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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#1
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#2
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786142/the-bone-marrow-is-not-only-a-primary-lymphoid-organ-the-critical-role-for-t-lymphocyte-migration-and-housing-of-long-term-memory-plasma-cells
#3
REVIEW
Reinhard Pabst
In immunology and anatomy textbooks the bone marrow is described as a typical "primary lymphoid organ" producing lymphoid cells independent of antigens. The hematopoietic bone marrow is largely age-dependent organ with great anatomical and functional differences among various species. There are estimates that about 12 % of all lymphoid cells in the human body are found in the bone marrow at any given time (2 % in the peripheral blood). Enormous numbers of T lymphocytes migrate to the bone marrow and partly return later to the blood...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786092/mapping-the-physical-network-of-cellular-interactions
#4
Jean-Charles Boisset, Judith Vivié, Dominic Grün, Mauro J Muraro, Anna Lyubimova, Alexander van Oudenaarden
A cell's function is influenced by the environment, or niche, in which it resides. Studies of niches usually require assumptions about the cell types present, which impedes the discovery of new cell types or interactions. Here we describe ProximID, an approach for building a cellular network based on physical cell interaction and single-cell mRNA sequencing, and show that it can be used to discover new preferential cellular interactions without prior knowledge of component cell types. ProximID found specific interactions between megakaryocytes and mature neutrophils and between plasma cells and myeloblasts and/or promyelocytes (precursors of neutrophils) in mouse bone marrow, and it identified a Tac1+ enteroendocrine cell-Lgr5+ stem cell interaction in small intestine crypts...
May 21, 2018: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785886/treatment-of-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-paediatric-patients-a-monocentric-experience
#5
Paola S Buonuomo, Marina Macchiaiolo, Giovanna Leone, Paola Valente, Gerarda Mastrogiorgio, Maria Gnazzo, Ippolita Rana, Michaela V Gonfiantini, Maria G Gagliardi, Francesca Romano, Andrea Bartuli
Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785877/hepatitis-b-virus-lymphotropism-emerging-details-and-challenges
#6
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785744/fumonisin-b1-actuates-oxidative-stress-associated-colonic-damage-via-apoptosis-and-autophagy-activation-in-murine-model
#7
Sang Ho Kim, Mahendra Pal Singh, Chanchal Sharma, Sun Chul Kang
In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic mechanism of Fumonisin B1 (FB1) in mice colonic region in a time course manner. Herein, after consecutive 4 days of exposure to FBI (2.5 mg/kg body weight), we observed disintegration of mice colon, as evidenced by histopathological analysis. FB1 significantly increased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and plasma, decreased ceramide level, increased sphinganine level, and increased lipid peroxidase level along with the breakdown of the antioxidant system...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785400/previous-exercise-training-reduces-markers-of-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-female-rats
#8
Liliany Souza de Brito Amaral, Cláudia Silva Souza, Rildo Aparecido Volpini, Maria Heloisa Massola Shimizu, Ana Carolina de Bragança, Daniele Canale, Antonio Carlos Seguro, Terezila Machado Coimbra, Amélia Cristina Mendes de Magalhães, Telma de Jesus Soares
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of regular moderate exercise training initiated previously or after induction of diabetes mellitus on renal oxidative stress and inflammation in STZ-induced diabetic female rats. For this purpose, Wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD), trained diabetic (TD), and previously trained diabetic (PTD). Only the PTD group was submitted to treadmill running for 4 weeks previously to DM induction with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785241/an-in-vivo-zebrafish-model-for-interrogating-ros-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-injury-response-and-prevention
#9
Abhishek A Kulkarni, Abass M Conteh, Cody A Sorrell, Anjali Mirmira, Sarah A Tersey, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann, Ryan M Anderson
It is well known that a chronic state of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β -cells impairs their ability to release insulin in response to elevated plasma glucose. Moreover, at its extreme, unmitigated ROS drives regulated cell death. This dysfunctional state of ROS buildup can result both from genetic predisposition and environmental factors such as obesity and overnutrition. Importantly, excessive ROS buildup may underlie metabolic pathologies such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The ability to monitor ROS dynamics in β -cells in situ and to manipulate it via genetic, pharmacological, and environmental means would accelerate the development of novel therapeutics that could abate this pathology...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785229/the-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0001445-regulates-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-may-serve-as-a-diagnostic-biomarker
#10
Xianwei Zhang, Hu Zhou, Wei Jing, Ping Luo, Shili Qiu, Xuefang Liu, Man Zhu, Chunzi Liang, Mingxia Yu, Jiancheng Tu
Circular RNAs (circRNA), a class of noncoding RNAs, have been found to be involved in various diseases. Here, the expression levels of the circRNA hsa_circ_0001445 in 73 pairs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and adjacent nontumor tissues were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our data demonstrate that the hsa_circ_0001445 levels were significantly decreased in HCC tissues ( P < 0.001) and markedly associated with the number of tumor foci ( P = 0.014). Furthermore, in vitro approaches showed that overexpression of hsa_circ_0001445 promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC-derived cells, suggesting that hsa_circ_0001445 might be involved in the development of HCC...
