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Adam Kasparek, Bogdan Smyk
The fluorescence technique is very popular and has been used in many fields of research. It is simple in its assumptions but not very easy to use. One of the main problems is the inner filter effect (IF) I and II which takes place in the cuvette. IF type I is permanently present, but IF type II occurs only when absorption and fluorescence spectra overlap. To avoid IF type I, absorbencies in the cuvette should be smaller than 0.05, which is however very difficult to obtain in many experiments. In this work we propose a new method to solve these problems in the case of a Cary Eclipse fluorimeter, having horizontally-oriented slits, based on old equations developed in the middle of the last century...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Tomasz Tański, Wiktor Matysiak
The purpose of this paper was to produce SiO₂ and TiO₂ nanowires via the electrospinning process from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)/Titanium (IV) butoxide (TNBT)/dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol (EtOH) solution. The as-obtained nanofibers were calcined at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 600 °C in order to remove the organic phase. The one-dimensional ceramic nanostructures were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to analyze the influence of the used temperature on the morphology and structures of the obtained ceramic nanomaterials...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Shinpei Ogawa, Masafumi Kimata
Electromagnetic wave absorbers have been investigated for many years with the aim of achieving high absorbance and tunability of both the absorption wavelength and the operation mode by geometrical control, small and thin absorber volume, and simple fabrication. There is particular interest in metal-insulator-metal-based plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MIM-PMAs) due to their complete fulfillment of these demands. MIM-PMAs consist of top periodic micropatches, a middle dielectric layer, and a bottom reflector layer to generate strong localized surface plasmon resonance at absorption wavelengths...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Chunxue Hao, Bochong Wang, Fusheng Wen, Congpu Mu, Jianyong Xiang, Lei Li, Zhongyuan Liu
Through a facile self-assembled process, an ultralight reduced graphene oxide/black phosphorus (rGO/BP) composite aerogel was successfully fabricated. The BP nanosheets were homogeneously distributed throughout the rGO 3D framework, and the interfaces between rGO and BP possessed four kinds of interconnections, such as wrapping, wearing, bridging and weak linking. As an ultralight composite, the rGO/BP aerogel could easily stand on the stamen of a flower. Compared with pure rGO aerogel, the rGO/BP composite aerogel exhibited enhanced microwave absorption ability...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Hitoshi Ono, Yasunari Kojima, Hiroshi Harada, Yoshikazu Abe, Takuro Endo, Mamoru Kobayashi
1. The pharmacokinetic and metabolite profiles of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 inhibitor designed to act only in the intestine, were investigated in rats. 2. Mizagliflozin administrated intravenously (0.3 mg/kg) and orally (3 mg/kg) declined with a short half-life (0.23 and 1.14 h, respectively). The absolute bioavailability was only 0.02%. Following intravenous administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (0.3 mg/kg), radioactivity in plasma was also rapidly declined. Up to 24 h after oral administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (1 mg/kg), radioactivity was recovered in the faeces (98...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Vincent A Spata, Emily A Carter
Nanoparticles synthesized from plasmonic metals can absorb low-energy light, producing an oscillation/excitation of their valence electron density that can be utilized in chemical conversions. For example, heterogeneous photocatalysis can be achieved within heterometallic antenna-reactor complexes (HMARCs), by coupling a reactive center at which a chemical reaction occurs to a plasmonic nanoparticle that acts as a light-absorbing antenna. For example, HMARCs composed of aluminum antennae and palladium (Pd) reactive centers have been demonstrated recently to catalyze selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Xue Han, Xiao Kuang, Zhenjie Wang, Xinyu Wang, Hongzhuo Liu
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyapatite(HA) was emerging as the most promising biomaterial owing to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility, and high compressive strength for segmental bone defects. However, due to the lack of synergistic signals of osteogenic cells or growth factors, attempts concerning HA have not achieved ideal therapeutical effect. OBJECTIVE: This work was intended to combine HA particles with nerve growth factor (NGF) to co-accelerate the bone repair...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Rosa I Sanchez, Kerry L Fillgrove, Ka Lai Yee, Yuexia Liang, Bing Lu, Aditya Tatavarti, Rachael Liu, Matt S Anderson, Martin O Behm, Li Fan, Yun Li, Joan R Butterton, Marian Iwamoto, Sauzanne G Khalilieh
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of doravirine (MK-1439), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, were investigated. Two clinical trials were conducted in healthy subjects: an oral single dose [14 C]doravirine (350 mg, ∼200 µCi) trial (N = 6) and an intravenous (IV) single-dose doravirine (100 µg) trial (N = 12). In vitro metabolism, protein binding, apparent permeability and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport studies were conducted to complement the clinical trials...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Margherita Maiuri, Johanna Brazard
During the last two decades, 2D optical techniques have been extended to the visible range, targeting electronic transitions. Since the report of the very first 2D electronic measurement (Hybl et al. in J Chem Phys 115:6606-6622, [2001]), two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) has allowed fundamentally new insights into the structure and dynamics of condensed-phase systems (Ginsberg et al. in Acc Chem Res 42:1352-1363, 2009; Jonas in Annu Rev Phys Chem 54:425-463, 2003), producing experiments that measure correlations among electronic states of an absorbing species within complex systems...
