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Arsenic exposure

Karol Bukowski, Katarzyna Woźniak
Genetic polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of at least 2 different alleles in the locus with a frequency higher than 1% in the population. Among polymorphisms we can find single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and polymorphism of variable number of tandem repeats. The presence of certain polymorphisms in genes encoding DNA repair enzymes is associated with the speed and efficiency of DNA repair and can protect or expose humans to the effects provoked by xenobiotics. Chemicals, such as lead, arsenic pesticides are considered to exhibit strong toxicity...
October 12, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
Xiao-Dong Han, Yan-Yan Zhang, Ke-Lei Wang, Yong-Pan Huang, Zhong-Bao Yang, Zhi Liu
Arsenic exposure produces hepatotoxicity. The common mechanism determining its toxicity is the generation of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by arsenic leads to the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) possesses a potent antioxidant capacity and exhibits extensive pharmacological activities. This study aims to evaluate effects of EGCG on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and activation of Nrf2 pathway. Plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured; Histological analyses were conducted to observe morphological changes; Biochemical indexes such as oxidative stress (Catalase (CAT), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS)), Nrf2 signaling related genes (Nrf2, Nqo1, and Ho-1) were assessed...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Andrea Polo, Anna Crispo, Pellegrino Cerino, Luca Falzone, Saverio Candido, Aldo Giudice, Giuseppina De Petro, Gennaro Ciliberto, Maurizio Montella, Alfredo Budillon, Susan Costantini
Bladder cancer (BC) is the 9th most common cancer worldwide, and the 6th most common cancer in men. Its development is linked to chronic inflammation, genetic susceptibility, smoking, occupational exposures and environmental pollutants. Aim of this work was to identify a sub-network of genes/proteins modulated by environmental or arsenic exposure in BC by computational network approaches. Our studies evidenced the presence of HUB nodes both in "BC and environment" and "BC and arsenicals" networks. These HUB nodes resulted to be correlated to circadian genes and targeted by some miRNAs already reported as involved in BC, thus suggesting how they play an important role in BC development due to environmental or arsenic exposure...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Francesca Coppola, Ângela Almeida, Bruno Henriques, Amadeu M V M Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Eduarda Pereira, Rosa Freitas
Organisms in marine systems are exposed to multiple stressors that create a range of associated environmental and ecotoxicological risks. Examples of stressors include alterations related to climate change, such as temperature increase, and the exposure to pollutants arising from human activities. The present study evaluated the impacts of Arsenic exposure (1mg/L) and warming (21°C) in Mytilus galloprovincialis, acting alone and in combination. Our results demonstrated that both Arsenic exposure and warming induced oxidative stress and reduced mussels metabolism, with changes becoming more prominent with the exposure time and when mussels were exposed to both stressors in combination...
October 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yau-Chang Kuo, Yu-Shing Lo, How-Ran Guo
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen, and studies on urinary and skin cancers have shown that the carcinogenicity of ingested arsenic has cell-type specificity. To evaluate whether this is also true for lung cancers, we conducted a study on 243 townships in Taiwan. METHODS: The arsenic levels were assessed using measurement reports from a previous survey, and the incidence of lung cancer was assessed using the data gathered by the National Cancer Registry Program...
