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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#1
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
December 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919057/principles-of-precision-medicine-in-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Jason D Hinman, Natalia S Rost, Thomas W Leung, Joan Montaner, Keith W Muir, Scott Brown, Juan F Arenillas, Edward Feldmann, David S Liebeskind
The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917266/telbivudine-vs-tenofovir-in-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-optima-roadmap-study
#3
Zahari Krastev, Diana Petrova, Iskren Kotzev, Mustafa Kemal Celen, Meryl Mendelson, Richa Chandra, Priti Pandey, Kamal Hamed
AIM: To make efficacy and safety comparison of telbivudine-raodmap and tenofovir-roadmap in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: This was the first prospective, randomised, two-arm, open-label, non-inferiority study in HBeAg-negative CHB patients that compared telbivudine and tenofovir administered as per roadmap concept. Patients were treated up to 24 wk and, depending on virologic response, continued the same therapy or received add-on therapy up to 104 wk...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906345/grating-coupling-based-excitation-of-bloch-surface-waves-for-lab-on-fiber-optrodes
#4
Michele Scaravilli, Giuseppe Castaldi, Andrea Cusano, Vincenzo Galdi
In this paper, we investigate the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, after exploring an idealized, proof-of-principle grating-coupling-based scheme for on-tip excitation of BSWs, we focus on an alternative configuration that is more robust with respect to fabrication-related non-idealities. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present a specific design aimed at enhancing the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonance with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906193/roadmap-to-a-successful-quality-improvement-project
#5
J R Swanson, S A Pearlman
Although the benefits of quality improvement initiatives are largely understood by practicing neonatologists and perinatologists, the vast majority have not received any formal training in quality improvement methodology. Even as reporting requirements of quality metrics has increased from a number of outside agencies and public reporting entities, education for physicians regarding how to carry out quality improvement projects has largely remained the individual's responsibility. The first in a series of quality improvement education papers, we focus on the reasons why quality improvement matters and how to develop a team of stakeholders that will be functional and productive in addressing specific quality and safety concerns...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906046/chromatin-landscapes-and-genetic-risk-in-systemic-lupus
#6
Joyce S Hui-Yuen, Lisha Zhu, Lai Ping Wong, Kaiyu Jiang, Yanmin Chen, Tao Liu, James N Jarvis
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system, complex disease in which the environment interacts with inherited genes to produce broad phenotypes with inter-individual variability. Of 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown to confer genetic risk for SLE in recent genome-wide association studies, 30 lie within noncoding regions of the human genome. We therefore sought to identify and describe the functional elements (aside from genes) located within these regions of interest...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901101/structural-basis-for-the-dissociation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-triggered-by-pressure-perturbation-of-the-hydrophobic-core
#7
Guilherme A P de Oliveira, Mayra de A Marques, Carolina Cruzeiro-Silva, Yraima Cordeiro, Caroline Schuabb, Adolfo H Moraes, Roland Winter, Hartmut Oschkinat, Debora Foguel, Mônica S Freitas, Jerson L Silva
Parkinson's disease is a neurological disease in which aggregated forms of the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein are found. We used high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) coupled with NMR spectroscopy to study the dissociation of α-syn fibril into monomers and evaluate their structural and dynamic properties. Different dynamic properties in the non-amyloid-β component (NAC), which constitutes the Greek-key hydrophobic core, and in the acidic C-terminal region of the protein were identified by HHP NMR spectroscopy. In addition, solid-state NMR revealed subtle differences in the HHP-disturbed fibril core, providing clues to how these species contribute to seeding α-syn aggregation...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898203/biorefining-of-lignocellulosic-feedstock-by-a-modified-ammonia-fiber-expansion-pretreatment-and-enzymatic-hydrolysis-for-production-of-fermentable-sugars
#8
Birgit Kamm, Sebastian Leiß, Petra Schönicke, Matthias Bierbaum
Wheat straw was pretreated and afterwards enzymatically hydrolyzed using a modified ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process under different reaction conditions to produce fermentable sugars. Instead of liquid ammonia, aqueous ammonia (25 % w/v) was used to test its influence on the sugar concentration and yield of the sugars. It is shown that a protein extraction after the pretreatment can distinctly improve the result obtained for the enzymatic hydrolysis. This modified AFEX process using aqueous ammonia represents a simpler and less expensive variant of the AFEX process usually described in literature...
November 29, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895957/adoption-of-electronic-health-records-a-roadmap-for-india
#9
REVIEW
Sunil Kumar Srivastava
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to create a roadmap for the adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) in India based an analysis of the strategies of other countries and national scenarios of ICT use in India. METHODS: The strategies for adoption of EHR in other countries were analyzed to find the crucial steps taken. Apart from reports collected from stakeholders in the country, the study relied on the experience of the author in handling several e-health projects...
