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Arsenic exposure

A Ruttens, K Cheyns, A C Blanpain, L De Temmerman, N Waegeneers
This study reports results of total arsenic (Astot ) and various As species in 75 samples of cereals and cereal products bought on the Belgian market in 2009. In addition to rice, the samples were wheat, pasta, bread and some breakfast cereals. The inorganic species arsenite (AsIII ) and arsenate (AsV ), and the organic As compounds dimethyl arsinate (DMA) and monomethyl arsonate (MA) were the only As species detected. Mean Astot was 0.150 ± 0.089 mg kg-1 in rice and 0.012 ± 0.008 mg kg- in the non-rice cereals...
April 21, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Tian-Tian Zuo, Yao-Lei Li, Hong-Yu Jin, Fei Gao, Qi Wang, Ya-Dan Wang, Shuang-Cheng Ma
Background: Cordyceps sinensis , one of the most valued traditional herbal medicines in China, contains high amount of arsenic. Considering the adverse health effects of arsenic, this is of particular concern. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze arsenic speciation in C. sinensis , and to measure the associated human health risks. Methods: We used microwave extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine and analyze the arsenic content in C...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Angela L Riffo-Campos, Azahara Fuentes-Trillo, Wan Y Tang, Zoraida Soriano, Griselda De Marco, Pilar Rentero-Garrido, Victoria Adam-Felici, Veronica Lendinez-Tortajada, Kevin Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Montse Leon-Latre, Jose A Casasnovas, F Javier Chaves, Ana Navas-Acien, Eliseo Guallar, Maria Tellez-Plaza
We explored the association of metal levels with subclinical atherosclerosis and epigenetic changes in relevant biological pathways. Whole blood DNA Infinium Methylation 450 K data were obtained from 23 of 73 middle age men without clinically evident cardiovascular disease (CVD) who participated in the Aragon Workers Health Study in 2009 (baseline visit) and had available baseline urinary metals and subclinical atherosclerosis measures obtained in 2010-2013 (follow-up visit). The median metal levels were 7...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Marta Esteban López, Naveen Puttaswamy, Tamar Berman
Rapid development and industrialization in Southeast (SE) Asia has led to environmental pollution, potentially exposing the general population to environmental contaminants. Human biomonitoring (HBM), measurement of chemical and/or their metabolites in human tissues and fluids, is an important tool for assessing cumulative exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals and for monitoring chemical exposures in the general population. While there are national HBM programs in several developed countries, there are no such national programs in most of the SE Asian countries...
April 20, 2018: Environment International
Yadolah Fakhri, Narottam Saha, Amir Sheikhmohammadi, Milad Rasouli, Moayed Avazpour, Aziz Rahimizadeh, Seyed-Mohammad Riahi, Mansour Ghaderpoori, Hassan Keramati, Bigard Moradi, Nazak Amanidaz, Zahra Baninameh, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
One of the most important pathways for exposure to metals is drinking water ingestion. Chronic or acute exposure to metals can endanger the health of the exposed population, and hence, estimation of human health risks is crucial. In the current study for the first time, the concentrations of Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb) and Cobalt (Co) in 120 collected tap water samples (2015, July-November) from Ilam city, Iran were investigated using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Also, the metal-induced carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for consumers exposed to tap drinking water were calculated...
April 20, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
John Misenheimer, Clay Nelson, Evelyn Huertas, Myriam Medina-Vera, Alex Prevatte, Karen Bradham
Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid) bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the region. This study examined total and bioaccessible soil As and Pb concentrations and accumulation in 10 commonly grown garden plants collected from three urban community gardens in Puerto Rico. Bioavailability values were predicted using bioaccessibility data to compare site-specific bioavailability estimates to commonly used default exposure assumptions...
2018: Geosciences
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Virginia S T Ciminelli, Daphne C Antônio, Claudia L Caldeira, Erico T F Freitas, Itamar Daniel Delbem, Marcus M Fernandes, Massimo Gasparon, Jack C Ng
A new analytical protocol was developed to provide quantitative, single-particle identification of arsenic in heterogeneous nanoscale mineral phases in soil samples, with a view to establishing its potential risk to human health. Microscopic techniques enabled quantitative, single-particle identification of As-bearing phases in twenty soil samples collected in a gold mining district with arsenic concentrations in range of 8 to 6354 mg kg-1 . Arsenic is primarily observed in association with iron (hydr) oxides in fine intergrowth with phyllosilicates...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Martha Powers, Tiffany R Sanchez, Maria Grau-Perez, Fawn Yeh, Kevin Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Christine M George, Christopher Heaney, Lyle G Best, Jason Umans, Robert H Brown, Ana Navas-Acien
RATIONALE: Exposure to inorganic arsenic, through drinking naturally-contaminated water, is an established cause of lung cancer. Evidence on the impact of arsenic exposure on lung function, however, is less conclusive. The evidence available, mostly from populations exposed to water arsenic levels >100 μg/L, suggests that arsenic exposure is associated with lower lung function. Prospective studies and studies examining low-to-moderate levels of water arsenic exposure (<50 μg/L) the level relevant for U...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Baowei Chen, Fenglin Cao, Xiufen Lu, Shengwen Shen, Jin Zhou, X Chris Le
Arsenic in hair and nails has been used to assess chronic exposure of humans to environmental arsenic. However, it remains to be seen whether it is appropriate to evaluate acute exposure to sub-lethal doses of arsenic typically used in therapeutics. In this study, hair, fingernail and toenail samples were collected from nine acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients who were administered intravenously the daily dose of 10 mg arsenic trioxide (7.5 mg arsenic) for up to 54 days. These hair and nail samples were analyzed for arsenic species using high performance liquid chromatography separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-ICPMS)...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
L M Yañez, J A Alfaro, G Bovi Mitre
The accumulation of arsenic (As) in vegetables poses a risk of contamination to humans via the food chain. Two chard (var. cicla and var. d'ampuis) crops were grown for 60 days in greenhouses on Aridisol soil, and irrigated with water from Pastos Chicos, Jujuy (Argentina). The soil and water used in the trial presented 49 and 1.44 mg/L As concentration levels, respectively. Total dry biomass (TDB) and total As were determined in soils, roots and leaves. The latter was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation, and bioconcentration and translocation factors were determined...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Theresa M Curtis, Joseph M Hannett, Rebecca M Harman, Nicholas A Puoplo, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Arsenic exposure through contaminated food, water, and air causes irreversible neural damage and affects millions of people worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that the secreted factors (secretome) from mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) can promote neural recovery after several forms of injury including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to determine if the secretome from adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) prevents arsenic damage to SH-SY5Y cells. To this end, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were pre-treated with the secretome from ADSCs and then challenged with different concentrations of arsenic...
