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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352733/localization-of-palmitoylated-and-activated-g-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-in-dictyostelium-discoideum
#1
Sarah Alamer, Yusuke Kageyama, Robert E Gundersen
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) act as molecular switches to regulate many fundamental cellular processes. The lipid modification, palmitoylation, can be considered as a key factor for proper G protein function and plasma membrane localization. In Dictyostelium discoidum, Gα2 is essential for the chemotactic response to cAMP in their developmental life cycle. However, the regulation of Gα2 with respect to palmitoylation, activation and Gβγ association is less clear. In this study, Gα2 is shown to be palmitoylated on Cys-4 by [3 H]palmitate labeling...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352723/which-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-t-cell-counts-benefit-most-from-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-post-hoc-subgroup-analysis-of-the-start-trial
#2
Jean-Michel Molina, Birgit Grund, Fred Gordin, Ian Williams, Mauro Schechter, Marcello Losso, Matthew Law, Ernest Ekong, Noluthando Mwelase, Athanasios Skoutelis, Martin J Wiselka, Linos Vandekerckhove, Thomas Benfield, David Munroe, Jens D Lundgren, James D Neaton
BACKGROUND: Immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in asymptomatic adults with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL, as recommended, might not always be possible in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify subgroups of individuals who would benefit most from immediate treatment. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in asymptomatic, HIV-positive adults previously untreated with ART. Participants with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL were randomly assigned to receive immediate ART or to defer ART until CD4 counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 15, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352711/gold-cleaning-methods-for-preparation-of-cell-culture-surfaces-for-self-assembled-monolayers-of-zwitterionic-oligopeptides
#3
Junko Enomoto, Tatsuto Kageyama, Dina Myasnikova, Kisaki Onishi, Yuka Kobayashi, Yoko Taruno, Takahiro Kanai, Junji Fukuda
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used to elucidate interactions between cells and material surface chemistry. Gold surfaces modified with oligopeptide SAMs exhibit several unique characteristics, such as cell-repulsive surfaces, micropatterns of cell adhesion and non-adhesion regions for control over cell microenvironments, and dynamic release of cells upon external stimuli under culture conditions. However, basic procedures for the preparation of oligopeptide SAMs, including appropriate cleaning methods of the gold surface before modification, have not been fully established...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352292/rna-seq-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-reveals-alterations-in-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#4
For Yue Tso, Andrew V Kossenkov, Salum J Lidenge, Owen Ngalamika, John R Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Eun Hee Kwon, John T West, Paul M Lieberman, Charles Wood
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). It is endemic in a number of sub-Saharan African countries with infection rate of >50%. The high prevalence of HIV-1 coupled with late presentation of advanced cancer staging make KS the leading cancer in the region with poor prognosis and high mortality. Disease markers and cellular functions associated with KS tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Several studies have attempted to investigate changes of the gene profile with in vitro infection of monoculture models, which are not likely to reflect the cellular complexity of the in vivo lesion environment...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352043/prognostic-implications-of-multiplex-detection-of-kras-mutations-in-cell-free-dna-from-patients-with-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#5
Min Kyeong Kim, Sang Myung Woo, Boram Park, Kyong-Ah Yoon, Yun-Hee Kim, Jungnam Joo, Woo Jin Lee, Sung-Sik Han, Sang-Jae Park, Sun-Young Kong
BACKGROUND: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is known to provide potential biomarkers for predicting clinical outcome, but its value in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of quantitative analysis of multiplex KRAS mutations in cell-free DNA from patients with PDAC. METHODS: A total of 106 patients with PDAC were enrolled in this prospective study. The concentration and fraction of KRAS mutations were determined through multiplex detection of KRAS mutations in plasma samples by use of a droplet digital PCR kit (Bio-Rad)...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351997/spatiotemporal-organization-of-exocytosis-emerges-during-neuronal-shape-change
#6
Fabio L Urbina, Shawn M Gomez, Stephanie L Gupton
Neurite elongation and branching in developing neurons requires plasmalemma expansion, hypothesized to occur primarily via exocytosis. We posited that exocytosis in developing neurons and nonneuronal cells would exhibit distinct spatiotemporal organization. We exploited total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to image vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-pHluorin-mediated exocytosis in mouse embryonic cortical neurons and interphase melanoma cells, and developed computer-vision software and statistical tools to uncover spatiotemporal aspects of exocytosis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351619/repairing-folding-defective-%C3%AE-sarcoglycan-mutants-by-cftr-correctors-a-potential-therapy-for-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2d
#7
Marcello Carotti, Justine Marsolier, Michela Soardi, Elisa Bianchini, Chiara Gomiero, Chiara Fecchio, Sara F Henriques, Romeo Betto, Roberta Sacchetto, Isabelle Richard, Dorianna Sandonà
Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D) is a rare autosomal-recessive disease, affecting striated muscle, due to mutation of SGCA, the gene coding for α-sarcoglycan. Nowadays more than 50 different SGCA missense mutations have been reported. They are supposed to impact folding and trafficking of α-sarcoglycan because the defective polypeptide, although potentially functional, is recognized and disposed of by the quality control of the cell. The secondary reduction of α-sarcoglycan partners, β-, γ- and δ-sarcoglycan, disrupts a key membrane complex that, associated to dystrophin, contributes to assure sarcolemma stability during muscle contraction...
