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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647858/counter-intuitive-plasma-vitamin-d-and-zinc-status-in-hiv-1-infected-adults-with-persistent-low-level-viraemia-after-treatment-initiation-a-pilot-case-control-study
#1
H Melliez, A Duhamel, O Robineau, L Bocket, I Kim, E Sauser, F Loiseleur, N Viget, A Pasquet, E Senneville, D Seguy
Determinants of persistent low-level viraemia [PLLV, a viral load (VL) of between 50 and 500 copies/mL] have not been elucidated. In a case-control study, we evaluated the influence of micronutrients on PLLV in a population of 454 HIV-1 adults having initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2007 and December 2011. Plasma levels of retinol (vitamin A), 25-OH vitamin D2 + D3, vitamin E and zinc were measured at ART initiation in cases (PLLV after 6 months of ART) and in controls (VL <50 copies/mL after 6 months)...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647697/analysis-of-k-ras-interactions-by-biotin-ligase-tagging
#2
Christopher Ritchie, Andrew Mack, Logan Harper, Ayna Alfadhli, Philip J S Stork, Xiaolin Nan, Eric Barklis
BACKGROUND: Mutations of the human K-Ras 4B (K-Ras) G protein are associated with a significant proportion of all human cancers. Despite this fact, a comprehensive analysis of K-Ras interactions is lacking. Our investigations focus on characterization of the K-Ras interaction network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed a biotin ligase-tagging approach, in which tagged K-Ras proteins biotinylate neighbor proteins in a proximity-dependent fashion, and proteins are identified via mass spectrometry (MS) sequencing...
July 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647580/one-carbon-metabolism-biomarkers-and-cognitive-decline-in-the-very-old-the-newcastle-85-study
#3
Nuno Mendonça, Antoneta Granic, John C Mathers, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Keith A Wesnes, Chris J Seal, Carol Jagger, Tom R Hill
OBJECTIVES: Although the biological rationale for the association between folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine with cognitive function seems plausible, conflicting results have been reported. This study aimed to determine the associations between 1-carbon (1-C) metabolism biomarkers (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine), and cognitive impairment at baseline and the rate of cognitive decline over 5 years in the very old. DESIGN: The Newcastle 85+ Study was a prospective longitudinal study of people 85 years old and followed over 5 years in Northeast England...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647507/differential-replication-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-in-mice-determine-lethality
#4
Marco Cacciabue, María Soledad García-Núñez, Fernando Delgado, Anabella Currá, Rubén Marrero, Paula Molinari, Elizabeth Rieder, Elisa Carrillo, María Inés Gismondi
Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (A01L) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. Both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. Virus A01L reached higher viral loads in plasma and organs of inoculated mice as well as increased replication in an ovine kidney cell line...
June 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647488/autoreactivity-to-malondialdehyde-modifications-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-linked-to-disease-activity-and-synovial-pathogenesis
#5
Caroline Grönwall, Khaled Amara, Uta Hardt, Akilan Krishnamurthy, Johanna Steen, Marianne Engström, Meng Sun, A Jimmy Ytterberg, Roman A Zubarev, Dagmar Scheel-Toellner, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Lars Klareskog, Anca I Catrina, Vivianne Malmström, Gregg J Silverman
Oxidation-associated malondialdehyde (MDA) modification of proteins can generate immunogenic neo-epitopes that are recognized by autoantibodies. In health, IgM antibodies to MDA-adducts are part of the natural antibody pool, while elevated levels of IgG anti-MDA antibodies are associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Yet, in human autoimmune disease IgG anti-MDA responses have not been well characterized and their potential contribution to disease pathogenesis is not known. Here, we investigate MDA-modifications and anti-MDA-modified protein autoreactivity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647457/quantitative-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-to-assess-human-ige-b-cell-receptor-crosslinking-by-ige-and-empd-ige-targeting-antibodies
#6
Benjamin Vigl, Nina Salhat, Michela Parth, Halyna Pankevych, Andreas Mairhofer, Stefan Bartl, Oskar W Smrzka
Targeting plasma IgE by therapeutic mABs like Omalizumab (Xolair®) is current clinical practice for severe allergic conditions or other IgE related diseases like chronic urticaria. As an alternative to soluble IgE targeting, IgE supply can be lowered by targeting the Extracellular Membrane Proximal Domain (EMPD) of the IgE B cell receptor (BCR) present on IgE switched B cells. This ultimately leads to apoptosis of these cells upon IgE BCR crosslinking. Since tools to selectively assess the efficacy of IgE BCR crosslinking by IgE targeting antibodies are limited, a readily quantifiable cell model was developed that allows to specifically address IgE BCR crosslinking activity in vitro...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647348/pivotal-role-of-lesional-and-perilesional-t-b-lymphocytes-in-pemphigus-pathogenesis
#7
Huijie Yuan, Shengru Zhou, Zhicui Liu, Weiting Cong, Xiaochun Fei, Weihong Zeng, Haiqin Zhu, Renchao Xu, Ying Wang, Jie Zheng, Meng Pan
