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Stroke rehabilitation and dopamine

Guilin Meng, Xiaoye Ma, Lei Li, Yan Tan, Xiaohui Liu, Xueyuan Liu, Yanxin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke depression (PSD) seriously affects the rehabilitation of nerve function and quality of life. However, the pathogenesis of PSD is still not clear. This study aimed to investigate the demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors in patients with PSD. METHODS: Patients with an acute ischemic stroke, who met the inclusion criteria at Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital from April 2016 to September 2016, were recruited for this study. The stroke severity was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and the mental state was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) at 1 week of admission...
November 17, 2017: BMC Neurology
Kisho Obi, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru
Functional recovery after a stroke is important for patients' quality of life. Not only medical care during the acute phase, but also rehabilitation during the chronic phase after a stroke is important. However, the mechanisms underlying functional recovery, particularly the chronic phase after stroke, are still not fully understood. Thus, further basic study on brain after focal stroke is necessary. In this study, we found that the concentration of dopamine (DA) increased during first week after a stroke in the hemisphere contralateral in the site of stroke by in vivo microdialysis...
January 1, 2018: Brain Research
Jill Campbell Stewart, Steven C Cramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In many neurologic diagnoses, significant interindividual variability exists in the outcomes of rehabilitation. One factor that may impact response to rehabilitation interventions is genetic variation. Genetic variation refers to the presence of differences in the DNA sequence among individuals in a population. Genetic polymorphisms are variations that occur relatively commonly and, while not disease-causing, can impact the function of biological systems. The purpose of this article is to describe genetic polymorphisms that may impact neuroplasticity, motor learning, and recovery after stroke...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Yuan Du, Haiyue Liang, Leiming Zhang, Fenghua Fu
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common mood disorder following a stroke, and is also the main factor limiting recovery and rehabilitation in stroke patients. The present study was aimed to investigate whether Huperzine A (HupA) has antidepressant-like activity in a rat model of PSD, which was developed by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by an 18-day chronic unpredictable mild stress in conjunction with isolation rearing. The sucrose preference and forced swim tests were used to assess depression-like behavior...
July 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Gustavo José Luvizutto, Rodrigo Bazan, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende, Silméia Garcia Z Bazan, Regina El Dib
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is characterized by the inability to report or respond to people or objects presented on the side contralateral to the lesioned side of the brain and has been associated with poor functional outcomes and long stays in hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Pharmacological interventions (medical interventions only, use of drugs to improve the health condition), such as dopamine and noradrenergic agonists or pro-cholinergic treatment, have been used in people affected by USN after stroke, and effects of these treatments could provide new insights for health professionals and policy makers...
November 6, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bipin B Bhakta, Suzanne Hartley, Ivana Holloway, J Alastair Couzens, Gary A Ford, David Meads, Catherine M Sackley, Marion F Walker, Sharon P Ruddock, Amanda J Farrin
BACKGROUND: Stroke has a huge impact, leaving more than a third of affected people with lasting disability and rehabilitation remains a cornerstone treatment in the National Health Service (NHS). Recovery of mobility and arm function post-stroke occurs through re-learning to use the affected body parts and/or learning to compensate with the lesser affected side. Promising evidence suggests that the addition of Co-careldopa to physical therapy and occupational therapy may improve the recovery of arm and leg movement and lead to improved function...
August 8, 2014: Trials
Yin-Chu Si, Qiang Li, Chun-E Xie, Xin Niu, Xiao-Hui Xia, Chang-Yuan Yu
Some Chinese herbs are anti-thrombolysis, and anti-inflammatory, improves brain RNA content, promotes brain protein synthesis, enhances dopamine function, regulates brain hormones, and improves microcirculation in central nervous system that might improve, repair and rehabilitation from the stroke and brain injury. Specific Chinese herbs and their components, such as Acanthopanax, Angelica, could maintain the survival of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Ganoderma spore Polygala, Tetramethylpyrazine, Gardenia, Astragaloside and Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted proliferation of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Astragaloside promoted differentiation of neural stem cell into neuron and glia in vivo...
2014: Chinese Medicine
Kristin M Pearson-Fuhrhop, Brian Minton, Daniel Acevedo, Babak Shahbaba, Steven C Cramer
Dopamine is important to learning and plasticity. Dopaminergic drugs are the focus of many therapies targeting the motor system, where high inter-individual differences in response are common. The current study examined the hypothesis that genetic variation in the dopamine system is associated with significant differences in motor learning, brain plasticity, and the effects of the dopamine precursor L-Dopa. Skilled motor learning and motor cortex plasticity were assessed using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design in 50 healthy adults during two study weeks, one with placebo and one with L-Dopa...
2013: PloS One
M Acler, P Manganotti
Stroke leaves many patients disabled even after rehabilitative training, representing a major cause of disability. Several approaches to improve outcomes have been attempted in recent years, with only relative benefit. Emerging evidences show a potential role of pharmacological intervention to enhance motor recovery after stroke. Contrasting evidence are coming from experimental and clinical studies, so far, and pharmacological intervention during rehabilitation represents a major controversial in neurorehabilitation...
April 2013: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Joachim Liepert, Andreas Heller, Gusalija Behnisch, Ariel Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: To explore whether a polymorphism in dopamine metabolism influences the effectiveness of neurological rehabilitation and the outcome after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The Barthel Index (BI) and the Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) were assessed in 78 moderately affected stroke patients (1) after they had entered a neurological inpatient rehabilitation, (2) after 4 weeks of rehabilitation therapy, and (3) 6 months later. Polymorphisms of the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were determined...