January 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351485/insulin-signaling-displayed-a-differential-tissue-specific-response-to-low-dose-dht-in-female-mice
#8
Stanley Andrisse, Katelyn Billings, Ping Xue, Sheng Wu
Hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia are believed to play prominent roles in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We explored the effects of low dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a PCOS model, on insulin signaling in metabolic and re-productive tissues in a female mouse model. Insulin resistance in the energy storage tissues is associated with type 2 diabetes. Insulin signaling in the ovaries and pituitary either directly or indirectly stimulates androgen production. Energy storage and reproductive tissues were isolated and molecular assays were performed...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351455/thrombosis-systemic-and-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-induced-by-pulmonary-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-particles-and-the-effect-of-nootkatone-thereon
#9
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin H Ali
Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351414/the-murine-choroid-plexus-epithelium-expresses-the-2cl-h-exchanger-clc-7-and-na-h-exchanger-nhe6-in-the-luminal-membrane-domain
#10
Helle H Damkier, Henriette L Christensen, Inga B Christensen, Qi Wu, Robert A Fenton, Jeppe Praetorius
The choroid plexus epithelium within the brain ventricles secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The luminal Na+,K+-ATPase acts in concert with a host of other transport proteins to mediate efficient fluid secretion across the epithelium. The CSF contains little protein buffer, but the pH value seems nonetheless maintained within narrow limits, even when faced with acid/base challenges. The involvement of choroid plexus acid/base transporters in CSF pH regulation is highlighted by the expression of several acid/base transporters in the epithelium...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351408/choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-express-the-adhesion-protein-p-cadherin-at-cell-cell-contacts-and-syntaxin-4-in-the-luminal-membrane-domain
#11
Inga Baasch Christensen, Esben Nees Mogensen, Helle Hasager Damkier, Jeppe Praetorius
The choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) belong to a small group of polarized cells, where the Na+,K+-ATPase is expressed in the luminal membrane. The basic polarity of the cells is, therefore, still debated. We investigated the subcellular distribution of an array of proteins known to play fundamental roles in either in establishing and maintaining basic cell polarity or the polarized delivery and recycling of plasma membrane proteins. Immunofluorescence histochemical analysis was applied to determine the subcellular localization of apical and basolateral membrane determinants...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351307/doxycycline-modulates-vegf-a-expression-failure-of-doxycycline-inducible-lentivirus-shrna-vector-to-knockdown-vegf-a-expression-in-transgenic-mice
#12
Mari Merentie, Riina Rissanen, Line Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Jenni Huusko, Erika Gurzeler, Mikko P Turunen, Lari Holappa, Petri Mäkinen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is the master regulator of angiogenesis, vascular permeability and growth. However, its role in mature blood vessels is still not well understood. To better understand the role of VEGF-A in the adult vasculature, we generated a VEGF-A knockdown mouse model carrying a doxycycline (dox)-regulatable short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transgene, which silences VEGF-A. The aim was to find the critical level of VEGF-A reduction for vascular well-being in vivo. In vitro, the dox-inducible lentiviral shRNA vector decreased VEGF-A expression efficiently and dose-dependently in mouse endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351272/current-applications-of-multiparameter-flow-cytometry-in-plasma-cell-disorders
#13
T Jelinek, R Bezdekova, M Zatopkova, L Burgos, M Simicek, T Sevcikova, B Paiva, R Hajek
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/bcj.2017.90.