October 2016: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895917/validation-of-biomarkers-to-predict-response-to-immunotherapy-in-cancer-volume-i-pre-analytical-and-analytical-validation
#10
REVIEW
Giuseppe V Masucci, Alessandra Cesano, Rachael Hawtin, Sylvia Janetzki, Jenny Zhang, Ilan Kirsch, Kevin K Dobbin, John Alvarez, Paul B Robbins, Senthamil R Selvan, Howard Z Streicher, Lisa H Butterfield, Magdalena Thurin
Immunotherapies have emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat patients with cancer. Recently, there have been many clinical successes using checkpoint receptor blockade, including T cell inhibitory receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Despite demonstrated successes in a variety of malignancies, responses only typically occur in a minority of patients in any given histology. Additionally, treatment is associated with inflammatory toxicity and high cost...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893116/new-report-outlines-roadmap-for-preventing-youth-suicide
#11
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891647/a-roadmap-for-improving-the-representation-of-photosynthesis-in-earth-system-models
#12
Alistair Rogers, Belinda E Medlyn, Jeffrey S Dukes, Gordon Bonan, Susanne von Caemmerer, Michael C Dietze, Jens Kattge, Andrew D B Leakey, Lina M Mercado, Ülo Niinemets, I Colin Prentice, Shawn P Serbin, Stephen Sitch, Danielle A Way, Sönke Zaehle
Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890113/meprocs-framework-for-craniofacial-superimposition-validation-study
#13
O Ibáñez, R Vicente, D Navega, C Campomanes-Álvarez, C Cattaneo, R Jankauskas, M I Huete, F Navarro, R Hardiman, E Ruiz, K Imaizumi, F Cavalli, E Veselovskaya, D Humpire, J Cardoso, F Collini, D Mazzarelli, D Gibelli, S Damas
Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante-mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. The lack of unified working protocols and the absence of commonly accepted standards, led to contradictory consensus regarding its reliability. One of the more important aims of 'New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS)' project was to propose a common framework for CFS, what can be considered the first international standard in the field...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888882/the-challenge-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Julia Carnevale, James L Rubenstein
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a challenging subtypes of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Emerging clinical data suggest that optimized outcomes are achieved with dose-intensive CNS-penetrant chemotherapy and avoiding whole brain radiotherapy. Anti-CD20 antibody-based immunotherapy as a component of high-dose methotrexate-based induction programs may contribute to improved outcomes. An accumulation of insights into the molecular and cellular basis of disease pathogenesis is providing a foundation for the generation of molecular tools to facilitate diagnosis as well as a roadmap for integration of targeted therapy within the developing therapeutic armamentarium for this challenging brain tumor...
December 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886585/facilitating-adaptive-management-in-a-government-program-a-household-energy-efficiency-case-study
#15
Jim Curtis, Alex Graham, Eraj Ghafoori, Susan Pyke, Stefan Kaufman, Mark Boulet
Interim evaluations of government programs can sometimes reveal lower than expected outcomes, leading to the question of how adjustments can be made while the program is still underway. Although adaptive management frameworks can provide a practical roadmap to address this question, a lack of successful learnings and poor implementation have hampered the progress and wider application of adaptive management. Using a case study involving an energy efficiency government program targeting low-income households, this article provides supporting evidence on how adaptive management can be facilitated and applied...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876456/a-qualitative-study-of-the-current-situation-of-elderly-care-in-iran-what-can-we-do-for-the-future
#16
Salime Goharinezhad, Mohammadreza Maleki, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Hamid Ravaghi
BACKGROUND: With the successful improvement of global health systems and social security in societies, the world is now advancing toward aging. All countries have to face the phenomenon of population aging sooner or later depending on their degree of development; however, elderly care is predicted to soon become a major concern for developing countries such as Iran. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to identify the challenges of elderly care in Iran and to help policymakers develop roadmaps for the future through providing a clearer image of the current state of affairs in this area of healthcare...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875911/identification-of-the-optimal-visual-recording-system-in-open-abdominal-surgery-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
D P O'Leary, E Deering-McCarthy, D McGrath, D Walsh, J C Coffey
INTRODUCTION: Current methodologies used to record and render the surgeon's point of view in open operative surgery remain limited. Chief among these limitations is a failure to demonstrate, in high definition and magnification, the planar roadmap that surgeons utilise in colorectal surgery. The high magnification and high resolution views provided during laparoscopic surgery simultaneously capture the planar road map and surgeon's point of view. We developed an arm-mounted external laparoscope (exoscope) system and compared its performance against multiple standard recording modalities...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873232/evidence-based-revised-view-of-the-pathophysiology-of-preeclampsia
#18
Asif Ahmed, Homira Rezai, Sophie Broadway-Stringer
Preeclampsia is a life-threatening vascular disorder of pregnancy due to a failing stressed placenta. Millions of women risk death to give birth each year and globally each year, almost 300,000 lose their life in this process and over 500,000 babies die as a consequence of preeclampsia. Despite decades of research, we lack pharmacological agents to treat it. Maternal endothelial oxidative stress is a central phenomenon responsible for the preeclampsia phenotype of high maternal blood pressure and proteinuria...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870795/achieving-equity-in-physical-activity-participation-acsm-experience-and-next-steps
#19
Rebecca E Hasson, David R Brown, Joan Dorn, Lisa Barkley, Carol Torgan, Melicia Whitt-Glover, Barbara Ainsworth, NiCole Keith
There is clear and consistent evidence that regular physical activity is an important component of healthy lifestyles, and fundamental to promoting health and preventing disease. Despite the known benefits of physical activity participation, many people in the United States (US) remain inactive. More specifically, physical activity behavior is socially patterned with lower participation rates among women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual minority youth, individuals with less education, persons with physical, mental and cognitive disabilities, individuals > 65 years of age, and those living in the southeast region of the US...
November 19, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869159/fundamental-scaling-laws-in-nanophotonics
#20
Ke Liu, Shuai Sun, Arka Majumdar, Volker J Sorger
The success of information technology has clearly demonstrated that miniaturization often leads to unprecedented performance, and unanticipated applications. This hypothesis of "smaller-is-better" has motivated optical engineers to build various nanophotonic devices, although an understanding leading to fundamental scaling behavior for this new class of devices is missing. Here we analyze scaling laws for optoelectronic devices operating at micro and nanometer length-scale. We show that optoelectronic device performance scales non-monotonically with device length due to the various device tradeoffs, and analyze how both optical and electrical constrains influence device power consumption and operating speed...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
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