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Yingfeng Li, Younan Luo, Wenjian Liu, Mengqi Cui, Jerry Kumar, Bing Jiang, Lihua Chu, Meicheng Li
The silver nanowire (AgNW) has excellent light capture ability, showing great prospects in many fields. Based on discrete dipole approximation simulations, it is found that the captured light can be subdivided into three parts: the near-field light occupies ~27.3%, mainly confined around the nanowire with a distance <20nm; the far-field part occupies ~59.6%, showing a dramatic conical distribution; and ~13.1% is ohmically absorbed. These insights are helpful to estimate the limited performance of AgNW-based device utilizing each subdivision, and locate the functional zone...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Jitendra K Pradhan, S Anantha Ramakrishna, Bharathi Rajeswaran, Arun M Umarji, Venu Gopal Achanta, Amit K Agarwal, Amitava Ghosh
A metamaterial consisting of an array of gold micro-disks, separated from a ground plane of indium tin oxide (ITO) by a thin film of vanadium dioxide (VO<sub>2</sub>), behaves as a perfect absorber at infrared (IR) frequencies at room temperature. This metamaterial, which is transparent to visible light, can be switched to a highly reflecting state for IR light by heating the metamaterial to temperatures larger than the metal-insulator phase transition temperature 68°C of VO<sub>2</sub>...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
C Li, N Krauß, G Schäfer, L Ebner, O Kliebisch, J Schmidt, S Winnerl, M Hettich, T Dekorsy
A low-cost scheme of high-speed asynchronous optical sampling based on Yb:KYW oscillators is reported. Two GHz diode-pumped oscillators with a slight pulse repetition rate offset serve as pump and probe source, respectively. The temporal resolution of this system is limited to 500 fs mainly by the pulse duration of the oscillators and also by relative timing jitter between the oscillators. A near-shot-noise noise floor around 10<sup>-6</sup> (∆R/R) is obtained within a data acquisition time of a few seconds...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Marit Ulset Nordsveen, Chi Kwong Tang, Jarle Gran
We demonstrate the use of a dual-mode detector for determining the internal quantum deficiency of a silicon photodiode without the use of an external reference. This is achieved by combining two different principles for measuring optical power in one device, where the photodiode is used as absorber for both thermal and photon detection. Thermal detection is obtained by the same principle as for an electrical substitution radiometer (ESR), with a type A measurement uncertainty of 0.34 % in unstabilized room temperature...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Robin Vismara, Olindo Isabella, Miro Zeman
We present the optical investigation of a novel back-contacted architecture for solar cells based on a thin barium (di)silicide (BaSi<sub>2</sub>) absorber. First, through the analysis of absorption limits of different semiconducting materials, we show the potential of BaSi<sub>2</sub> for photovoltaic applications. Then, the proposed back contacted BaSi<sub>2</sub> solar cell design is investigated and optimized. An implied photocurrent density of 40.3 mA/cm<sup>2</sup> in a 1-μm thick absorber was achieved, paving the way for novel BaSi<sub>2</sub>-based thin-film solar cells...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Zi-Xun Jia, Yong Shuai, Yan-Ming Guo, He-Ping Tan
In this paper, a double layer nanoparticle-crystal has been proposed, which shown incident and polarization angle, substrate independences for spectral absorptivity. Such phenomenon originates from the near-field light redistribution and excitation of internal collective oscillating. This kind of nanoparticle-crystal can be made of various types of metal with similar optical responses. A three oscillators mode has been proposed in this paper to understand the shift between global and internal collective oscillating, and verify the physical picture demonstrated...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Yi Zhao, Ceji Fu
In this paper, we present a one-dimensional periodic microstructure for multiband selective absorbers of thermal radiation. The microstructure is made of Ag/SiO<sub>2</sub>/Ag core/shell coaxial cylinders horizontally lying on top of a SiO<sub>2</sub> dielectric spacer and an opaque silver substrate. The spectral-directional absorptivity of the proposed structure was numerically investigated with the finite element based Comsol Multiphysics software. Multiband selective absorption in the wavenumber range from 2500 to 20000 cm<sup>-1</sup> for TM-wave incidence was obtained...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Yujiao Guo, Kuixin Cui, Mingyi Hu, Shengming Jin
The wire-like Fe(3+)-doped (BiO)2CO3 photocatalyst was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic property of Fe(3+)-doped (BiO)2CO3 nanowires was evaluated through degradation of sodium isopropyl xanthate under UV-visible light irradiation. The as-prepared Fe(3+)-doped (BiO)2CO3 nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in detail...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
Asmaa A El-Zaher, Ehab F Elkady, Hanan M Elwy, Mahmoud Abo El Makarim Saleh
In the present work, pioglitazone and glimepiride, 2 widely used antidiabetics, were simultaneously determined by a chemometric-assisted UV-spectrophotometric method which was applied to a binary synthetic mixture and a pharmaceutical preparation containing both drugs. Three chemometric techniques - Concentration residual augmented classical least-squares (CRACLS), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least-squares (PLS) were implemented by using the synthetic mixtures containing the two drugs in acetonitrile...
