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Plasma Cell

Zhaohui Qiu, Jie Peng, Lingli Mou, Xiao Li, Fanqi Meng, Peng Yu
Multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumors occurs when tumor cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large number of unrelated drugs. The molecular mechanism of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Overexpression of P-gp may be induced by the selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, referred to as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. This study aimed to establish a P-gp quantification method by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to better understand the regulation of P-gp expression and its relationship with the level of drug resistance...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Francielle Tatiana Mathias, Douglas Henrique Fockink, Geonildo Rodrigo Disner, Viviane Prodocimo, João Luiz Coelho Ribas, Luiz Pereira Ramos, Marta Margarete Cestari, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
Ibuprofen is a pharmaceutical drug widely used by the global population and it has been found in aquatic ecosystems in several countries. This study evaluated the effects of ibuprofen in environmental concentrations (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L) on the freshwaterspecies Rhamdia quelen exposed for 14 days. In the posterior kidney, ibuprofen increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in all groups exposed. Furthermore, increased glutathione peroxidase activity and the levels of reduced glutathione in the group exposed to 10 μg/L...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yael Mutsafi, Nihal Altan-Bonnet
Present in many cell types, non-degradative secretory autophagy is a newly discovered pathway in which autophagosomes fuse with the plasma membrane instead of lysosomes. Surprisingly, some viruses exploit secretory autophagy to exit cells non-lytically, shedding into the extracellular environment as particle populations contained within vesicles. As a result, this significantly enhances the infectivity of these viruses. In this paper, this novel cellular exit pathway is highlighted and its advantages for viral transmission discussed...
March 20, 2018: Viruses
Lewis S Gall, Paul Vulliamy, Scarlett Gillespie, Timothy F Jones, Rochelle S J Pierre, Sabine E Breukers, Christine Gaarder, Nicole P Juffermans, Marc Maegele, Jakob Stensballe, Pär I Johansson, Ross A Davenport, Karim Brohi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of trauma patients with low levels of fibrinolysis as detected by viscoelastic hemostatic assay (VHA) and explore the underlying mechanisms of this subtype. BACKGROUND: Hyperfibrinolysis is a central component of acute traumatic coagulopathy but a group of patients present with low levels of VHA-detected fibrinolysis. There is concern that these patients may be at risk of thrombosis if empirically administered an antifibrinolytic agent...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jeanne M Sisk, Matthew B Frieman, Carolyn E Machamer
Enveloped viruses gain entry into host cells by fusing with cellular membranes, a step that is required for virus replication. Coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fuse at the plasma membrane or use receptor-mediated endocytosis and fuse with endosomes, depending on the cell or tissue type. The virus spike (S) protein mediates fusion with the host cell membrane. We have shown previously that an Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitor, imatinib, significantly reduces SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titres and prevents endosomal entry by HIV SARS S and MERS S pseudotyped virions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Wenjing Lu, Yang Wang, Yu Zhang, Huaibin Liang, Xuanqiang Tu, Jirong He, Guoyuan Yang, Lili Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the function of blood microRNA-15a (miR-15a) in the pathogenesis of acute cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients within 72 h after onset and normal control healthy. A model of ischemia in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was established by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). MiR-15a in patients and in cells was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Shinya Fujie, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Hirotoshi Ishiwatari, Hiromasa Hazama, Takaaki Ito, Keiko Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ono
A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital with exacerbation of diabetes. His blood tests showed elevated levels of serum IgG4 and HbA1c. Computed tomography of the pancreatic body demonstrated a weakly enhanced mass, 2 cm in size, with indistinct borders. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a narrowing of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) at the pancreatic body, a markedly dilated upstream duct, and a slightly dilated downstream duct. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated an iso-hypoechoic heterogeneous mass, protruding and spreading in the pancreatic duct...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Petter Bjornstad, David Z Cherney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Compared to adult-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D), youth with T2D have a more aggressive phenotype with greater insulin resistance (IR), more rapid β cell decline, and higher prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Hyperfiltration is common in youth with T2D and predicts progressive DKD. Hyperfiltration is a consequence of early changes in intrarenal hemodynamic function, including increased renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular pressure...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Hira S Mian, Tanya M Wildes
Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell disease, which typically affects older patients, with a median age at diagnosis of 70 years. The recent introduction of novel drugs and ongoing improvements in supportive care have significantly contributed to overall better management and outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma. Autologous stem-cell transplantation has been a standard part of therapy for myeloma patients for many years, first in younger patients and increasingly in older, and may still be considered in selected older patients with myeloma...
March 19, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Ida Robertsen, Jean Debord, Anders Åsberg, Pierre Marquet, Jean-Baptiste Woillard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intracellular exposure of everolimus may be a better marker of therapeutic effect than trough whole blood concentrations. We aimed to develop pharmacokinetic population models and Bayesian estimators based on a limited sampling strategy for estimation of dose interval exposures of everolimus in whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Full whole blood and PBMC concentration-time profiles of everolimus were obtained from 12 stable renal transplant recipients on two different occasions, 4 weeks apart...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Xiangchun Zhang, Qing Yuan, Xueyun Gao
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed in most tumors and is believed to play a key role in the development, invasion and metastasis of tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a simple method to detect the MT1-MMP expression level on cells. In this current study, we demonstrated a red emission Au cluster probes with the specific targeting of MT1-MMP on human dopaminergic neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. More importantly, utilizing the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of the Au cluster probes, the expression level of MT1-MMP on the SH-SY5Y cells could be assessed by the naked eye without cell lysis and protein extraction process...
