 mg/kg for DM1 and 35 mg/kg for DM2) injection to male Sprague-Dawley rats which were fed with normal pellet diet (DM1 type) or high-fat diet (DM2 type)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537895/interaction-of-glycosphingolipids-gd3-and-gd2-with-growth-factor-receptors-maintains-breast-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype
#13
Yuh-Jin Liang, Chen-Yu Wang, I-An Wang, Yi-Wen Chen, Li-Tzu Li, Chuang-Yu Lin, Ming-Yi Ho, Tsung-Lung Chou, Ya-Hui Wang, Shih-Pin Chiou, Yu-Ju Lin, John Yu
Many studies have suggested that disialogangliosides, GD2 and GD3, are involved in the development of various tumor types. However, the functional relationships between ganglioside expression and cancer development or aggressiveness are not fully described. GD3 is upregulated in approximately half of all invasive ductal breast carcinoma cases, and enhanced expression of GD3 synthase (GD3S, alpha-N-acetylneuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase) in estrogen receptor-negative breast tumors, was shown to correlate with reduced overall patient survival...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536532/phase-partitioning-of-gm1-and-its-bodipy-labeled-analog-determine-their-different-binding-to-cholera-toxin
#14
Sami Rissanen, Michal Grzybek, Adam Orłowski, Tomasz Róg, Oana Cramariuc, Ilya Levental, Christian Eggeling, Erdinc Sezgin, Ilpo Vattulainen
Driven by interactions between lipids and proteins, biological membranes display lateral heterogeneity that manifests itself in a mosaic of liquid-ordered (Lo) or raft, and liquid-disordered (Ld) or non-raft domains with a wide range of different properties and compositions. In giant plasma membrane vesicles and giant unilamellar vesicles, specific binding of Cholera Toxin (CTxB) to GM1 glycolipids is a commonly used strategy to label raft domains or Lo membrane environments. However, these studies often use acyl-chain labeled bodipy-GM1 (bdGM1), whose headgroup accessibility and membrane order or phase partitioning may differ from those of GM1, rendering the interpretation of CTxB binding data quite problematic...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532689/lipid-composition-of-microdomains-is-altered-in-neuronopathic-gaucher-disease-sheep-brain-and-spleen
#15
Leanne K Hein, Tina Rozaklis, Melissa K Adams, John J Hopwood, Litsa Karageorgos
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity that leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Membrane raft microdomains are discrete, highly organized microdomains with a unique lipid composition that provide the necessary environment for specific protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions to take place. In this study we purified detergent resistant membranes (DRM; membrane rafts) from the occipital cortex and spleen from sheep affected with acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease and wild-type controls...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528321/omega-3-fatty-acids-lipids-and-apoe-lipidation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-rationale-for-multi-nutrient-dementia-prevention
#16
Marcus O Grimm, Daniel Michaelson, Tobias Hartmann
In the last decade it has become obvious that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely linked to changes in lipids or lipid metabolism. One of the main pathological hallmarks of AD is amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ is derived from sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, both, the APP and all APP secretases are transmembrane proteins which cleave APP close to and in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) has been identified as the most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524176/lentivirus-mediated-microrna-124-gene-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#17
Jia-Lin Song, Wei Zheng, Wei Chen, Yun Qian, Yuan-Ming Ouyang, Cun-Yi Fan
Our study aims to explore the effects of lentivirus-mediated microRNA-124 (miR-124) gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. BMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of rats. The target gene miR-124 was identified using a luciferase-reporter gene assay. Seventy-two rats were selected for construction of the SCI model, and the rats were randomly divided into the blank group, sham group, SCI group, negative control (NC) group, overexpressed miR-124 group and si-PDXK group...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523231/association-of-anti-gangliosides-antibodies-and-anti-cmv-antibodies-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#18
Lijuan Wang, Chunqing Shao, Chunjiao Yang, Xixiong Kang, Guojun Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Numerous types of infection were closely related to GBS, mainly including Campylobacter jejuni, Cytomegalovirus, which may lead to the production of anti-gangliosides antibodies (AGA). Currently, although there are increased studies on the AGA and a few studies of anti-CMV antibodies in GBS, the association between them remains poorly documented. Therefore, our research aims to analyze the correlation of anti-CMV antibodies and AGA in GBS. METHODS: A total of 29 patients with GBS were enrolled in this study...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521265/optimizing-the-electrodiagnostic-accuracy-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-subtypes-criteria-sets-and-sparse-linear-discriminant-analysis
#19
Antonino Uncini, Luigi Ippoliti, Nortina Shahrizaila, Yukari Sekiguchi, Satoshi Kuwabara
OBJECTIVE: To optimize the electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) subtypes at first study. METHODS: The reference electrodiagnosis was obtained in 53 demyelinating and 45 axonal GBS patients on the basis of two serial studies and results of anti-ganglioside antibodies assay. We retrospectively employed sparse linear discriminant analysis (LDA), two existing electrodiagnostic criteria sets (Hadden et al., 1998; Rajabally et al., 2015) and one we propose that additionally evaluates duration of motor responses, sural sparing pattern and defines reversible conduction failure (RCF) in motor and sensory nerves at second study...
July 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502484/pathogenic-a%C3%AE-a2v-versus-protective-a%C3%AE-a2t-mutation-early-stage-aggregation-and-membrane-interaction
#20
Laura Colombo, Alessio Gamba, Laura Cantù, Mario Salmona, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Valeria Rondelli, Elena Del Favero, Paola Brocca
We investigated the effects of punctual A-to-V and A-to-T mutations in the amyloid precursor protein APP, corresponding to position 2 of Aβ1-42. Those mutations had opposite effects on the onset and progression of Alzheimer disease, the former inducing early AD pathology and the latter protecting against the onset of the disease. We applied Static and Dynamic Light Scattering and Circular Dichroism, to study the different mutants in the early stages of the aggregation process, essential for the disease. Comparative results showed that the aggregation pathways differ in the kinetics and extent of the process, in the size of the aggregates and in the evolution of the secondary structure, resulting in fibrils of different morphology, as seen by AFM...
May 6, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
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