July 2013: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Kenmei Mizutani, Shigeru Sonoda, Nobuyuki Karasawa, Keiki Yamada, Kan Shimpo, Takeshi Chihara, Terumi Takeuchi, Yoko Hasegawa, Kin-Ya Kubo
Identification of functional molecules in the brain related to improvement of motor dysfunction after stroke will contribute to establish a new treatment strategy for stroke rehabilitation. Hence, monoamine changes in basal ganglion related to motor control were examined in groups with/without voluntary exercise after cerebral infarction. Cerebral infarction was produced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise using a running wheel was initiated from 2 days after surgery. Motor performance was measured by the accelerated rotarod test...
June 2013: Neurological Sciences
Xiao Sun, Qiu-Wan Zhang, Ming Xu, Jian-Jun Guo, Shu-Wen Shen, Yong-Quan Wang, Feng-Yan Sun
Previous studies have demonstrated that newborn striatal neurons can functionally integrate with local neural networks in adult rat brain after injury. In the present study, we determined whether these newly generated striatal neurons can develop projections to the substantia nigra, a target of striatal projection neurons. We used 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) combined with multiple immunostaining labels of newborn striatal neurons, and nigral microinjection of fluorogold (FG) to trace the striatonigral projection in adult rat brain at different weeks following a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
January 2012: Neurobiology of Disease
Stefan T Engelter, Matthias Frank, Philippe A Lyrer, Martin Conzelmann
BACKGROUND: Based on experimental studies, pharmacological augmentation (PA) of stroke rehabilitation might be reasonable. Whether PA is beneficial in clinical practice is unclear. METHODS: We performed an observational study on the use of PA in addition to regular rehabilitative therapies in a stroke rehabilitation unit. Over 20 months, we systematically observed (1) the utilization rate of PA, (2) possible adverse events, and (3) the functional outcome of patients with versus without PA (non-PA)...
2010: European Neurology
J Lokk, R Salman Roghani, A Delbari
OBJECTIVE: Amphetamine-like drugs are reported to enhance motor recovery and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke rehabilitation, but results from trials with humans are inconclusive. This study is aimed at investigating whether levodopa (LD) and/or methylphenidate (MPH) in combination with physiotherapy could improve functional motor recovery and ADL in patients with stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with ischemic stroke patients randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups of either MPH, LD or MPH+LD or placebo combined with physiotherapy was performed...
April 2011: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
M Acler, A Fiaschi, Paolo Manganotti
PURPOSE: Promising new rehabilitative approaches to improve the substantial motor disability associated with chronic stroke include pharmacotherapy to enhance motor recovery. We conducted a single-blind placebo-controlled crossover pilot study to investigate the effects of prolonged treatment with L-DOPA in stroke patients. METHODS: Ten chronic (10-48 months) stroke patients received placebo or L-DOPA 100 mg daily for 5 weeks. During drug's treatment patients suspended physiotherapy...
2009: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Scott Barbay, Randolph J Nudo
Therapeutic strategies to promote recovery from stroke are now beginning to utilize current knowledge of neural plasticity and the neuromodulatory role of physical rehabilitation. Current interests are also focused on adjuvant therapies that may enhance plasticity associated with recovery and rehabilitation. Amphetamine was one of the earliest pharmacological interventions and continues to show promising results as an adjuvant treatment for recovery of function in pre-clinical animal studies. This drug is a potent modulator of neurological function and cortical excitation, acting primarily through norepinephrine and dopamine mechanisms to enhance arousal and attention, and thus, to facilitate learning of motor skills...
2009: NeuroRehabilitation
Agnes Floel, Leonardo G Cohen
In this contribution, we first provide an overview of general principles of reorganisation in the human brain, and point out possible biomarkers of recovery. Subsequently, we expand on possibilities of adjuvant therapy in human rehabilitation using cortical stimulation and pharmacological treatments. Finally, we suggest future directions for research in this field.
February 2010: Neurobiology of Disease
J Seniów, M Litwin, T Litwin, M Leśniak, A Członkowska
OBJECTIVE: Few studies confirm that pharmacological treatments support post-stroke recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of levodopa with language therapy improves aphasia rehabilitation. METHODS: We did a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in which twenty patients received levodopa before each language therapy session, and an additional 19 received a placebo. Language training was provided during a 3-week period...
August 15, 2009: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Nina Rösser, Peter Heuschmann, Heike Wersching, Caterina Breitenstein, Stefan Knecht, Agnes Flöel
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that administration of dopamine precursor levodopa improves procedural motor learning (defined as the ability to acquire novel movement patterns gradually through practice) in patients with residual motor deficits in the chronic phase after stroke (> or =1 y after stroke). DESIGN: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design. SETTING: Neurology department in a German university. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen patients with chronic motor dysfunction because of stroke (13 men, 5 women; age range, 53-78 y; mean time poststroke +/- SD, 3...
September 2008: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
S R Flanagan
Psychopharmacology is rapidly becoming an adjuvant treatment to traditional rehabilitation strategies for patients with stroke or brain injury because it helps to facilitate recovery in a time-efficient manner. Norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin appear to play important roles in recovery from stroke or brain injury. Animal models have shown that blockade of these neurotransmitters inhibits recovery, whereas recovery is promoted by drugs that promote norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin activity...
March 2000: CNS Spectrums
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