Pemphigus is a skin and mucosal membrane-targeting autoimmune bullous disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that circulating anti-desmoglein1/3 antibodies are pathogenic and mediate blister formation. However, the role of infiltrated immune cells in the lesional skin has not been fully investigated. In this study we showed that there existed a large number of B, T lymphocytes and plasma cells in the skin lesions by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. In addition, a significantly increased number of Dsg1 and Dsg3-specific B cells could be identified by flow cytometric analysis or ELISPOT assay...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647328/effects-of-feeding-an-immunomodulatory-supplement-to-heat-stressed-or-actively-cooled-cows-during-late-gestation-on-postnatal-immunity-health-and-growth-of-calves
#8
Amy L Skibiel, Thiago F Fabris, Fabiana N Corrá, Yazielis M Torres, Derek J McLean, James D Chapman, David J Kirk, Geoffrey E Dahl, Jimena Laporta
Heat stress during late gestation negatively affects the physiology, health, and productivity of dairy cows as well as the calves developing in utero. Providing cows with active cooling devices, such as fans and soakers, and supplementing cows with an immunomodulating feed additive, OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corporation), improves immune function and milk yield of cows. It is unknown if maternal supplementation of OG combined with active cooling during late gestation might benefit the developing calf as well...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647214/development-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-functionalized-ritonavir-proliposomes-for-lymphatic-targeting
#9
Vasif Ahammed, Reema Narayan, John Paul, Yogendra Nayak, Bisakha Roy, Gopal V Shavi, Usha Y Nayak
AIMS: The aim of the present work was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate proliposomes containing lipophilic prodrug ritonavir for targeting towards CD4+ T cells in the lymphatic system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The liposomes were prepared by lipid thin film hydration method and lyophilized in the presence of cryoprotectant mannitol to obtain proliposomes. The optimized proliposomes by Central Composite Design, were surface modified with biotin. The proliposomes were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies...
June 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646725/eculizumab-decreases-the-procoagulant-activity-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-a-pilot-prospective-longitudinal-clinical-study
#10
Adeline Wannez, Bérangère Devalet, Céline Bouvy, Julie Laloy, Benoit Bihin, Bernard Chatelain, Christian Chatelain, Jean-Michel Dogné, François Mullier
INTRODUCTION: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a disease characterized by the susceptibility of blood cells to attack by the complement system, inducing extracellular vesicle (EV) production. Thromboembolism is the leading cause of death in this condition. Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody which inhibits the C5 protein of the complement, reduces the thrombotic risk in PNH. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We conducted a pilot, prospective, open-label, longitudinal clinical study with six PNH patients treated with eculizumab...
June 9, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646647/successful-maintenance-of-key-physiological-parameters-in-preterm-lambs-treated-with-ex%C3%A2-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy-for-a-period-of-1-week
#11
Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Yuichiro Miura, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Hideyuki Ikeda, Shinichi Sato, Takushi Hanita, Tadashi Matsuda, Alan H Jobe, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants born at the border of viability (22-24 weeks' gestation) have high rates of death and lasting disability. Ex vivo uterine environment therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy that provides gas exchange using parallel membranous oxygenators connected to the umbilical vessels, sparing the extremely preterm cardiopulmonary system from ventilation-derived injury. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to refine our ex vivo uterine environment therapy platform to eliminate fetal infection and inflammation, while simultaneously extending the duration of hemodynamically stable ex vivo uterine environment therapy to 1 week...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646630/characteristics-of-systemic-inflammation-in-hepatitis-b-precipitated-aclf-differentiate-it-from-no-aclf
#12
Wei Wu, Huadong Yan, Hong Zhao, Wenjie Sun, Qiao Yang, Jifang Sheng, Yu Shi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (SE-CHB) are at risk of developing acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Systemic inflammation (SI) is a major driver of ACLF. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of SI in hepatitis B-precipitated-ACLF (HB-ACLF), which may be distinct from No-ACLF patients with SE-CHB. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with SE-CHB were enrolled in two tertiary hospitals. The associations between circulating leukocyte counts/subsets and ACLF progression and prognoses were analysed in Cohort A...
June 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646629/mechanisms-of-inhibitory-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-photosynthetic-primary-processes-in-pea-leaves-and-thylakoid-preparations
#13
V D Kreslavski, M Brestic, S K Zharmukhamedov, V Yu Luybimov, A V Lankin, A Jajoo, S I Allakhverdiev
Inhibitory effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on plants is studied in pea leaves in order to elucidate the mechanisms of action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene (Naph) and phenanthrene (Phen) on activity of photosystem 2 (PS-2). The changes in different Chl fluorescence parameters were calculated on the basis of Chl fluorescence induction curves. Hydrogen peroxide content was measured in leaf homogenates by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method. We demonstrated that due to PAH treatment, the total energy dissipation (DI0 /ABS) and amount of QB -non-reducing complexes of PS-2 significantly increased...
