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Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy

Mar Llamas-Velasco, Victoria Alegría, Ángel Santos-Briz, Lorenzo Cerroni, Heinz Kutzner, Luis Requena
We review the most characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings of the cutaneous manifestations of the occlusive nonvasculitic vasculopathic disorders. Clinically, most of these conditions are characterized by retiform purpura. Histopathologic findings consist of occlusion of the vessel lumina with no vasculitis. Different disorders may produce nonvasculitic occlusive vasculopathy in cutaneous blood and lymphatic vessels, including embolization due to cholesterol and oxalate emboli, cutaneous intravascular metastasis from visceral malignancies, atrial myxomas, intravascular angiosarcoma, intralymphatic histiocytosis, intravascular lymphomas, endocarditis, crystal globulin vasculopathy, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and foreign material...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Seungho Kang, Jeongmi Moon, Byeongjo Chun
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to help set domestic guidelines for administration of antivenom to envenomated patients after snakebites. METHODS: This retrospective observational case series comprised 128 patients with snake envenomation. The patients were divided into two groups according to the need for additional antivenom after the initial treatment based on the traditional snakebite severity grading scale. One group successfully recovered after the initial treatment and did not need any additional antivenom (n=85) and the other needed an additional administration of antivenom (n=43)...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Yingkang Jin, Li Huang, Huifeng Fan, Gen Lu, Yi Xu, Zhiyuan Wu
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hsin-Hsin Cheng, Leo Leung-Chit Tsang, Te-Yao Hsu, Chia-Te Kung, Chia-Yu Ou, Ching-Di Chang, Ching-Chang Tsai, Yu-Fan Cheng, Fu-Tsai Kung
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To assess the risk factors for intractable and controllable postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and outcome of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). METHODS: An emergency PPH rescue system including the 24-hour-available TAE was established in 2004. TAE with gelatine sponge particles placed on bilateral uterine or internal iliac arteries served as the first-line treatment for intractable PPH. Delivery methods, parity, causes of bleeding, clinical vital signs, coagulopathy, success rate, resumption of menstruation, and subsequent pregnancy outcome after TAE were recorded...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Akihiro Hasegawa, Takeshi Murakoshi, Yoshiro Otsuki, Yuichi Torii
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare complication of pregnancy and its mortality rate is high. There have been few reports of AFE with presence of severe coagulopathy and incoagulable bleeding, and absence of cardiopulmonary symptoms or limited cardiopulmonary symptoms, followed by massive blood loss during delivery. Such cases have been referred to as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy-type AFE, and the characteristics of this condition have been presented previously. Here we report three cases that fulfilled the diagnostic characteristics of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy-type AFE...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Cassie A Barton
OBJECTIVES: To provide a concise review of the medical management of coagulopathy related to hepatic insufficiency. This review will focus on prevention and management of bleeding episodes in patients with hepatic insufficiency. The treatment and prevention of thromboembolic complications will also be addressed. DATA SOURCES: Electronic search of PubMed database using relevant search terms, including hepatic coagulopathy, hemorrhage, liver diseases, blood coagulation disorders, blood transfusion, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and liver failure...
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Sriram Pothapregada, Banupriya Kamalakannan, Mahalaskhmy Thulasingham, Srinivasan Sampath
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile and outcome of dengue fever in children at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children (0-12 years of age) diagnosed and confirmed as dengue fever from August 2012 to January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively from hospital case records as per the revised World Health Organization guidelines for dengue fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by NS1 antigen-based ELISA test or dengue serology for IgM and IgG antibodies, and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16...
July 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Xinliang Guan, Jiachen Li, Ming Gong, Feng Lan, Hongjia Zhang
Coagulopathy is still a frequent complication in the surgical treatment of acute aortic dissection. However, the physiopathology of surgically induced coagulopathy has never been systematically and comprehensively studied in patients with acute aortic dissection. The aim of the present study was to describe the perioperative hemostatic system in patients with acute aortic dissection.The 87 patients who underwent aortic arch surgery for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection from January 2013 to September 2015 were enrolled in this study...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Erni Juwita Nelwan, Randy Adiwinata, Siti Handayani, Ikhwan Rinaldi
Because the majority of colubrid species are considered harmless to human beings, colubrid snakebites are rarely reported. However, the venom of Rhabdophis, which is part of the Colubridae family, is procoagulant and leads to severe coagulopathy. Here, we present a case of disseminated intravascular coagulation with enhanced fibrinolysis following a Rhabdophis bite. Although coagulopathy can be treated effectively with the specific Rhabdophis antivenom, this antivenom is not widely available in Indonesia. We also found transient hypertension secondary to the colubrid venom, an unusual finding...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Fabiola Mancini, Francesco Adamo, Roberta Creti, Monica Monaco, Giovanna Alfarone, Annalisa Pantosti, Alessandra Ciervo
We report the first human fatal case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 carrying the tetracycline efflux tet (40) gene and the tetracycline ribosomal protection tet (O/W/32/O) gene. The patient was splenectomized. The case was characterized by multi-organ dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, in accordance with the clinical parameters of STSS. More investigations are needed to improve the epidemiology and the pathogenesis of S. suis in human infection...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Amy K Keir, Simon J Stanworth
Several clinical scenarios for plasma transfusion are repeatedly identified in audits, including treatment of bleeding in association with laboratory evidence of coagulopathy, correction of disseminated intravascular coagulation, prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage, management of critically ill neonates (eg, during sepsis or as a volume expander), or correction of markers of prolonged coagulation in the absence of bleeding. The findings of at least one national audit of transfusion practice indicated that almost half of plasma transfusions are given to neonates with abnormal coagulation values with no evidence of active bleeding, despite the limited evidence base to support the effectiveness of this practice...