2018: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785143/pilot-study-of-the-antifibrotic-effects-of-the-multikinase-inhibitor-pacritinib-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-fibrosis
#11
Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Taishi Hashiguchi, Yuka Shirakata, John Mascarenhas, Jack W Singer
Background: Fibrotic diseases result from an exuberant response to chronic inflammation. Myelofibrosis is the end result of inflammation in bone, caused by an inflammatory process triggered by production of abnormal myeloid cells driven by mutations affecting the JAK-STAT pathway. Inflammatory cytokine overproduction leads to increased mesenchymal cell proliferation, culminating in fibrosis. Although JAK2 inhibitors, such as the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib and the JAK2/FLT3/CSF1R/IRAK1 inhibitor pacritinib suppress abnormal clone expansion in myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib does not appear to prevent or reverse bone-marrow fibrosis in most patients...
2018: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785123/leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein-1-is-up-regulated-in-colorectal-cancer-and-is-a-tumor-promoter
#12
Qian Zhang, Rui Huang, Qingchao Tang, Yang Yu, Quanlong Huang, Yinggang Chen, Guiyu Wang, Xishan Wang
Background: Leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG1) is differentially expressed in many kinds of diseases including cancer, however, it has not been thoroughly studied yet. Purpose: The objective of this study was to detect the expression and potential mechanism of LRG1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). In our study, we examined LRG1 levels in CRC tissue and plasma with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784874/select-%C3%AE-arrestins-control-cell-surface-abundance-of-the-mammalian-kir2-1-potassium-channel-in-a-yeast-model
#13
Natalie A Hager, Collin J Krasowski, Timothy D Mackie, Alexander R Kolb, Patrick G Needham, Andrew A Augustine, Alison Dempsey, Christopher Szent-Gyorgyi, Marcel P Bruchez, Daniel J Bain, Adam V Kwiatkowski, Allyson F O'Donnell, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inwardly rectifying channel Kir2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784859/igg-responses-to-the-plasmodium-falciparum-antigen-var2csa-in-colombia-are-restricted-to-pregnancy-and-are-not-induced-by-exposure-to-p-vivax
#14
Mary Lopez-Perez, Mads Delbo Larsen, Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Paulina Ampomah, Liz Stevenson, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera, Lars Hviid
Clinical immunity to malaria is associated with acquisition of IgG specific for members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family of clonally variant antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs). The VAR2CSA subtype of PfEMP1 mediates IE binding in the placenta. VAR2CSA-specific IgG is normally acquired only after exposure to placental parasites. However, it was recently reported that men and children from Colombia often have high levels of functional VAR2CSA-specific IgG...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784395/development-a-hydrazide-functionalized-thermosensitive-polymer-based-homogeneous-system-for-highly-efficient-n-glycoprotein-glycopeptide-enrichment-from-human-plasma-exosome
#15
Haihong Bai, Yiting Pan, Lu Qi, Long Liu, Xinyuan Zhao, Hangyan Dong, Xiaoqiang Cheng, Weijie Qin, Xinghe Wang
As one of the most common post-translational modifications, protein N-glycosylation precipitates in many important biological processes and has closely correlations with the occurrence and progression of multiple diseases. Plasma exosomes secreted by cells contain various bioactive N-glycoproteins which may serve as potential biomarkers for early disease diagnosis and treatment. However, the protein N-glycosylation profile in human plasma exosome is largely unknown, due to the technical challenges in glycoprotein identification...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784322/peanut-flour-aggregation-with-polyphenolic-extracts-derived-from-peanut-skin-inhibits-ige-binding-capacity-and-attenuates-rbl-2h3-cells-degranulation-via-mapk-signaling-pathway