October 2017: Epidemiology
Melanie Gorman Ng, Laura Maccalman, Sean Semple, Martie van Tongeren
The determinants of inadvertent occupational ingestion exposure are poorly understood, largely due to a lack of available exposure measurement data. In this study, perioral exposure wipes were used as a surrogate for inadvertent ingestion exposure to measure exposure to eight metals (chromium, nickel, aluminium, cobalt, lead, arsenic, manganese, and tin) among 38 workers at 5 work sites in the UK. This work was done alongside a previously reported observational study of hand/object-to-mouth contact frequency...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Yue Cao, Dan Sun, Hao Ai, Hanyi Mei, Xue Liu, Shubin Sun, Guohua Xu, Yungen Liu, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Arsenic accumulation in rice grains poses health risk to people. Plants including rice take up arsenate (AsV) by phosphate transporter. In this study, rice phosphate transporter OsPT4 was investigated based on two independent T-DNA insertion mutants of OsPT4 (M1 and M2), which displayed stronger AsV resistance than wild types WT1 and WT2. When cultivated in medium (+P or -P) with AsV, ospt4 mutants accumulated 16-32% lower As in plants, suggesting that OsPT4 mediated AsV uptake. Analysis of the xylem sap showed that AsV concentrations in ospt4 mutants was 20-40% lower than WT controls under -P condition, indicating OsPT4 may also mediate AsV translocation...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Khurram Shehzad, Chang Xie, Junyong He, Xingguo Cai, Weihong Xu, Jinhuai Liu
Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water has become a global health hazard to humanity. Suitable adsorbent for As removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is an urgent but still a challenging task. In this study, waste orange peel (OP) was modified with magnetic nanoparticles followed by calcination as a novel adsorbent and investigated for instantaneous oxidation and adsorption of As(III) from aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experimental results showed that calcined magnetic orange peel composites (CMOPC) exhibited superior As(III) adsorption capacity (10...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Frédéric Mertens, Renata Távora, Eduardo Yoshio Nakano, Zuleica Carmen Castilhos
The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As) exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure...
2017: PloS One
Sandip Chattopadhyay, Shamima Khatun, Moulima Maity, Suryashis Jana, Hasina Perveen, Moumita Dash, Arindam Dey, Lipi Rani Jana, Pikash Pratim Maity
Managing arsenic intoxication with conventional metal chelators is a global challenge. The present study demonstrated the therapeutic role of probiotics against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and female reproductive dysfunction. Sodium arsenite-treated (1.0 mg/100 g body weight) Wistar female rats were followed up by a post-treatment of commercially available probiotic mixture in powder form (0.25 mg/100 g body weight) orally. Rats that experienced arsenic ingestion showed a significant lessening in the activities of uterine superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and the level of non-protein soluble thiol (NPSH) with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD)...
October 9, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Mónica S Pérez-Vázquez, Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Tania RuÍz-Vera, Yesenia Araiza-Gamboa, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
Recently, a great number of epidemiological studies have shown evidence that exposure to inorganic arsenic could have harmful effects on the cardiovascular system of humans. However, the underlying mechanisms through which arsenic induces cardiovascular toxic effects remain unclear. In this regard, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as a probable connection between environment and disease phenotypes, including cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate epigenetic changes related to cardiotoxicity (miR-126 and miR-155 expression levels) in children from San Luis Potosi, Mexico exposed to inorganic arsenic...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Venkatanaidu Karri, Vikas Kumar, David Ramos, Eliandre Oliveira, Marta Schuhmacher
Heavy metals are considered some of the most toxic environmental pollutants. Exposure to heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and methyl mercury (MeHg) has long been known to cause damage to human health. Many recent studies have supported the hippocampus as the major target for these four metals for inflicting cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we proposed hippocampal relevant in vitro toxicity of Pb, Cd, As, and MeHg in HT-22 cell line. This study reports, initially, cytotoxic effects in acute, subchronic, chronic exposures...
October 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Venkatanaidu Karri, Vikas Kumar, David Ramos, Eliandre Oliveira, Marta Schuhmacher
Humans are exposed to a cocktail of heavy metal toxicants in the environment. Though heavy metals are deleterious, there is a paucity of information on the toxicity of mixtures. In this study, four common neurotoxicity heavy metals lead (Pb) cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and methylmercury (MeHg) were exposed individually and as mixtures to HT-22 cell line for 8days. The study established that low dose exposures induced toxicity to the HT-22 cell line during 8days. The results indicates potency dependent response, the toxicity of single metals on the HT-22 cells; MeHg > As > Cd > Pb...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Priti Bhardwaj, Kinnri Jain, Devinder Kumar Dhawan
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lithium treatment on red blood cells which were given arsenic exposure. Long-term lithium therapy is being extensively used for the treatment of bipolar disorders. Arsenic is a group I carcinogen and a major toxic pollutant in drinking water that affects millions of people worldwide. Male SD rats were segregated into four groups, viz. normal control, lithium treated, arsenic treated, and lithium + arsenic treated. Lithium was supplemented as lithium carbonate at a dose level of 1...