March 14, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Wei Chen, Guohao Wang, Bryant C Yung, Gang Liu, Zhiyong Qian, Xiaoyuan Chen
Exendin-4 has been clinically exploited for treating type 2 diabetes, but the short circulation half-life and multiple daily injections limit its widespread application with respect to poor patient compliance, low efficacy, and high treatment cost. In this study, a potent long-acting release system based on biomimetic mineralization was constructed for biocompatible and sustained exendin-4 delivery. Similar to natural biomineralization, exendin-4 can be mineralized to form nano-sized mineral solids by means of the reaction between acidic amino acid residues and calcium ions in a supersaturated environment with negligible influence on peptide bioactivity...
April 24, 2017: ACS Nano
Ping Zheng, Minxiao Wang, Chaolun Li, Xiaoqing Sun, Xiaocheng Wang, Yan Sun, Song Sun
Mussels (Bivalve: Mytilidae) have adapted to various habitats, from freshwater to the deep sea. To understand their adaptive characteristics in different habitats, particularly in the bathymodiolin mussels in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis between deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels and their shallow-water relatives. A number of gene families related to stress responses were shared across all mussels, without specific or significantly expanded families in deep-sea species, indicating that all mussels are capable of adapting to diverse harsh environments, but that different members of the same gene family may be preferentially utilized by different species...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Daniel B Putterman, Douglas H Keefe, Lisa L Hunter, Angela C Garinis, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Garnett P McMillan, M Patrick Feeney
OBJECTIVES: An important clinical application of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) is to evaluate cochlear outer hair cell function for the purpose of detecting sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Double-evoked TEOAEs were measured using a chirp stimulus, in which the stimuli had an extended frequency range compared to clinical tests. The present study compared TEOAEs recorded using an unweighted stimulus presented at either ambient pressure or tympanometric peak pressure (TPP) in the ear canal and TEOAEs recorded using a power-weighted stimulus at ambient pressure...