October 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Kazuma Yamakawa, Yutaka Umemura, Mineji Hayakawa, Daisuke Kudo, Masamitsu Sanui, Hiroki Takahashi, Yoshiaki Yoshikawa, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Satoshi Fujimi
BACKGROUND: Little evidence supports anticoagulant therapy as effective adjuvant therapy to reduce mortality overall in sepsis. However, several studies suggest that anticoagulant therapy may reduce mortality in specific patients. This study aimed to identify a subset of patients with high benefit profiles for anticoagulant therapy against sepsis. METHODS: This post hoc subgroup analysis of a nationwide multicentre retrospective registry was conducted in 42 intensive care units in Japan...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Geoffrey K Isbister, Karyn Ang, Kieron Gorman, Joyce Cooper, Ahmed Mostafa, Michael S Roberts
OBJECTIVE: Acute beta-blocker overdose can cause severe cardiac dysfunction. Chronic toxicity is rare but potentially severe. We report therapeutic dosing of metoprolol resulting in unusual pharmacokinetics and toxicity, given high-dose insulin therapy for treatment. CASE DETAILS: A 90-year-old female presented with hypotension, tachycardia and severe cardiac dysfunction after commencing a rapidly increasing metoprolol dose of 250 mg split daily. She was admitted to intensive care and given high-dose insulin therapy (10 U/kg/h), noradrenaline, adrenaline and dobutamine for severe cardiac dysfunction (cardiac index, 0...
November 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Tracy Funk, Young Lim, Ann M Kulungowski, Lori Prok, Timothy M Crombleholme, Keith Choate, Anna L Bruckner
IMPORTANCE: Congenital hemangiomas are uncommon benign vascular tumors that present fully formed at birth. They are rarely associated with transient hematologic abnormalities, which are typically less severe than the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon associated with kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas. Congenital hemangiomas are typically solitary and have not been reported to occur in a multifocal, generalized pattern. OBJECTIVE: To describe a male infant born with an unusual, large vascular mass complicated by anemia, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, as well as innumerable small vascular papules in a generalized cutaneous distribution...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Rotem Orbach, Dror Mandel, Ronit Lubetzky, Amit Ovental, Alon Haham, Ora Halutz, Galia Grisaru-Soen
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is an important risk factor for the fulminate form of neonatal enteroviral infection. Pulmonary hemorrhage is a morbid complication that should be anticipated and managed aggressively due to its fatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the significance of pulmonary hemorrhage as a complication of severe enterovirus infection in preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: This report is a description of the clinical history, medical management and clinical outcomes of two pairs of preterm twin newborns (30 weeks and 36 weeks) with fulminant infection due to Coxsackievirus B (CBV) infection...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Babasola O Okusanya, Adekunle E Sajo, Gbemi E Osanyin, Osemen E Okojie, Olusola N Abodunrin
BACKGROUND: Peripartum hysterectomy is life-saving and a life-threatening criterion of the World Health Organization (WHO) maternal near-miss concept. The maternal severity index (MSI) model was developed to assess the outcome of severe maternal morbidities. This study assessed severe maternal outcomes of peripartum hysterectomy using the MSI model and related maternal severity score with mortality. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Records of women with peripartum hysterectomy over a 20-year period were retrieved and the documented WHO life-threatening conditions (severity markers) extracted...
April 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Guoyan Liu, Xiaobin Shang, Bibo Yuan, Cha Han, Yingmei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with the diagnosis and management of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). STUDY DESIGN: The medical records of pregnant women with AFLP were reviewed for symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment, and maternal and fetal outcomes during a 10-year period between January 2003 and December 2013. RESULTS: During the study period 15 women had AFLP as their discharge diagnosis. The mean gestational age at onset was 36 ± 1 weeks...
May 2016: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Lisa B E Shields, Cristin M Rolf, John C Hunsaker
Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Steven L Clark, Roberto Romero, Gary A Dildy, William M Callaghan, Richard M Smiley, Arthur W Bracey, Gary D Hankins, Mary E D'Alton, Mike Foley, Luis D Pacheco, Rakesh B Vadhera, J Patrick Herlihy, Richard L Berkowitz, Michael A Belfort
Amniotic fluid embolism is a leading cause of maternal mortality in developed countries. Our understanding of risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis is hampered by a lack of uniform clinical case definition; neither histologic nor laboratory findings have been identified unique to this condition. Amniotic fluid embolism is often overdiagnosed in critically ill peripartum women, particularly when an element of coagulopathy is involved. Previously proposed case definitions for amniotic fluid embolism are nonspecific, and when viewed through the eyes of individuals with experience in critical care obstetrics, would include women with a number of medical conditions much more common than amniotic fluid embolism...
October 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Federico Pappalardo, Martina Crivellari, Ambra L Di Prima, Nataliya Agracheva, Malgorzata Celinska-Spodar, Rosalba Lembo, Daiana Taddeo, Giovanni Landoni, Alberto Zangrillo
PURPOSE: To determine whether protein C zymogen (protein C concentrates or human protein C) improves clinically relevant outcomes in adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial that from September 2012 to June 2014 enrolled adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and high risk of death and of bleeding (e.g., APACHE II greater than 25, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or disseminated intravascular coagulopathy)...
June 25, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
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