January 19, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349894/assessment-of-the-potential-of-temporin-peptides-from-the-frog-rana-temporaria-ranidae-as-anti-diabetic-agents
#14
Vishal Musale, Bruno Casciaro, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon
Temporin A (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-NH2 ), temporin F (FLPLIGKVLSGIL-NH2 ), and temporin G (FFPVIGRILNGIL-NH2 ), first identified in skin secretions of the frog Rana temporaria, produced concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥1 nM, without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 3 μM. Temporin A was the most effective. The mechanism of insulinotropic action did not involve an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Temporins B, C, E, H, and K were either inactive or only weakly active...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349865/superfast-room-temperature-activation-of-sno2-thin-films-via-atmospheric-plasma-oxidation-and-their-application-in-planar-perovskite-photovoltaics
#15
Haejun Yu, Hye-In Yeom, Jong Woo Lee, Kisu Lee, Doyk Hwang, Juyoung Yun, Jaehoon Ryu, Jungsup Lee, Sohyeon Bae, Seong Keun Kim, Jyongsik Jang
The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has now exceeded 20%; thus, research focus has shifted to establishing the foundations for commercialization. One of the pivotal themes is to curtail the overall fabrication time, to reduce unit cost, and mass-produce PSCs. Additionally, energy dissipation during the thermal annealing (TA) stage must be minimized by realizing a genuine low-temperature (LT) process. Here, tin oxide (SnO2 ) thin films (TFs) are formulated at extremely high speed, within 5 min, under an almost room-temperature environment (<50 °C), using atmospheric Ar/O2 plasma energy (P-SnO2 ) and are applied as an electron transport layer of a "n-i-p"-type planar PSC...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349810/medicago-truncatula-copper-transporter-1-mtcopt1-delivers-copper-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation
#16
Marta Senovilla, Rosario Castro-Rodríguez, Isidro Abreu, Viviana Escudero, Igor Kryvoruchko, Michael K Udvardi, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Copper is an essential nutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This element is delivered by the host plant to the nodule, where membrane copper (Cu) transporter would introduce it into the cell to synthesize cupro-proteins. COPT family members in the model legume Medicago truncatula were identified and their expression determined. Yeast complementation assays, confocal microscopy and phenotypical characterization of a Tnt1 insertional mutant line were carried out in the nodule-specific M. truncatula COPT family member...
January 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349498/plasma-metabolites-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-swedish-population-a-case-control-study-nested-in-a-prospective-cohort
#17
Lin Shi, Carl Brunius, Marko Lehtonen, Seppo Auriola, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Olov Rolandsson, Kati Hanhineva, Rikard Landberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of the present work were to identify plasma metabolites that predict future type 2 diabetes, to investigate the changes in identified metabolites among individuals who later did or did not develop type 2 diabetes over time, and to assess the extent to which inclusion of predictive metabolites could improve risk prediction. METHODS: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort...
January 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348825/a-novel-anti-cd146-antibody-specifically-targets-cancer-cells-by-internalizing-the-molecule
#18
Marie Nollet, Jimmy Stalin, Anaïs Moyon, Waël Traboulsi, Amel Essaadi, Stéphane Robert, Nausicaa Malissen, Richard Bachelier, Laurent Daniel, Alexandrine Foucault-Bertaud, Caroline Gaudy-Marqueste, Romaric Lacroix, Aurélie S Leroyer, Benjamin Guillet, Nathalie Bardin, Françoise Dignat-George, Marcel Blot-Chabaud
CD146 is an adhesion molecule present on many tumors (melanoma, kidney, pancreas, breast, ...). In addition, it has been shown to be expressed on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Generating an antibody able to specifically recognize CD146 in cancer cells (designated as tumor CD146), but not in normal cells, would thus be of major interest for targeting tumor CD146 without affecting the vascular system. We thus generated antibodies against the extracellular domain of the molecule produced in cancer cells and selected an antibody that specifically recognizes tumor CD146...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348589/novel-miniature-membrane-active-lipopeptidomimetics-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-embedded-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Seema Joshi, Sana Mumtaz, Jyotsna Singh, Santosh Pasha, Kasturi Mukhopadhyay
Escalating multidrug resistance and highly evolved virulence mechanisms have aggravated the clinical menace of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Towards development of economically viable staphylocidal agents here we report eight structurally novel tryptophan-arginine template based peptidomimetics. Out of the designed molecules, three lipopeptidomimetics (S-6, S-7 and S-8) containing 12-amino dodecanoic acid exhibited cell selectivity and good to potent activity against clinically relevant pathogens MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (MIC: 1...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348511/resonant-plasma-excitation-by-single-cycle-thz-pulses
#20
A Curcio, A Marocchino, V Dolci, S Lupi, M Petrarca
In this paper, an alternative perspective for the generation of millimetric high-gradient resonant plasma waves is discussed. This method is based on the plasma-wave excitation by energetic single-cycle THz pulses whose temporal length is comparable to the plasma wavelength. The excitation regime discussed in this paper is the quasi-nonlinear regime that can be achieved when the normalized vector potential of the driving THz pulse is on the order of unity. To investigate this regime and determine the strength of the excited electric fields, a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code has been used...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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