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Malek J Hallinger, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla, Frank Mutschmann
BACKGROUND: Exotic reptiles such as tortoises, have become increasingly common domestic pets worldwide and are known to host different gastrointestinal parasites. Some of these parasites bear zoonotic potential. In the present survey, we parasitologically examined tortoise faecal samples (n = 1005) from 19 different species held as pets in private German households and German zoological gardens. METHODS: Saline faecal smears were used to generate prevalence data for potentially health-compromising gastrointestinal parasites...
June 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Martina Reitz, Wiebke Hartmann, Nikolas Rüdiger, Zane Orinska, Marie-Luise Brunn, Minka Breloer
IL-9 is a cytokine with pleiotropic function that mediates allergic inflammation and immunity to intestinal helminth parasites. Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-9 acts via both, initiation and regulation of adaptive immune responses and direct activation of intestinal effector pathways. Here we use IL-9 receptor deficient mice on BALB/c and C57BL/6 genetic background to dissect effector and regulatory functions of IL-9 during infection with the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. IL-9 receptor-deficient mice displayed increased intestinal parasite burden and prolonged infection irrespective of the genetic background of the mice...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristen Zeitler, Ripal Jariwala, Ricardo Restrepo-Jaramillo, Shyam Kapadia, Beata Casanas, Sally Alrabaa, Chakrapol Sriaroon
Severe Strongyloides stercoralis , such as hyperinfection syndrome, carries a high mortality risk. Even with appropriate treatment, patients may experience infectious complications and failure of therapy. Currently, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved parenteral therapies available for treatment in patients who develop gastrointestinal complications from hyperinfection, including small bowel obstruction. A veterinary form of ivermectin is available as a subcutaneous injection, although current literature in humans is limited...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Femke W Overbosch, Tom van Gool, Amy Matser, Gerard J B Sonder
BACKGROUND: Despite the considerable burden of helminth infections in developing countries and increasing international travel, little is known about the risks of infection for travelers. OBJECTIVE: We studied the attack and incidence rate of serology confirmed strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis among long-term travelers and associated factors. A second objective was to evaluate eosinophilia as a positive/negative predictive value (PPV/NPV) for a recent helminth infection...
2018: PloS One
Ramprasad Jegadeesan, Tharani Sundararajan, Roshni Jain, Tejashree Karnik, Zalina Ardasenov, Elena Sidorenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Kansas Journal of Medicine
Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Beatty-Viv Maikai, Jacob Kwada Paghi Kwaga
BACKGROUND: The livestock industry plays a vital role in the economy of Nigeria. It serves as a major source of income and livelihood for majority of Nigerians who are rural settlers and contributes about 5.2% to the National Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Helminths however, cause economic losses due to reductions in milk production, weight gain, fertility and carcass quality. Zoonotic helminths of livestock origin cause health problems in humans. METHODS: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, the prevalence and distribution of helminths of veterinary and zoonotic importance in Nigerian ruminants were determined in a meta-analysis of data published between 1970 and 2016...
May 29, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Mizanur Rahman, Shariful Islam, Md Masuduzzaman, Mahabub Alam, Mohammad Nizam Uddin Chawdhury, Jinnat Ferdous, Md Nurul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Ariful Islam
Background and Aim: Asian house shrew ( Suncus murinus ), a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew ( S. murinus ) in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae...
April 2018: Veterinary World
Arjun Saradna, Amith Shenoy, Paurush Ambesh, Stephan Kamholz
Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is an intestinal nematode endemic to tropical regions. An accelerated infection, known as a hyperinfection, occurs in immunocompromised patients, most commonly those treated chronically with glucocorticoids or those who have human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection. We describe a 67-year-old Hispanic female who presented with complaints of decreased oral intake and fatigue since three months. Hyponatremia on initial presentation was attributed to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion and managed with fluid restriction...
March 20, 2018: Curēus
Anuradha Rajamanickam, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukti Bhootra, Chandra Kumar Dolla, Kannan Thiruvengadam, Thomas B Nutman, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are central players in immunity to helminth infections. However, the role of T cell subsets in human helminth infections is not well understood. In addition, the common γc cytokines, IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 play an important role in the maintenance of these CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. METHODS: To examine the major T cell subsets and their association with the common γc cytokines, the absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ naïve, central memory, effector memory and effector cells and the plasma levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 were measured in Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infected (INF, n = 60), helminth-uninfected (UN, n = 58) and in post treatment INF individuals...
May 24, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Francois Korbmacher, Kossi Komlan, Richard G Gantin, Wiyao P Poutouli, Koffi Padjoudoum, Potchoziou Karabou, Peter T Soboslay, Carsten Köhler
Background: Mansonella perstans , Onchocerca volvulus and Strongyloides stercoralis are widespread helminth parasites in the tropics. Their distribution remains difficult to determine as it may change during national disease control programs and with regional mass drug administration (MDA). Epidemiological surveys are of importance to evaluate the geographical distribution of these helminth parasites and the diseases they may cause, however, up to date epidemiological evaluations on M...