#16
Rishipal R Bansode, Nathalie J Plundrich, Priscilla D Randolph, Mary Ann Lila, Leonard L Williams
This study investigates the anti-allergic properties of peanut skin polyphenols (PSP)-enriched peanut (PN) protein aggregates. PSP was blended with PN flour at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 40% (w/w). Rat basophil leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) were sensitized with either anti-DNP-IgE or PN-allergic plasma followed by co-exposure to unmodified PN flour (control) or PSP-PN protein aggregates and Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin. Immunoblotting and staining were performed to measure the IgE binding capacity of PSP-PN aggregates...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784012/treatment-of-experimental-colitis-by-endometrial-regenerative-cells-through-regulation-of-b-lymphocytes-in-mice
#17
Xiaoxi Xu, Yong Wang, Baoren Zhang, Xu Lan, Shanzheng Lu, Peng Sun, Xiang Li, Ganggang Shi, Yiming Zhao, Hongqiu Han, Caigan Du, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs), a novel type of mesenchymal-like stem cell derived from menstrual blood, have been recently evaluated as an attractive candidate source in ulcerative colitis (UC); however, the mechanism is not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ERCs, especially on B-cell responses in UC. METHODS: In this study, colitis was induced by administering 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) via free drinking water for 7 days to BALB/c mice...
May 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784000/the-homing-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells-is-differentially-activated-in-ischemic-and-valvular-heart-diseases-and-influenced-by-beta-blockers
#18
Melissa Kristocheck, Lucinara D Dias, Carine Ghem, Bruna Eibel, Renato A K Kalil, Melissa M Markoski
BACKGROUND: Cell homing is the mechanism by which an injury releases signaling molecules that cause recruitment, proliferation, migration and differentiation of progenitor cells. Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 are key molecules involved in homing and little is known about their activation in cardiopathies. Here, we assessed the homing activation status of bone marrow cells (BMC) concerning the SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression in ischemic (IHD) and valvular (VHD) heart diseases...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783956/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure-and-restraint-stress-induce-changes-on-the-brain-lipid-profile-of-wistar-rats
#19
Jesús Martínez-Sámano, Alan Flores-Poblano, Leticia Verdugo-Díaz, Marco Antonio Juárez-Oropeza, Patricia V Torres-Durán
BACKGROUND: Exposure to electromagnetic fields can affect human health, damaging tissues and cell homeostasis. Stress modulates neuronal responses and composition of brain lipids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure, restraint stress (RS) or both (RS + ELF-EMF) on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in Wistar rat brain. METHODS: Twenty-four young male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: control, RS, ELF-EMF exposure, and RS + ELF-EMF for 21 days...
May 21, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783953/immunologic-and-virological-response-to-art-among-hiv-infected-individuals-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#20
Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Faustina Pappoe, Ibrahim Baidoo, Francis Arthur, Anna Hayfron-Benjamin, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Stephen Ayisi Addo
BACKGROUND: The need to study the outcome of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country crucial in the era of the "Treat All" policy. The aim of this study was to analyze selected determinants of immunological and virological response to ART among HIV infected individuals in a tertiary facility in Cape Coast, Ghana. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study with a retrospective component was conducted in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH), Central Region...
May 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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