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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782898/incorporation-of-absorption-and-metabolism-into-liver-toxicity-prediction-for-phytochemicals-a-tiered-in-silico-qsar-approach
#1
Yitong Liu
An increased use of herbal dietary supplements has been associated with adverse liver effects such as elevated serum enzymes and liver failure. The safety assessment for herbal dietary supplements is challenging since they often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals, most of which have unknown pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Rapid tools are needed to evaluate large numbers of phytochemicals for potential liver toxicity. The current study demonstrates a tiered approach combining identification of phytochemicals in liver toxic botanicals, followed by in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) evaluation of these phytochemicals for absorption (e...
May 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782799/highly-efficient-perovskite-solar-cells-with-gradient-bilayer-electron-transport-materials
#2
Xiu Gong, Qiang Sun, Shuangshuang Liu, Peizhe Liao, Yan Shen, Carole Graetzel, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Mingkui Wang
Electron transport layers (ETLs) with suitable energy level alignment for facilitating charge carrier transport as well as electron extraction are essential for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to achieve high open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current. Herein we systematically investigate band offset between ETL and perovskite absorber by tuning F doping level in SnO2 nanocrystal. We demonstrate that gradual substitution of F- into the SnO2 ETL can effectively reduce the band offset and result in a substantial increase in device VOC...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782685/unique-energy-alignments-of-a-ternary-material-system-toward-high-performance-organic-photovoltaics
#3
Pei Cheng, Jiayu Wang, Qianqian Zhang, Wenchao Huang, Jingshuai Zhu, Rui Wang, Sheng-Yung Chang, Pengyu Sun, Lei Meng, Hongxiang Zhao, Hao-Wen Cheng, Tianyi Huang, Yuqiang Liu, Chaochen Wang, Chenhui Zhu, Wei You, Xiaowei Zhan, Yang Yang
Incorporating narrow-bandgap near-infrared absorbers as the third component in a donor/acceptor binary blend is a new strategy to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, there are two main restrictions: potential charge recombination in the narrow-gap material and miscompatibility between each component. The optimized design is to employ a third component (structurally similar to the donor or acceptor) with a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level similar to the acceptor and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level similar to the donor...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782684/intelligent-mesoporous-materials-for-selective-adsorption-and-mechanical-release-of-organic-pollutants-from-water
#4
Siying Xie, Shanshan Wu, Sihan Bao, Yanqiu Wang, Yongtai Zheng, Danfeng Deng, Liping Huang, Lingling Zhang, Myongsoo Lee, Zhegang Huang
Despite recent advances in the porous materials for efficient removal of dissolved organic pollutants from water, the regeneration of porous characteristics for reuse with preventing secondary contamination remains a challenge. Here, novel supramolecular absorbents with hydrophobic pore are prepared by the self-assembly of propeller-shaped aromatic amphiphiles. The assembly of folded propeller provides a mesoporous environment within aromatic segments, which is suitable for the removal of organic pollutants from waste water...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782497/exploration-of-alternative-test-methods-to-evaluate-phototoxicity-of-ophthalmic-agents-by-using-statens-seruminstitut-rabbit-cornea-cell-lines-and-3d-human-reconstituted-cornea-models
#5
Soyoung Kim, Ki Hwan Choi, Jaesuk Yun
Many chemicals have been reported to induce phototoxicity. The absorbance of light energy within the sunlight range is a common characteristic of phototoxicity. The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT) in 3T3 mouse skin fibroblasts has been used to identify the phototoxic potential induced by excited chemicals after exposure to ultra violet (UV). However, as phototoxicity may occur in ocular cells, it is necessary to develop a more suitable test for cornea-derived cells. In this study, we attempted to establish a new in vitro PT method in rabbit corneal cell lines (SIRC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782162/water-and-fertilizer-integrated-hydrogel-derived-from-the-polymerization-of-acrylic-acid-and-urea-as-a-slow-release-n-fertilizer-and-water-retention-in-agriculture
#6
Dongdong Cheng, Yan Liu, Guiting Yang, Aiping Zhang
To reduce the preparation cost of superabsorbent and improve the N release rate at the same time, a novel low cost superabsorbent (SA) with the function of N slow release was prepared by chemical synthesis with neutralized acrylic acid (AA), urea, potassium persulfate (KPS) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). The influence order of influence factors on water absorbency property was determined by orthogonal L18(3)7 experiment. Based on the optimization results of orthogonal experiment, the effects of single factor on the water absorption were studied, and the highest water absorbency (909 g/g) was obtained on the conditions: 1...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782023/double-stranded-rna-oral-delivery-methods-to-induce-rna-interference-in-phloem-and-plant-sap-feeding-hemipteran-insects
#7
Saikat Kumar B Ghosh, Wayne B Hunter, Alexis L Park, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal
Phloem and plant sap feeding insects invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients, in the process damaging food crops. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are hemipteran insect pests introduced in North America, where they are an invasive agricultural pest of high-value specialty, row, and staple crops and citrus fruits, as well as a nuisance pest when they aggregate indoors...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781496/a-universal-platform-for-selection-and-high-resolution-phenotypic-screening-of-bacterial-mutants-using-the-nanowell-slide
#8
H Antypas, M Veses-Garcia, E Weibull, H Andersson-Svahn, A Richter-Dahlfors
The Petri dish and microtiter plate are the golden standard for selection and screening of bacteria in microbiological research. To improve on the limited resolution and throughput of these methods, we developed a universal, user-friendly platform for selection and high-resolution phenotypic screening based on the nanowell slide. This miniaturized platform has an optimal ratio between throughput and assay complexity, holding 672 nanowells of 500 nl each. As monoclonality is essential in bacterial genetics, we used FACS to inoculate each nanowell with a single bacterium in 15 min...