October 7, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Aisha S Dickerson, Ran S Rotem, MacKinsey A Christian, Vy T Nguyen, Aaron J Specht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to summarize the current body of literature on the relationship between various toxic metals exposures (i.e., aluminum, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a focus on potential sex differences in these associations. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex differences in ASD diagnosis and mutagenic effects of toxic exposures indicate that sex differences may play a major part in the causal relationship of any potential associations seen; however, we were only able to find three studies that reported on sex differences in observed associations with toxic metals exposure and ASD...
October 7, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
Anderson Tadeu de Araújo Ramos, Maria Aparecida Silva Diamante, Celina de Almeida Lamas, Heidi Dolder, Fabrícia de Souza Predes
Arsenic is a contaminant that occurs naturally in the environment, and it is related to several diseases, such as cancer and severe metabolic diseases. Sodium arsenite effects on testes rats are not fully understood regarding morphology and stereology; thus, it becomes necessary to evaluate possible changes in these parameters under low concentrations and simulating occupational exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphometrical and stereological changes on rat testis treated with sodium arsenite...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sally Sabra, Ebba Malmqvist, Alicia Saborit, Eduard Gratacós, Maria Dolores Gomez Roig
BACKGROUND: Prenatal heavy metals exposure has shown a negative impact on birth weight. However, their influence on different clinical forms of fetal smallness was never assessed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is a differential association between heavy metals exposure and fetal smallness subclassification into intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). METHOD: In this prospective case-control study, we included 178 mother-infant pairs; 96 of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 82 of small fetuses diagnosed in third trimester...
2017: PloS One
Mohammad Golam Mostafa, Zarat Jahin Queen, Nicola Cherry
Arsenic in drinking water is causally linked with cancer of the skin, lung, and urinary bladder, but there is very little data on a possible role for arsenic in the etiology of cervical cancer, a disease in which human papilloma virus is held to be a necessary but not sufficient cause. All histopathology results from cervical specimens from the National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICRH), Dhaka (1997-2015), and the Anowara Medical Services (2003-2015), both serving the whole of Bangladesh, were classified by cell type...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nicholas Cody Schaal, Jeremy M Slagley, Cynthia McCormick Richburg, Majed M Zreiqat, Helmut W Paschold
OBJECTIVE: Determine the effect of lead, cadmium, arsenic, toluene, and xylene exposure on hearing compared to noise exposures alone. METHODS: Personnel at a shipyard (n = 1266) were divided into four exposure groups based on concentrations: low metals/low solvents/high noise (reference group), high metals/high solvents/low noise, high metals/low solvents/high noise, and high metals/high solvents/high noise. Hearing changes occurring from the years 2004-2015 were analyzed...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Eva Velthorst, Lauren Smith, Ghalib Bello, Christine Austin, Chris Gennings, Amirhoessein Modabbernia, Nathalie Franke, Sophia Frangou, Robert Wright, Lieuwe de Haan, Abraham Reichenberg, Manish Arora
While previous studies have found evidence for detrimental effects of metals on neurodevelopment, the long-term effects on mental health remain unclear. The objective was to explore the effect of early metal exposure on risk of psychotic disorder and on symptom severity following illness onset. Through the use of validated tooth-biomarkers, we estimated pre- and postnatal exposure levels of essential elements (copper, magnesium, manganese, and zinc) and elements associated with neurotoxicity (lead, arsenic, lithium, and tin)...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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