March 20, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Xiangfen Cui, Hongguang Cheng, Xuelian Liu, Elisa Giubilato, Andrea Critto, Haixu Sun, Lei Zhang
Adverse health effects related to accumulative cadmium (Cd) exposure have aroused widespread attention from the public in China. Knowledge on the relationships between Cd exposure and early renal effects is particularly limited for children, who are more susceptible to absorbing metals than adults. A typical Cd-polluted area of South China was selected to determine the Cd exposure and related early renal effects of the general population, including children. In total, 211 children and 806 adults were enrolled in the study...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jae-Young Park, Tae-Joon Cho, Myung Chul Lee, Hyuk-Soo Han
A case of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with meniscal repair in an osteogenesis imperfecta patient is reported. A 24-year-old female with osteogenesis imperfecta type 1a suffered from a valgus extension injury resulting in tear of ACL and medial meniscus. She underwent an arthroscopic-assisted ACL reconstruction and medial meniscus repair. Meniscal tear at the menisco-capsular junction of the posterior horn of medial meniscus was repaired with three absorbable sutures via inside-out technique...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Feng Fu, Xiang Zhu, Zhe Qin, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Li-Na Wang, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Rui-Xin Li, Xiao-Hong Li, Ming-Liang Zhao
Degradation rate is an important index for evaluating biomaterials. The authors' aim was to determine whether the degradation rate of biomaterials is different in distinct tissues and to clarify the underlying mechanism of degradation. The collagen-chitosan (CG-CS) composite scaffolds were prepared using freeze-drying technology. The porosity, water absorption and swelling ratio of the scaffolds were tested in vitro. The scaffolds were implanted into the subcutis, spinal cord and brain tissues of SD rats, the rate of degradation was assessed by continuous monitoring of weight loss, the pathological changes of target areas were observed by histological staining, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and lysozyme were detected at the rapid stage of degradation of the scaffolds...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
David L Duewer, Margaret C Kline, Erica L Romsos, Blaza Toman
The highly multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays used for forensic human identification perform best when used with an accurately determined quantity of input DNA. To help ensure the reliable performance of these assays, we are developing a certified reference material (CRM) for calibrating human genomic DNA working standards. To enable sharing information over time and place, CRMs must provide accurate and stable values that are metrologically traceable to a common reference. We have shown that droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) limiting dilution end-point measurements of the concentration of DNA copies per volume of sample can be traceably linked to the International System of Units (SI)...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Jeffrey R Ashton, Katherine D Castle, Yi Qi, David G Kirsch, Jennifer L West, Cristian T Badea
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are emerging as promising agents for both cancer therapy and computed tomography (CT) imaging. AuNPs absorb x-rays and subsequently release low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiation therapy (RT), increasing the local radiation dose. When AuNPs are near tumor vasculature, the additional radiation dose can lead to increased vascular permeability. This work focuses on understanding how tumor vascular permeability is influenced by AuNP-augmented RT, and how this effect can be used to improve the delivery of nanoparticle chemotherapeutics...
2018: Theranostics
Antonio Layoun, Macha Samba-Mondonga, Gabriela Fragoso, Annie Calvé, Manuela M Santos
Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated to provide virtually all cells in the body, particularly red blood cells, with this essential element while defending against its toxicity. The peptide hormone hepcidin is central to the control of the amount of iron absorbed from the diet and iron recycling from macrophages. Previously, we have shown that hepcidin induction in macrophages following Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation depends on the presence of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). In this study, we analyzed the regulation of iron metabolism in MyD88 -/- mice to further investigate MyD88 involvement in iron sensing and hepcidin induction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xianhua Zhang, Linran Han, Jin Liu, Qiuyue Xu, Yuxin Guo, Wan Zheng, Jian Wang, Xi Huang, Ping Ren
In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of multi-components (naringenin, nobiletin, meranzin hydrate, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin) were investigated in acute depressive rats following oral administration of Fructus Aurantii (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ) extract (20 g/kg). A rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established to quantitatively or qualitatively analyze the 7 absorbed ingredients in the plasma, hippocampus and cortex of acute depressive rats...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wei Jiang, Leilei Yan, Hua Ma, Ya Fan, Jiafu Wang, Mingde Feng, Shaobo Qu
Lightweight structures with multi-functions such as electromagnetic wave absorption and excellent mechanical properties are required in spacecraft. A three-dimensional metamaterial absorber consisting of honeycomb and resistive films was proposed and fabricated through 3D printing and silk-screen printing technology. According to simulation and experiment results, the present three-dimensional metamaterial absorber can realize an absorptivity of more than 90% in a wide band of 3.53-24.00 GHz, and improve absorbing efficiency for transverse magnetic (TM) waves of oblique incidence angle from 0° to 70°...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yusuke Matsuya, Kohei Sasaki, Yuji Yoshii, Go Okuyama, Hiroyuki Date
Intercellular communication after ionizing radiation exposure, so-called non-targeted effects (NTEs), reduces cell survival. Here we describe an integrated cell-killing model considering NTEs and DNA damage along radiation particle tracks, known as DNA-targeted effects (TEs) based on repair kinetics of DNA damage. The proposed model was applied to a series of experimental data, i.e., signal concentration, DNA damage kinetics, cell survival curve and medium transfer bystander effects (MTBEs). To reproduce the experimental data, the model considers the following assumptions: (i) the linear-quadratic (LQ) function as absorbed dose to express the hit probability to emit cell-killing signals, (ii) the potentially repair of DNA lesions induced by NTEs, and (iii) lower efficiency of repair for the damage in NTEs than that in TEs...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ilaria Savelli, Iñigo Novales Flamarique, Tom Iwanicki, John S Taylor
Variable expression of visual pigment proteins (opsins) in cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina is a primary determinant of vision plasticity. Switches in opsin expression or variable co-expression of opsins within differentiated cones have been documented for a few rodents and fishes, but the extent of photoreceptor types affected and potential functional significance are largely unknown. Here, we show that both single and double cones in the retina of a flatfish, the starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), undergo visual pigment changes through opsin switches or variable opsin co-expression...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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