May 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Aloys Tuyizere, Alphonse Ndayambaje, Timothy D Walker, Claude Bayingana, Cyprien Ntirenganya, Vincent Dusabejambo, DeVon C Hale
Background: Strongyloides stercoralis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Sparse, dated central African and Rwandan data on seroprevalence are available to guide public health efforts and clinical care. Methods: In February 2016 we conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among 539 asymptomatic participants in a rural area in the Gisagara District, Southern Province, Rwanda. Direct faecal smear (DFS) and modified Koga agar plate culture (APC) were used to detect S...
May 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ana Figueiredo, Lucia Oliveira, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Carlos Fonseca, Rita Tinoco Torres
The stone marten (Martes foina) is one of the most common species of marten in Europe. Due to increased urbanization and forest degradation, it is now often found in urban habitats, which increased the possibility of parasites transmission between wildlife-domestic animals and humans. Our preliminary study of this mustelid in Portugal, aimed to assess prevalence of helminths. Six helminth parasites were found (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus sp., Toxocara sp., Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostomatidae and Strongyloides sp...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Larson Boundenga, Cyr Moussadji, Illich Manfred Mombo, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Jean-Pierre Hugot
In this study, we characterize the diversity and estimated infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in two galago species, Galago demidoff and G. thomasi in two sites situated in the Southeastern forests of Gabon. Our study reveals that eleven parasites including nine helminthes (Ascaris spp., Ankylostoma spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Gongylonema spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Lemuricola spp., Strongyloides spp. Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris spp.) and two protozoans (Balantidium spp. and Entamoeba spp...
April 27, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Fabiana M Paula, Fernanda M Malta, Priscilla D Marques, Gessica B Melo, Marcelo A Corral, Maiara Gottardi, João R R Pinho, Elenice M N Gonçalves, Vera L P Castilho, Ligia C Pierrotti, Edson Abdala, Silvia F Costa, Pedro P Chieffi, Ronaldo C B Gryschek
Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection, principally in immunosuppressed patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the application of conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among transplant candidates were applied in stool samples obtained from 150 transplant candidates, preliminarily analyzed by parasitological methods...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Nilo Manoel Pereira Vieira Barreto, Joelma Nascimento de Souza, Weslei Almeida Costa Araujo, Nadia Andrade Khouri, Ernesto Pereira de Oliveira, Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira, Neci Matos Soares
The objective of this study was to report a case of a hydronephrotic patient with Strongyloides stercoralis infection, with discharge of rhabditoid larva exclusively in urine. In 2013, a 72-yr-old, male patient, hypertensive, obese and diagnosed with hydronephrosis secondary to renal calculi, reported lumbar pain, polyuria, polaciuria and dysuria, as well as frequent urinary tract infections. The microscopic analysis of urine sediment showed the presence of S. stercoralis rabditoid larva. However, parasitological examinations by Baermann-Moraes, agar plate culture and spontaneous sedimentation, performed with 3 fecal samples on alternate days had negative results...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
J Rego Silva, R A Macau, A Mateus, P Cruz, M J Aleixo, M Brito, A Alcobia, C Oliveira, A Ramos
Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) can cause hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed individuals, with risk of mortality. We report the case of a cadaveric kidney transplant recipient who developed gastrointestinal symptoms and eosinophilia, approximately 3 months after transplantation. Stool examination and esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies were positive for SS larvae. The patient was started on oral ivermectin and immunosuppression was reduced, but still the clinical picture got worse with metabolic ileus and respiratory symptoms, with the need for administration of subcutaneous ivermectin and combined therapy with albendazol...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
André Filipe Pastor, Abraham Rocha, Klécia de Melo Cassemiro, Marli Tenório, Paula Melo, Maria Rosângela Grilis, Maressa Rhuama, Antonio Mauro Rezende, Osvaldo Pompilio de Melo Neto, Ernesto Marques, Rafael Dhalia
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused mainly by the Wuchereria bancrofti worm and that affects up to 120 million people worldwide. LF is the second cause of chronic global deformity, responsible for 15 million people with lymphedema (elephantiasis) and 25 million men with scrotal hydrocele. Its diagnosis is still associated with numerous difficulties, such as the sample collection periods (microfilaria nocturnal periodicity) and limited diagnostic kits. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to evaluate two recombinant antigens (Wb14 and WbT) as part of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based antibody capture tests for LF...
March 26, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Choisung C Ngo, Christine Maidment, Lisa Atkins, Sandy Eagar, Mitchell M Smith
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of certain health conditions in newly arrived refugees to Sydney, Australia, and thereby help inform screening practices. STUDY TYPE: A clinical audit of routinely collected pathology results. METHODS: Demographics and pathology results from a nurse-led health assessment program for newly arrived refugees during 2013 and 2014 were analysed. Prevalences of screened conditions were calculated, and compared by country of birth and other demographic features...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Vicky L Hunt, Akina Hino, Akemi Yoshida, Taisei Kikuchi
Strongyloides spp., gastrointestinal nematode parasites of humans and other animals, have genetically identical parasitic and free-living adult life cycle stages. This is an almost unique feature amongst nematodes and comparison of these two stages can provide insights into the genetic basis and evolution of Strongyloides nematode parasitism. Here, we present RNAseq data for S. venezuelensis, a parasite of rodents, and identify genes that are differentially expressed in parasitic and free-living life cycle stages...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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