May 21, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781400/two-step-extraction-method-for-lead-isotope-fractionation-to-reveal-anthropogenic-lead-pollution
#9
Kenshi Katahira, Hiroshi Moriwaki, Kazuo Kamura, Hideo Yamazaki
This study developed the 2-step extraction method which eluted the Pb adsorbing on the surface of sediments in the first solution by aqua regia and extracted the Pb absorbed inside particles into the second solution by mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution. We applied the method to sediments in the enclosed water area and found out that the isotope ratios of Pb in the second solution represented those of natural origin. This advantage of the method makes it possible to distinguish the Pb between natural origin and anthropogenic source on the basis of the isotope ratios...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781217/uhplc-q-tof-ms-based-screening-and-identification-of-main-flavonoids-and-their-metabolites-in-rats-after-oral-administration-of-cirsium-japonicum-dc-extract
#10
Xia Zhang, Man Liao, Xiaoye Cheng, Caijuan Liang, Xinpeng Diao, Lantong Zhang
RATIONALE: Cirsium japonicum DC., a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to have antihemorrhagic and antitumour effects. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that this curative effect may be related to flavonoids. The present work aims to screen and identify the main flavonoids and their corresponding metabolites in rats after oral administration of Cirsium japonicum DC. extract. METHODS: A rapid and simple ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was developed for the identification of the primary absorbing components and metabolites of the principal flavonoids...
May 20, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780991/plasmonically-enhanced-electromotive-force-of-narrow-bandgap-pbs-qd-based-photovoltaics
#11
Xiaowei Li, Paul D McNaughter, Paul O'Brien, Hiro Minamimoto, Kei Murakoshi
Electromotive force of photovoltaics is a key to define the output power density of photovoltaics. Multiple exciton generation (MEG) exhibited by semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has great potential to enhance photovoltaic performance owing to the ability to generate more than one electron-hole pairs when absorbing a single photon. However, even in MEG-based photovoltaics, limitation of modifying the electromotive force exists due to the intrinsic electrochemical potential of the conduction band-edges of QDs...
May 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780196/light-fluence-dosimetry-in-lung-simulating-cavities
#12
Timothy C Zhu, Michele M Kim, Jonah Padawer, Andreea Dimofte, Mary Potasek, Karl Beeson, Evgueni Parilov
Accurate light dosimery is critical to ensure consistent outcome for pleural photodynamic therapy (pPDT). Ellipsoid shaped cavities with different sizes surrounded by turbid medium are used to simulate the intracavity lung geometry. An isotropic light source is introduced and surrounded by turbid media. Direct measurements of light fluence rate were compared to Monte Carlo simulated values on the surface of the cavities for various optical properties. The primary component of the light was determined by measurements performed in air in the same geometry...
January 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780046/-study-of-dose-recalculation-method-on-overriding-lung-density-using-cbct-image-in-the-thorax
#13
Hiroshi Watanabe, Shuichi Ozawa, Atsuyuki Ohashi, Koji Ikenaga, Kentaro Miki, Akito Saito, Teiji Nishio, Yuji Murakami, Yasushi Nagata
It is a useful method for the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) to calculate absorbed dose accurately on the image set taken by on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) attached to linac for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). For this purpose, a simple and accurate calculation method is necessary. Several papers report that it is possible to calculate easily and accurately by using several methods of researches in the neck and prostate, but the lung density varies greatly depending on patient thorax condition...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779908/fixation-of-lung-apex-in-spontaneous-pneumothorax-is-safe-and-efficient-in-decrease-recurrences
#14
Wendy Yang, Pei-Yeh Chang, Ai-Hua Yeh, Yung-Ching Ming, Jeng Chang Chen, Jin-Yao Lai
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic bullectomy with pleurodesis is widely used to treat spontaneous pneumothorax. However, 1%-3% of patients experience postoperative complications that may require reoperation, such as bleeding or prolonged air leaks, and 3%-7% of patients require a repeat thoracoscopic bullectomy due to recurrence. Therefore, a modified procedure with improved outcomes is required. METHODS: Between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015, 196 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax underwent thoracoscopic bullectomy and pleurodesis with or without fixation of the lung apex to the chest wall...