June 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646209/upregulation-of-circulating-microrna-134-in-adult-onset-still-s-disease-and-its-use-as-potential-biomarker
#14
Tsai-Ling Liao, Yi-Ming Chen, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Hsin-Hua Chen, Hsiu-Chin Lee, Wei-Ting Hung, Kuo-Tung Tang, Der-Yuan Chen
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. To date, no single diagnostic test is available for AOSD. Herein, we investigated the pathogenic role of microRNAs in AOSD. MicroRNA profiles in plasma from AOSD patients and healthy controls were analyzed by microarray analysis, followed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR validation. The biological functions of microRNAs were evaluated using in vitro cell-based assay. Among the differentially expressed microRNAs, microRNA-134 (miR-134) expression was positively correlated with AOSD activity scores and significantly decreased after effective treatment...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646165/selective-inhibition-of-sterolo-acyltransferase-1-isozyme-by-beauveriolide-iii-in-intact-cells
#15
Taichi Ohshiro, Keisuke Kobayashi, Mio Ohba, Daisuke Matsuda, Lawrence L Rudel, Takashi Takahashi, Takayuki Doi, Hiroshi Tomoda
Beauveriolide III (BeauIII) inhibited sterol O-acyltransferases 1 and 2 (SOAT1 and SOAT2), which are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins, in an enzyme-based assay, and selectively inhibited SOAT1 in a cell-based assay using SOAT1-/SOAT2-CHO cells. This discrepancy in SOAT inhibition by BeauIII was investigated. In the enzyme-based assay, BeauIII inhibited SOAT1 and SOAT2 to a similar extent using microsomes prepared from cells disrupted under the strongest sonication condition. In semi-intact SOAT1-/SOAT2-CHO cells prepared by a treatment with digitonin (plasma membrane permeabilized), BeauIII selectively inhibited SOAT1 (IC50; 5...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646105/the-glycolytic-enzyme-phosphofructokinase-1-assembles-into-filaments
#16
Bradley A Webb, Anne M Dosey, Torsten Wittmann, Justin M Kollman, Diane L Barber
Despite abundant knowledge of the regulation and biochemistry of glycolytic enzymes, we have limited understanding on how they are spatially organized in the cell. Emerging evidence indicates that nonglycolytic metabolic enzymes regulating diverse pathways can assemble into polymers. We now show tetramer- and substrate-dependent filament assembly by phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), which is considered the "gatekeeper" of glycolysis because it catalyzes the step committing glucose to breakdown. Recombinant liver PFK1 (PFKL) isoform, but not platelet PFK1 (PFKP) or muscle PFK1 (PFKM) isoforms, assembles into filaments...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646093/emerging-roles-of-mechanical-forces-in-chromatin-regulation
#17
REVIEW
Yekaterina A Miroshnikova, Michele M Nava, Sara A Wickström
Cells are constantly subjected to a spectrum of mechanical cues, such as shear stress, compression, differential tissue rigidity and strain, to which they adapt by engaging mechanisms of mechanotransduction. While the central role of cell adhesion receptors in this process is established, it has only recently been appreciated that mechanical cues reach far beyond the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton, and are directly transmitted to the nucleus. Furthermore, changes in the mechanical properties of the perinuclear cytoskeleton, nuclear lamina and chromatin are critical for cellular responses and adaptation to external mechanical cues...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646090/cellular-functions-of-wasp-family-proteins-at-a-glance
#18
REVIEW
Olga Alekhina, Ezra Burstein, Daniel D Billadeau
Proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family function as nucleation-promoting factors for the ubiquitously expressed Arp2/3 complex, which drives the generation of branched actin filaments. Arp2/3-generated actin regulates diverse cellular processes, including the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, endocytosis and/or phagocytosis at the plasma membrane, and the generation of cargo-laden vesicles from organelles including the Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the endo-lysosomal network...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#19
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646040/il-23-limits-the-production-of-il-2-and-promotes-autoimmunity-in-lupus
#20
Hong Dai, Fan He, George C Tsokos, Vasileios C Kyttaris
The IL-23/IL-17 pathway is important in multiple autoimmune diseases, but its effect on lupus pathology remains unclear, with opposing trials in murine models of the disease. In this study, we show a disease activity-related upregulation of serum IL-23 and IL-23 receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as compared with healthy controls. When added in SLE T cell in vitro cultures, IL-23 induced IL-17 and limited IL-2 production, whereas T follicular helper and double negative (DN) T cells significantly expanded...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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