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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089228/intraplantar-injection-of-sialidase-reduces-mechanical-allodynia-during-inflammatory-pain
#1
Shun Watanabe, Takashi Iwai, Mitsuo Tanabe
Sialic acids are highly charged glycoresidues that are attached to glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and they are associated with various biological functions. Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are abundant in neural tissues and play important roles in the nervous system. Previous studies revealed that peripheral gangliosides are involved in nociceptive behavior and hyperalgesia. These observations prompted us to determine whether the sialic acid-cleaving enzyme sialidase affects pain signaling...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088450/assessment-of-ganglioside-age-related-and-topographic-specificity-in-human-brain-by-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#2
Mirela Sarbu, Liana Dehelean, Cristian V A Munteanu, Željka Vukelić, Alina D Zamfir
The gangliosides (GGs) of the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit age and topographic specificity and these patterns may correlate with the functions and pathologies of the brain regions. Here, chloroform extraction, nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) negative ionization, together with Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) determined the topographic and age-related GG specificity in normal adult human brain. Mapping of GG mixtures extracted from 20 to 82 year old frontal and occipital lobes revealed besides a decrease in the GG number with age, a variability of sialylation degree within the brain regions...
January 11, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087363/membrane-restructuring-following-in-situ-sialidase-digestion-of-gangliosides-complex-model-bilayers-by-synchrotron-radiation-reflectivity
#3
Valeria Rondelli, Paola Brocca, Giovanna Fragneto, Jean Daillant, Cristina Tringali, Laura Cantu', Elena Del Favero
Synchrotron radiation reflectometry was used to access the transverse structure of model membranes under the action of the human sialidase NEU2, down to the Ångström length scale. Model membranes were designed to mimic the lipid composition of so-called Glycosphingolipids Enriched Microdomains (GEMs), which are membrane platforms specifically enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, where also typical signalling molecules are hosted. Gangliosides, glycosphingolipids containing one or more sialic acid residues, are asymmetrically embedded in GEMs, in the outer membrane leaflet...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078995/sphingolipids-in-genetic-and-acquired-forms-of-chronic-kidney-diseases
#4
Norishi Ueda
Sphingolipids (SLs) regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. SLs, including ceramide, glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and gangliosides) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of genetic (lysosomal storage disease, congenital nephrotic syndrome and polycystic kidney disease) and non-genetic forms of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). SLs metabolism defects promote complications (cardiovascular events, etc.) via oxidant stress in CKDs...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069944/soluble-klotho-binds-monosialoganglioside-to-regulate-membrane-microdomains-and-growth-factor-signaling
#5
George Dalton, Sung-Wan An, Saif I Al-Juboori, Nicole Nischan, Joonho Yoon, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Donald W Hilgemann, Jian Xie, Kate Luby-Phelps, Jennifer J Kohler, Lutz Birnbaumer, Chou-Long Huang
Soluble klotho, the shed ectodomain of the antiaging membrane protein α-klotho, is a pleiotropic endocrine/paracrine factor with no known receptors and poorly understood mechanism of action. Soluble klotho down-regulates growth factor-driven PI3K signaling, contributing to extension of lifespan, cardioprotection, and tumor inhibition. Here we show that soluble klotho binds membrane lipid rafts. Klotho binding to rafts alters lipid organization, decreases membrane's propensity to form large ordered domains for endocytosis, and down-regulates raft-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067631/schwann-cells-are-activated-by-atp-released-from-neurons-in-an-in-vitro-cellular-model-of-miller-fisher-syndrome
#6
Umberto Rodella, Samuele Negro, Michele Scorzeto, Elisanna Bergamin, Kees Jalink, Cesare Montecucco, Nobuhiro Yuki, Michela Rigoni
The neuromuscular junction is exposed to different types of insults including mechanical traumas, toxins or autoimmune antibodies and, accordingly, has retained through evolution a remarkable ability to regenerate. Regeneration is driven by multiple signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of the junction. These signals are largely unknown.Miller Fisher syndrome is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by autoimmune antibodies specific for epitopes of peripheral axon terminals. Using an animal model of Miller Fisher syndrome, we recently reported that a monoclonal anti-polysialoganglioside GQ1b antibody plus complement damages nerve terminals with production of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide, that activates Schwann cells...
January 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065791/the-neuroprotective-strategic-analysis-for-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-combined-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-icu
#7
Yali Chao, Weiwei Hu, Xiaojuan Geng
BACKGROUND: We conducted this study to investigate the neuroprotective treatment strategies for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the ICU. METHODS: A total of 83 cases that were diagnosed with secondary AMI for the first time were selected and divided into observation group (n=43) and the control group (n=40). All of patients underwent emergency or elective PCI. Patients in the control group were treated with mannitol to reduce intracranial pressure, cinepazide maleate to improve microcirculation in the brain and also given comprehensive treatments of oxygen inhalation, fluid infusion, acid-base imbalance correction, electrolyte disturbance, etc...