April 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
Alper Yavuz, Hakan Buluş
Sleeve gastrectomy operations have become popular among restrictive obesity surgeons, due to its effectiveness for losing weight and acceptable complication rates. However, leakage is a significant problem in these operations. In this ex vivo study, we tried to understand mechanisms of leakage and to examine the effects of two different types of frequently referred reinforcement techniques using sutures. The resected gastric specimens that were removed during sleeve gastrectomy operations were used in this ex vivo study...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Joseph R Dynlacht, Joy Garrett, Rebecca Joel, Katharina Lane, Marc S Mendonca, Christie M Orschell
There continues to be a major effort in the United States to develop mitigators for the treatment of mass casualties that received high-intensity acute ionizing radiation exposures from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device during a radiological terrorist attack. The ideal countermeasure should be effective when administered after exposure, and over a wide range of absorbed doses. We have previously shown that the administration of a subcutaneous incision of a defined length, if administered within minutes after irradiation, protected young adult female C57BL/6 mice against radiation-induced lethality, and increased survival after total-body exposure to an LD50/30 X-ray dose from 50% to over 90%...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
Pascal Hauri, Roger A Hälg, Uwe Schneider
PURPOSE: The use of X-ray imaging in radiation therapy can give a substantial dose to the patient. A Cobalt machine combined with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently introduced to clinical work. One positive aspect of using non-ionizing imaging devices is the reduction of the patient exposure. The purpose of this study was to quantify the difference in out-of-field dose to the patient between the image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatment applied with a linear accelerator with cone beam CT (CBCT) equipment and a Cobalt machine combined with an MRI...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
Yang Zhou, Wujun Dong, Jun Ye, Huazhen Hao, Junzhuo Zhou, Renyun Wang, Yuling Liu
Phospholipid complex is one of the most successful approaches for enhancing oral bioavailability of poorly absorbed plant constituents. But the sticky property of phospholipids results in an unsatisfactory dissolution of drugs. In this study, a matrix dispersion of baicalein based on phospholipid complex (BaPC-MD) was first prepared by a discontinuous solvent evaporation method, in which polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) was employed for improving the dispersibility of baicalein phospholipid complex (BaPC) and increasing dissolution of baicalein...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
Roman V Kazantsev, Adam J Dannenhoffer, Adam S Weingarten, Brian T Phelan, Boris Harutyunyan, Taner Aytun, Ashwin Narayanan, Daniel J Fairfield, Job Boekhoven, Hiroaki Sai, Andrew Senesi, Pascual I O'Dogherty, Liam C Palmer, Michael J Bedzyk, Michael R Wasielewski, Samuel I Stupp
The energy landscape of a supramolecular material can include different molecular packing configurations that differ in stability and function. We report here on a thermally driven crystalline order transition in the landscape of supramolecular nanostructures formed by charged chromophore amphiphiles in salt-containing aqueous solutions. An irreversible transition was observed from a metastable to a stable crystal phase within the nanostructures. In the stable crystalline phase, the molecules end up organized in a short scroll morphology at high ionic strengths and as long helical ribbons at lower salt content...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Qiusen Han, Xinhuan Wang, Xinghang Jia, Shuangfei Cai, Wei Liang, Yan Qin, Rong Yang, Chen Wang
Single or few-layered MoS2 nanosheets, as a novel class of 2D nanomaterials, have received tremendous attention due to their fantastic physical and chemical properties. Here, we fabricated MoS2-PEG-CpG with a small and uniform size as a multifunctional platform for photothermal enhanced immunotherapy. MoS2 nanosheets were fabricated by chemical exfoliation and further probe sonication. To realize MoS2-based adjuvant delivery, MoS2 nanosheets were functionalized with cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form MoS2-PEG-CpG nanoconjugates...
April 24, 2017: Nanoscale
Nicklas Anttu, Vilgailė Dagytė, Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Borgström
III-V semiconductor nanowires are a platform for next-generation photovoltaics. An interesting research direction is to embed a nanowire array in a transparent polymer, either to act as a stand-alone flexible solar cell, or to be stacked on top of a conventional Si bottom cell to create a tandem structure. To optimize the tandem cell performance, high energy photons should be absorbed in the nanowires whereas low energy photons should be transmitted to and absorbed in the Si cell. Here, through optical measurements on 1...
April 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
Lukas Kegelmann, Christian M Wolff, Celline Awino Omondi, Felix Lang, Eva Lisa Unger, Lars Korte, Thomas Dittrich, Dieter Neher, Bernd Rech, Steve Albrecht
Solar cells made from inorganic-organic perovskites gradually approach market requirements as efficiency and stability improved tremendously in recent years. Planar low-temperature processed perovskite solar cells are advantageous for a possible large-scale production but are more prone to exhibit photocurrent hysteresis, especially in the regular n-i-p structure. Here, a systematic characterization of different electron selective contacts with a variety of chemical and electrical properties in planar n-i-p devices processed below 180 °C is presented...
April 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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