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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145753/the-neurodevelopmental-basis-of-early-childhood-disruptive-behavior-irritable-and-callous-phenotypes-as-exemplars
#1
Lauren S Wakschlag, Susan B Perlman, R James Blair, Ellen Leibenluft, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, Daniel S Pine
The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141475/addressing-needs-of-diverse-stakeholders-twelve-tips-for-leaders-of-health-professions-education-programs
#2
Roger A Edwards, Sandhya Venugopal, Deborah Navedo, Subha Ramani
Designing and evaluating health professions educational programs require a range of skills in a rapidly changing educational and healthcare environment. Not all program directors possess all the required leadership skills. In this twelve tips article, we describe a systematic approach to effectively address the complexity facing program leadership, implement robust programs and meaningfully evaluate their impact. They also offer a roadmap for managing diverse stakeholders with often competing demands. The tips are categorized under three domains: Planning, Initial Implementation, and Monitoring...
November 16, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132976/investigations-into-the-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-of-cos-releasing-donor-core-motifs
#3
Andrea K Steiger, Yu Zhao, Won Jin Choi, Alder Crammond, McKinna R Tillotson, Michael D Pluth
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) releasing scaffolds are gaining popularity as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors through exploitation of the carbonic anhydrase (CA)-mediated hydrolysis of COS to H2S. The majority of compounds in this emerging class of donors undergo triggerable decomposition (often referred to as self-immolation) to release COS, and a handful of different COS-releasing structures have been reported. One benefit of this donation strategy is that numerous caged COS-containing core motifs are possible and are poised for development into self-immolative COS/H2S donors...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130460/a-two-dimensional-tib4-monolayer-exhibits-planar-octacoordinate-ti
#4
Xin Qu, Jinghai Yang, Yanchao Wang, Jian Lv, Zhongfang Chen, Yanming Ma
At present, the concept of planar hypercoordination in chemistry meets the fast development of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, leading to considerable interest in searching for 2D materials with planar hypercoordinate atoms. In this work, by means of the swarm-intelligence structure search method and first-principles calculations, we predict a hitherto unknown 2D TiB4 monolayer with a planar octacoordinate Ti moiety, in which each Ti atom binds to eight B atoms with equal distances in a perfect plane, and has the highest coordination of Ti known for 2D materials thus far...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127183/genome-wide-association-study-of-pr-interval-in-hispanics-latinos-identifies-novel-locus-at-id2
#5
Amanda A Seyerle, Henry J Lin, Stephanie M Gogarten, Adrienne Stilp, Raul Méndez Giráldez, Elsayed Soliman, Antoine Baldassari, Mariaelisa Graff, Susan Heckbert, Kathleen F Kerr, Charles Kooperberg, Carlos Rodriguez, Xiuqing Guo, Jie Yao, Nona Sotoodehnia, Kent D Taylor, Eric A Whitsel, Jerome I Rotter, Cathy C Laurie, Christy Avery
OBJECTIVE: PR interval (PR) is a heritable electrocardiographic measure of atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction. Changes in PR duration may be associated with atrial fibrillation, heart failure and all-cause mortality. Hispanic/Latino populations have high burdens of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, are highly admixed and represent exceptional opportunities for novel locus identification. However, they remain chronically understudied. We present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PR in 14 756 participants of Hispanic/Latino ancestry from three studies...
November 10, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126249/the-encyclopedia-of-dna-elements-encode-data-portal-update
#6
Carrie A Davis, Benjamin C Hitz, Cricket A Sloan, Esther T Chan, Jean M Davidson, Idan Gabdank, Jason A Hilton, Kriti Jain, Ulugbek K Baymuradov, Aditi K Narayanan, Kathrina C Onate, Keenan Graham, Stuart R Miyasato, Timothy R Dreszer, J Seth Strattan, Otto Jolanki, Forrest Y Tanaka, J Michael Cherry
The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Data Coordinating Center has developed the ENCODE Portal database and website as the source for the data and metadata generated by the ENCODE Consortium. Two principles have motivated the design. First, experimental protocols, analytical procedures and the data themselves should be made publicly accessible through a coherent, web-based search and download interface. Second, the same interface should serve carefully curated metadata that record the provenance of the data and justify its interpretation in biological terms...