January 5, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062666/cyclodextrin-has-conflicting-actions-on-autophagy-flux-in-vivo-in-brains-of-normal-and-alzheimer-model-mice
#8
Dun-Sheng Yang, Philip Stavrides, Asok Kumar, Ying Jiang, Panaiyur S Mohan, Masuo Ohno, Kostantin Dobrenis, Cristin D Davidson, Mitsuo Saito, Monika Pawlik, Chunfeng Huo, Steven U Walkley, Ralph A Nixon
2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (CYCLO), a modifier of cholesterol efflux from cellular membrane and endo-lysosomal compartments, reduces lysosomal lipid accumulations and has therapeutic effects in animal models of Niemann-Pick disease type C and several other neurodegenerative states. Here, we investigated CYCLO effects on autophagy in wild-type mice and TgCRND8 mice - an Alzheimer's Disease (AD) model exhibiting β-amyloidosis, neuronal autophagy deficits leading to protein and lipid accumulation within greatly enlarged autolysosomes...
January 5, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051846/selective-intracellular-delivery-of-ganglioside-gm3-binding-peptide-through-caveolae-raft-mediated-endocytosis
#9
Teruhiko Matsubara, Ryohei Otani, Miki Yamashita, Haruka Maeno, Hanae Nodono, Toshinori Sato
Glycosphingolipids are major components of the membrane raft, and several kinds of viruses and bacterial toxins are known to bind to glycosphingolipids in the membrane raft. Since the viral genes and pathogenic proteins that are taken into cells are directly delivered to their target organelles, caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis represents a promising pathway for specific delivery. In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of an artificial pentadecapeptide, which binds to ganglioside GM3, to deliver protein into cells by caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis...
January 4, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032600/the-function-of-cancer-shed-gangliosides-in-macrophage-phenotype-involvement-with-angiogenesis
#10
Tae-Wook Chung, Hee-Jung Choi, Mi-Ju Park, Hee-Jin Choi, Syng-Ook Lee, Keuk-Jun Kim, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Changwan Hong, Kyun-Ha Kim, Myungsoo Joo, Ki-Tae Ha
Tumor-derived gangliosides in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the malignant progression of cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of gangliosides shed from tumors on macrophage phenotype remain unknown. Here, we showed that ganglioside GM1 highly induced the activity and expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1), a major M2 macrophage marker, compared to various gangliosides in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), peritoneal macrophages and Raw264.7 macrophage cells. We found that GM1 bound to macrophage mannose receptor (MMR/CD206) and common gamma chain (γc)...
December 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019668/monosialyl-ganglioside-gm3-decreases-apolipoprotein-b-100-secretion-in-liver-cells
#11
Hyunju Choi, Un-Ho Jin, Sung-Koo Kang, Fukushi Abekura, Jun-Young Park, Kyung-Min Kwon, Seok-Jong Suh, Seung-Hak Cho, Ki-Tae Ha, Young-Coon Lee, Tae-Wook Chung, Cheorl-Ho Kim
Some sialic acid-containing glycolipids are known to regulate development of atherosclerosis with accumulated plasma apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo-B)-containing lipoproteins, because Apo-B as an atherogenic apolipoprotein is assembled mainly in VLDL and LDL. Previously, we have elucidated that disialyl GD3 promotes the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene expression and secretion of triglyceride (TG)-assembled ApoB, claiming the GD3 role in ApoB lipoprotein secretion in liver cells. In the synthetic pathway of gangliosides, GD3 is synthesized by addition of a sialic acid residue to GM3...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017237/serum-antibodies-targeting-neurons-of-the-monoaminergic-systems-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#12
Claudia Rink, Angelika Görtzen, Rüdiger W Veh, Harald Prüss
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease with progressive flaccid paralysis of the extremities. Several auto-antibodies have been identified, binding to myelin, gangliosides, astrocytes or proteins at the nodes of Ranvier. Some epitopes are not confined to the peripheral nerve, suggesting that auto-antibodies may also contribute to symptoms of the central nervous system, which are common in GBS and include anxiety, depression, hallucinations, oneiroid psychosis or fatigue. This notion is supported by treating patients with plasma exchange, resulting in improvement of both central and peripheral symptoms...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001010/adipocyte-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-is-linked-to-a-specific-lipidomic-signature
#13
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Mariona Jové, Teresa Padró, Jordi Boada, Francisco Ortega, Wifredo Ricart, Reinald Pamplona, Lina Badimón, Manuel Portero-Otín, José Manuel Fernández-Real
OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is part of a family of structurally and functionally related lipid transfer proteins. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LBP with the lipid composition of human adipose tissue. METHODS: Lipidomic analysis was performed in whole adipose tissue. To validate the associations found, LBP was knocked down (KD) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and lipidomic profile was evaluated by nontargeted lipidomics. RESULTS: LBP gene expression was negatively associated with phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin relative abundance in vivo...