March 14, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Tereza Leonhardt, Jan Sácký, Pavel Kotrba
A search of R. atropurpurea transcriptome for sequences encoding the transporters of the Zrt-, Irt-like Protein (ZIP) family, which are in eukaryotes integral to Zn supply into cytoplasm, allowed the identification of RaZIP1 cDNA with a predicted product belonging to ZIP I subfamily; it was subjected to functional studies in mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The expression of RaZIP1, but not RaZIP1H208A or RaZIP1H232A mutants lacking conserved-among-ZIPs transmembrane histidyls, complemented Zn uptake deficiency in zrt1Δzrt2Δ yeasts...
March 19, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Kavitha Ranganathan, Eric Simon, Jeremy Lynn, Alicia Snider, Yu Zhang, Noah Nelson, Alexis Donneys, Jose Rodriguez, Lauren Buchman, Dawn Reyna, Elke Lipka, Steven R Buchman
PURPOSE: Amifostine (AMF), a radioprotectant, is FDA-approved for intravenous administration in cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (XRT). Unfortunately, it remains clinically underutilized due to adverse side effects. The purpose of this study is to define the pharmacokinetic profile of an oral AMF formulation potentially capable of reducing side effects and increasing clinical feasibility. METHODS: Calvarial osteoblasts were radiated under three conditions: no drug, AMF, and WR-1065 (active metabolite)...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Gleb G Mironov, Alexandre Bouzekri, Jessica Watson, Olga Loboda, Olga Ornatsky, Maxim V Berezovski
Mass cytometry is a novel cell-by-cell analysis technique, which uses elemental tags instead of fluorophores. Sample cells undergo rapid ionization in inductively coupled plasma and the ionized elemental tags are then analyzed by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Benefits of the mass cytometry approach are in no need for compensation, the high number of detection channels (up to 100) and low background noise. In this work, we applied a biotinylated aptamer against human PTK7 receptor for characterization of positive (human acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and negative (human Burkitt's lymphoma) cells by a mass cytometry instrument...
March 20, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mathias Montenarh, Claudia Götz
Ecto-protein kinases, including protein kinase CK2 (former name, casein kinase 2), have been the focus of research for more than 30 years. At the beginning of the ecto-kinase research their identification was performed with substrates and inhibitors whose specificity under the current knowledge was rather limited. Since all currently known ecto-kinases, including ecto-CK2, have intracellular counterparts, one has to exclude that an ecto-localization originates from intracellular counterparts after cell damage...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Eiji Yamamura, Chinami Aruga, Shigeharu Muto, Nobuyuki Baba, Yoshifumi Uno
Introduction: We examined the correlation between the results of in vitro and in vivo chromosomal damage tests by using in-house data of 18 pharmaceutical candidates that showed positive results in the in vitro chromosomal aberration or micronucleus test using CHL/IU cells, and quantitatively analyzed them especially in regard to exposure levels of the compounds. Findings: Eight compounds showed that the exposure levels [maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) and AUC0-24h ] were comparable with or higher than the in vitro exposure levels [the lowest effective (positive) concentration (LEC) and AUCvitro  = LEC (μg/mL) × treatment time (h)]...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Shingo Kishi, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Yi Luo, Isao Kawahara, Kei Goto, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Chie Nakashima, Takamitsu Sasaki, Hiroki Kuniyasu
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are risk factors for cardiovascular disorders, and the cancer-promoting effects of TFAs have been previously reported. The present study examined the effects and signaling of elaidic acid (EA), a TFA, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Oral intake of EA was found to increase metastasis of HT29 human CRC cells. Results indicated that, in the plasma membrane, EA was integrated into cholesterol rafts, which contain epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). EA increased nanog and c-myc, and decreased PGC-1A through lipid raft-associated EGFR signaling in HT29 cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Ruilian Xu, Guolin Zhong, Tanxiao Huang, Wan He, Cheng Kong, Xiaoni Zhang, Ying Wang, Ming Liu, Mingyan Xu, Shifu Chen
Lung cancer is the most commonly occurring type of cancer worldwide and also has the highest mortality rate. Although targeted therapy of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has become common, the majority of patients receiving first-line epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)-TKI treatment develop drug resistance. The EGFR T790M (NM_005228.4(EGFR):c.2369C>T (p.Thr790Met)) mutation accounts for half of all reported resistance cases; however, the molecular mechanism resulting in the drug resistance remains to be characterized...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Ilaria Giusti, Marianna Di Francesco, Sandra D'Ascenzo, Paola Palumbo, Anna Rughetti, Luigi Dell'Orso, Paola Annunziata Varasano, Gabriella Lucidi Pressanti, Vincenza Dolo
The clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing or deprived of leukocytes remains a subject of debate and a controversial issue. It is not yet clear whether leukocyte content has a positive or negative effect on tissue healing processes. Several studies, conducted mainly in the orthopedic field, support the use of leukocyte-poor (LP) PRP, whereas other studies have not identified any significant differences between the use of LP and leukocyte-rich PRP. In the present study, the role of leukocytes contained in PRP was assessed to verify their in vitro effect on fibroblasts and endothelial cells, which have a leading role in the biological processes associated with wound healing (including angiogenesis and matrix remodeling)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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