May 3, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779466/a-systematic-review-of-shock-attenuating-componentry-for-lower-limb-amputees
#15
Mitchell Farrar, Emma Thomas
BACKGROUND: Shock-attenuating pylons are commonly fitted to prostheses in order to compensate for the anatomical and biomechanical shock-absorbing features of the lower limb removed upon amputation. However, studies concerning their shock-attenuating capacity are highly variable and, to date, have not yet been reviewed, making them difficult to interpret and apply in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise and appraise the available literature examining the effectiveness of shock-attenuating pylons in attenuating shock upon limb loading compared to rigid pylons among lower limb amputees...
May 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779379/phase-segregation-in-potassium-doped-lead-halide-perovskites-from-39k-solid-state-nmr-at-21-1-t
#16
Dominik J Kubicki, Daniel Prochowicz, Albert Hofstetter, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Lyndon Emsley
Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are a promising family of light absorbers for a new generation of solar cells, with reported efficiencies currently exceeding 22%. A common problem of solar cells fabricated using these materials is that their efficiency depends on their cycling history, an effect known as current-voltage (J-V) hysteresis. Potassium doping has recently emerged as a universal way to overcome this adverse phenomenon. While the atomistic origins of J-V hysteresis are still not fully understood, it is essential to rationalize the atomic-level effect of protocols that lead to its suppression...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778706/validated-stability-indicating-spectrophotometric-methods-for-the-determination-of-silodosin-in-the-presence-of-its-degradation-products
#17
Shereen A Boltia, Mohammed Abdelkawy, Taghreed A Mohammed, Nahla N Mostafa
Five simple, rapid, accurate, and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed for the determination of Silodosin (SLD) in the presence of its acid induced and oxidative induced degradation products. Method A is based on dual wavelength (DW) method; two wavelengths are selected at which the absorbance of the oxidative induced degradation product is the same, so wavelengths 352 and 377 nm are used to determine SLD in the presence of its oxidative induced degradation product. Method B depends on induced dual wavelength theory (IDW), which is based on selecting two wavelengths on the zero-order spectrum of SLD where the difference in absorbance between them for the spectrum of acid induced degradation products is not equal to zero so through multiplying by the equality factor, the absorption difference is made to be zero for the acid induced degradation product while it is still significant for SLD...
April 24, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778665/a-novel-system-to-quantify-intestinal-lipid-digestion-and-transport
#18
Øystein Sæle, Kari Elin L Rød, Vanessa H Quinlivan, Shengrong Li, Steven A Farber
The zebrafish larva is a powerful tool for the study of dietary triglyceride (TG) digestion and how fatty acids (FA) derived from dietary lipids are absorbed, metabolized and distributed to the body. While fluorescent FA analogues have enabled visualization of FA metabolism, methods for specifically assaying TG digestion are badly needed. Here we present a novel High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method that quantitatively differentiates TG and phospholipid (PL) molecules with one or two fluorescent FA analogues...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778479/an-in-vivo-stable-isotope-based-approach-for-assessment-of-absorbed-amino-acids-from-individual-feed-ingredients-within-complete-diets
#19
K A Estes, R R White, P S Yoder, T Pilonero, H Schramm, H Lapierre, M D Hanigan
Accurate assessment of the nutritional content of feed ingredients is required for precise diet formulation. Characterizing ingredients in terms of absorption and digestibility of individual AA is challenging, and this information often relies on indirect methods. The purpose of this research was to evaluate an in vivo stable isotope-based method of determining plasma entry rates of individual AA from feather meal (FM), blood meal (BM), and a rumen-protected AA (RPMet). Abomasal infusions of unprotected Ile, Leu, Met, and sodium caseinate were used as control treatments to assess technique reliability and accuracy...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778170/removal-of-pb-ii-from-aqueous-solutions-using-waste-textiles-poly-acrylic-acid-composite-synthesized-by-radical-polymerization-technique
#20
Tao Zhou, Fafa Xia, Yue Deng, Youcai Zhao
Waste textiles (WTs) are the inevitable outcome of human activity and should be separated and recycled in view of sustainable development. In this work, WT was modified through grafting with acrylic acid (AA) via radical polymerization process using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator and microwave and/or UV irradiation as energy supply. The acrylic acid-grafted waste textiles (WT-g-AA) thus obtained was then used as an adsorbent to remove Pb(II) from Pb(II)-containing wastewater. The effects of pH, initial concentrations of Pb(II) and adsorbent dose were investigated, and around 95% Pb(II) can be removed from the aqueous solution containing 10mg/L at pH6...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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