December 21, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999993/the-sugar-code-in-neuronal-physiology
#14
REVIEW
Alonso M Higuero, Natalia Díez-Revuelta, José Abad-Rodríguez
Carbohydrate-related interactions are necessary for the correct development and function of the nervous system. As we illustrate with several examples, those interactions are controlled by carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and by carbohydrate-binding proteins that regulate a plethora of complex axonal processes. Among others, glycan-related proteins as sialidase Neu3 or galectins-1, -3, and -4 play central roles in the determination of axonal fate, axon growth, guidance and regeneration, as well as in polarized axonal glycoprotein transport...
December 20, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997589/ganglioside-profiling-of-the-human-retina-comparison-with-other-ocular-structures-brain-and-plasma-reveals-tissue-specificities
#15
Estelle Sibille, Olivier Berdeaux, Lucy Martine, Alain M Bron, Catherine P Creuzot-Garcher, Zhiguo He, Gilles Thuret, Lionel Bretillon, Elodie A Y Masson
Gangliosides make a wide family of glycosphingolipids, highly heterogeneous in both the ceramide moiety and the oligosaccharide chain. While ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues, they are particularly abundant in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. Gangliosides are known to play a crucial role in the development, maintenance and functional integrity of the nervous system. However, the expression and roles of gangliosides in the retina, although often considered as a window on the brain, has been far less studied...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984697/delineating-amyloid-plaque-associated-neuronal-sphingolipids-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-tgarcswe-using-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#16
Ibrahim Kaya, Dimitri Brinet, Wojciech Michno, Stina Syvänen, Dag Sehlin, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jörg Hanrieder
The major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the progressive aggregation and accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein into neurotoxic deposits. Aβ aggregation has been suggested as the critical early inducer, driving the disease progression. However, the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides, and proteins in biological tissue sections...
January 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958736/glycans-confer-specificity-to-the-recognition-of-ganglioside-receptors-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-a
#17
Christoffer Hamark, Ronnie P-A Berntsson, Geoffrey Masuyer, Linda M Henriksson, Robert Gustafsson, Pål Stenmark, Göran Widmalm
The highly poisonous botulinum neurotoxins, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, act on their hosts by a high-affinity association to two receptors on neuronal cell surfaces as the first step of invasion. The glycan motifs of gangliosides serve as initial coreceptors for these protein complexes, whereby a membrane protein receptor is bound. Herein we set out to characterize the carbohydrate minimal binding epitope of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. By means of ligand-based NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, computer simulations, and isothermal titration calorimetry, a screening of ganglioside analogues together with a detailed characterization of various carbohydrate ligand complexes with the toxin were accomplished...
December 27, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956354/maldi-imaging-delineates-hippocampal-glycosphingolipid-changes-associated-with-neurotoxin-induced-proteopathy-following-neonatal-bmaa-exposure
#18
Oskar Karlsson, Wojciech Michno, Yusuf Ransome, Jörg Hanrieder
The environmental toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been proposed to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that neonatal exposure to BMAA results in dose-dependent cognitive impairments, proteomic alterations and progressive neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of adult rats. A high BMAA dose (460mg/kg) also induced intracellular fibril formation, increased protein ubiquitination and enrichment of proteins important for lipid transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the role of neuronal lipids in BMAA-induced neurodegeneration...
December 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940403/markers-of-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-associate-with-complex-plasma-lipids-in-metabolic-syndrome-subjects
#19
Paul J Nestel, Anmar A Khan, Nora E Straznicky, Natalie A Mellett, Kaushala Jayawardana, Pyushkumar A Mundra, Gavin W Lambert, Peter J Meikle
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plasma sphingolipids including ceramides, and gangliosides are associated with insulin resistance (IR) through effects on insulin signalling and glucose metabolism. Our studies of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) showed close relationships between IR and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity including arterial norepinephrine (NE). We have therefore investigated possible associations of IR and SNS activity with complex lipids that are involved in both insulin sensitivity and neurotransmission...
December 1, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939129/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-is-induced-in-non-obese-diabetic-nod-mice-following-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-and-is-exacerbated-by-antibiotics
#20
J L St Charles, J A Bell, B J Gadsden, A Malik, H Cooke, L K Van de Grift, H Y Kim, E J Smith, L S Mansfield
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis linked to several serious autoimmune sequelae such as the peripheral neuropathies Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). We hypothesized that GBS and MFS can result in NOD wild type (WT) mice or their congenic interleukin (IL)-10 or B7-2 knockouts secondary to C. jejuni infection. Mice were gavaged orally with C. jejuni strains HB93-13 and 260.94 from patients with GBS or CF93-6 from a patient with MFS and assessed for clinical neurological signs and phenotypes, anti-ganglioside antibodies, and cellular infiltrates and lesions in gut and peripheral nerve tissues...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
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