April 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Geunbae Kim, Sanghwan Song, Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon
The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hifza Rasheed, Paul Kay, Rebecca Slack, Yun Yun Gong
Arsenic concentrations above 10μgL-1 were previously found in 89% of ground water sources in six villages of Pakistan. The present study has ascertained the health risks associated with exposure to total arsenic (tAs) and its species in most frequently consumed foods. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) concentrations were found to be 92.5±41.88μgkg-1 , 79.21±76.42μgkg-1 , and 116.38±51.38μgkg-1 for raw rice, cooked rice and wheat respectively. The mean tAs concentrations were 47.47±30.72μgkg-1 , 71.65±74.7μgkg-1 , 105±61...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sang-Woo Lee, Hyen Goo Cho, Soon-Oh Kim
This study was initiated to develop a model specialized to conduct human risk assessments (HRAs) of abandoned metal mine areas in Korea. The Korean guideline (KG) model used in study was formulated via modification of the original Korean guidelines on HRAs of soil contamination. In addition, the newly developed model was applied to the HRAs of two abandoned metal mines contaminated with arsenic (As) and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn). The results of the KG model were compared with those of two internationally renowned models [Contaminated land exposure assessment (CLEA) and CSOIL models]...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Poojitha Balakrishnan, Ana Navas-Acien, Karin Haack, Dhananjay Vaidya, Jason G Umans, Lyle G Best, Walter Goessler, Kevin A Francesconi, Nora Franceschini, Kari E North, Shelley A Cole, V Saroja Voruganti, Matthew O Gribble
We explored arsenic-gene interactions influencing pancreatic beta-cell activity in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). We considered 42 variants selected for associations with either beta-cell function (31 variants) or arsenic metabolism (11 variants) in the SHFS. Beta-cell function was calculated as homeostatic model - beta corrected for insulin resistance (cHOMA-B) by regressing homeostatic model - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) on HOMA-B and adding mean HOMA-B. Arsenic exposure was dichotomized at the median of the sum of creatinine-corrected inorganic and organic arsenic species measured by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS)...
April 2, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Chin-Ching Wu, Fung-Chang Sung, Yi-Chun Chen
There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men's arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig) levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Steven Gardner, George Cline, Nixon Mwebi, James Rayburn
Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) are two contaminants that are detected in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Using the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, to assess impacts from these contaminants may be advantageous as adults live and breed in such environments. Adult amphibians typically exhibit elevated tissue concentrations of contaminants present in their environment, while larval stages were found to exhibit increased sensitivity to pollutants. From January through March of 2015, during the spring breeding season, 5 adults and approximately 32 egg masses were collected from a local breeding site...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Thatiana Verônica Rodrigues de Barcellos Fernandes, Volney M Camara, Paulo Rubens Guimarães Barrocas, Armando Mayer, Carmen I R Froes Asmus
There are few studies about children's environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in Brazil, most of them being in mining regions. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of biologic concentrations of arsenic in children living in an urban area, in Brazil. A study of arsenic concentrations in capillary blood (n = 270), nail (n = 261), and urine (n = 99) samples, in male and female children, 8 to 10 years old, from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, was conducted. Socio-economic and health data were obtained through questionnaires...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gianni Gallello, Elisabetta Cilli, Fulvio Bartoli, Massimo Andretta, Lucio Calcagnile, Agustin Pastor, Miguel de la Guardia, Patrizia Serventi, Alberto Marino, Stefano Benazzi, Giorgio Gruppioni
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in 1494 and their deaths have been for centuries a subject of debate. The exhumation of their remains offered the opportunity to study the cause of their death through a multidisciplinary research project. Anthropological analyses, together with documentary evidences, radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA analysis supported the identification of the remains attributed to Pico...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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