November 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124904/mind-the-gaps-in-research-on-the-control-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-farmed-ruminants-and-pigs
#7
J Charlier, S M Thamsborg, D J Bartley, P J Skuce, F Kenyon, T Geurden, H Hoste, A R Williams, S Sotiraki, J Höglund, C Chartier, P Geldhof, J van Dijk, L Rinaldi, E R Morgan, G von Samson-Himmelstjerna, J Vercruysse, E Claerebout
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode control has an important role to play in increasing livestock production from a limited natural resource base and to improve animal health and welfare. In this synthetic review, we identify key research priorities for GI nematode control in farmed ruminants and pigs, to support the development of roadmaps and strategic research agendas by governments, industry and policymakers. These priorities were derived from the DISCONTOOLS gap analysis for nematodes and follow-up discussions within the recently formed Livestock Helminth Research Alliance (LiHRA)...
November 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122454/ayurveda-formulations-a-roadmap-to-address-the-safety-concerns
#8
Kishor Patwardhan, Jigyasa Pathak, Rabinarayan Acharya
It is a matter of serious concern that the number of case reports pointing at a possible association between the clinical toxicity and the use of Ayurveda formulations is increasing significantly over the years in scientific medical literature. Though most of these cases are connected with the presence of heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic in these formulations, there are also reports suggesting toxicity due to the presence of toxic chemicals of herbal origin. In the year 2008, the Government of India took an initiative of establishing the National Pharmacovigilance Programme for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs in a structured way...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120755/migrating-into-the-tumor-a-roadmap-for-t-cells
#9
REVIEW
Lieke L van der Woude, Mark A J Gorris, Altuna Halilovic, Carl G Figdor, I Jolanda M de Vries
Tumors can be divided into 'hot' (T cell inflamed) or 'cold' (T cell noninflamed) according to the presence of immune cells. In this review, we discuss variables that influence T cell migration into the tumor microenvironment. Chemokines can attract T cells to the tumor site and tumor intrinsic pathways can influence the composition of local chemokines. Tumor-induced vasculature can hamper T cell migration. Other immune cells and tumor-derived molecules can block T cell proliferation and survival. It is important to better understand these mechanisms in order to target them therapeutically...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117817/roadmap-for-creating-an-accelerated-three-year-medical-education-program
#10
Shou Ling Leong, Joan Cangiarella, Tonya Fancher, Lisa Dodson, Colleen Grochowski, Vicky Harnik, Carol Hustedde, Betsy Jones, Christina Kelly, Allison Macerollo, Annette C Reboli, Melvin Rosenfeld, Kristen Rundell, Tina Thompson, Robert Whyte, Martin Pusic
Medical education is undergoing significant transformation. Many medical schools are moving away from the concept of seat time to competency-based education and introducing flexibility in the curriculum that allows individualization. In response to rising student debt and the anticipated physician shortage, 35% of US medical schools are considering the development of accelerated pathways. The roadmap described in this paper is grounded in the experiences of the Consortium of Accelerated Medical Pathway Programs (CAMPP) members in the development, implementation, and evaluation of one type of accelerated pathway: the three-year MD program...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115215/xi-jinping-s-roadmap-for-china-prioritises-health
#11
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114715/identifying-research-priorities-to-improve-cancer-control-for-indigenous-australians
#12
Bronwyn A Morris, Kate Anderson, Joan Cunningham, Gail Garvey
OBJECTIVES: The cancer burden is high among Australia's Indigenous population. Following a period of increasing attention by researchers, policy makers and consumers, this study aimed to identify emerging research priorities in Indigenous cancer control. METHODS: A survey was administered to a network of individuals with an interest in cancer and Indigenous Australians. Respondents (N = 255) described what they thought was the most significant research priority for cancer control for Indigenous Australians and ranked prespecified research areas relating to components of the cancer continuum...
October 11, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112744/research-roadmap-for-tuberculosis-transmission-science-where-do-we-go-from-here-and-how-will-we-know-when-we-re-there
#13
REVIEW
Sara C Auld, Anne G Kasmar, David W Dowdy, Barun Mathema, Neel R Gandhi, Gavin J Churchyard, Roxana Rustomjee, N Sarita Shah
High rates of tuberculosis transmission are driving the ongoing global tuberculosis epidemic, and there is a pressing need for research focused on understanding and, ultimately, halting transmission. The ongoing tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coepidemic and rising rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis in parts of the world add further urgency to this work. Success in this research will require a concerted, multidisciplinary effort on the part of tuberculosis scientists, clinicians, programs, and funders and must span the research spectrum from biomedical sciences to the social sciences, public health, epidemiology, cost-effectiveness analyses, and operations research...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112743/designing-and-evaluating-interventions-to-halt-the-transmission-of-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
David W Dowdy, Alison D Grant, Keertan Dheda, Edward Nardell, Katherine Fielding, David A J Moore
To reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, it is insufficient to simply understand the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission. Rather, we must design and rigorously evaluate interventions to halt transmission, prioritizing those interventions most likely to achieve population-level impact. Synergy in reducing tuberculosis transmission may be attainable by combining interventions that shrink the reservoir of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (preventive therapy), shorten the time between disease onset and treatment initiation (case finding and diagnosis), and prevent transmission in key settings, such as the built environment (infection control)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108852/facing-the-future-a-call-for-higher-education-in-sleep-technology
#15
Laura A Linley
The American Association of Sleep Technologists (AAST) is the national membership organization representing sleep technologists. The Board of Directors of the AAST recognizes that changes in the workforce will result in an increased need for technologists with a higher level of education. In order to meet the needs of members, the AAST has: (1) convened a summit of stakeholders to discuss the changing landscape for sleep technologists; (2) hosted an educational task force to provide ongoing communication and support; and (3) commissioned a survey of members, educators and employers to better define educational gaps and opportunities for sleep technologists...
September 28, 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107790/the-selection-of-a-pharmaceutical-salt-the-effect-of-the-acidity-of-the-counterion-on-its-solubility-and-potential-biopharmaceutical-performance
#16
Yan He, Edward Orton, Donglai Yang
A roadmap for the selection of a pharmaceutical salt form for a development candidate is presented. The free base of the candidate did not have sufficient chemical stability for development. The initially selected salt form turned out to be undevelopable because it was unstable during scale-up synthesis and storage. The rationale for the new solid form screening and the criteria for selection are discussed. Prior to the final selection, the pH solubility profiles of the two new salts, a benzoate and a besylate, were compared...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107379/engineered-designer-biochar-for-the-removal-of-phosphate-in-water-and-wastewater
#17
Kumar Vikrant, Ki-Hyun Kim, Yong Sik Ok, Daniel C W Tsang, Yiu Fai Tsang, Balendu Shekhar Giri, Ram Sharan Singh
During the past decade, biochar has attracted immense scientific interest for agricultural and environmental applications. A broad range of biochars with advantageous properties (e.g., high surface area, flexible architecture, and high porosity) has been developed for pollution abatement. Nevertheless, biochar suffers from certain drawbacks (e.g., limited sorption capacity for anions and poor mechanical properties) that limit their practical applicability. This review focuses on recent advancements in biochar technology, especially with respect to its technical aspects, the variables associated with removing phosphates from water, and the challenges for such abatement...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106447/an-evaluation-of-noncoding-genome-annotation-tools-through-enrichment-analysis-of-15-genome-wide-association-studies
#18
Boyang Li, Qiongshi Lu, Hongyu Zhao
Functionally annotating genetic variations is an essential yet challenging topic in human genetics research. As large consortia including ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics Project continue to generate high-throughput transcriptomic and epigenomic data, many computational frameworks have been developed to integrate these experimental data to predict functionality of genetic variations in both protein-coding and noncoding regions. Here, we compare a number of recently developed annotation frameworks for noncoding regions through enrichment analysis on genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
November 2, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105569/developing-equitable-primary-health-care-in-conflict-affected-settings-expert-perspectives-from-the-frontlines
#19
Devin G Atallah, Ahmadreza Djalali, Karla Fredricks, Lauren Arlington, Milagros Bussio, Brett D Nelson
Health systems are frequently among the casualties of conflict. Within these settings, increased knowledge is needed on how to rebuild and strengthen health infrastructure resilience, such as primary health care (PHC) systems, in context-specific ways that promote health equity. Therefore, this study aimed to explore perspectives of experts with experience working on frontlines of social crises to contribute to understandings of pathways toward equitable PHC in conflict-affected settings. Semistructured qualitative interviews with 18 expert participants were completed...
November 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099240/advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-possible-treatments-for-multiple-hereditary-exostoses-from-the-2016-international-mhe-conference
#20
Anne Q Phan, Maurizio Pacifici, Jeffrey D Esko
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects about 1 in 50,000 children worldwide. MHE, also known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or multiple osteochondromas (MO), is characterized by cartilage-capped outgrowths called osteochondromas that develop adjacent to the growth plates of skeletal elements in young patients. These benign tumors can affect growth plate function, leading to skeletal growth retardation, or deformations, and can encroach on nerves, tendons, muscles, and other surrounding tissues and cause motion impairment, chronic pain, and early onset osteoarthritis...
November 3, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
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