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Graziela de Sá Machado Araújo, Ronaldo da Silva Francisco Junior, Cristina Dos Santos Ferreira, Pedro Thyago Mozer Rodrigues, Douglas Terra Machado, Thais Louvain de Souza, Jozimara Teixeira de Souza, Cleiton Figueiredo Osorio da Silva, Antônio Francisco Alves da Silva, Claudia Caixeta Franco Andrade, Alan Tardin da Silva, Victor Ramos, Ana Beatriz Garcia, Filipe Brum Machado, Enrique Medina-Acosta
A hallmark of imprinted genes in mammals is the occurrence of parent-of-origin-dependent asymmetry of DNA cytosine methylation (5m C) of alleles at CpG islands (CGIs) in their promoter regions. This 5m CpG asymmetry between the parental alleles creates allele-specific imprinted differentially methylated regions (iDMRs). iDMRs are often coupled to the transcriptional repression of the methylated allele and the activation of the unmethylated allele in a tissue-specific, developmental-stage-specific and/or isoform-specific fashion...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Qunfeng Cheng, Jingsong Peng
Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable success in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites lays down the basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated well mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, etc...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Rui Zhang, Qianlei Zhang, Youxin Ji, Fengmei Su, Lingpu Meng, Zeming Qi, Yuanfei Lin, Xueyu Li, Xiaowei Chen, Fei Lv, Liangbin Li
Fibrillation and the complexation reaction between poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-iodine (i) complexes have been studied with in situ synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) during the uniaxial stretching of PVA films in KI/I2 aqueous solution. SAXS results show that stretching induces the formation of nanofibrils, which pack periodically in the later stage of stretching with an average inter-fibrillar distance of around 10 nm. The onset strains for fibrillation and the appearance of periodicity of nanofibrils are located at the beginning and the end of the stress plateau, and decrease with increasing iodine concentration...
March 14, 2018: Soft Matter
Carolina Torres, Paul J Grippo
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is projected to become the second cause of cancer-related deaths by 2020. Although it has traditionally been approached as one disease, accumulated evidences point to the clinical heterogeneity of this disease which translates into disparity in outcomes between patients. Much emphasis has been put into patient classification introducing a platform for more tailored therapies. In the last ten years, there have been important advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PDAC, which has culminated with a comprehensive integrated genomic analysis from RNA expression profiles...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Ashish Singh, Abhimanyu Kapoor, Rajneesh Kumar Singh, Anand Prakash, Anu Behari, Ashok Kumar, Vinay Kumar Kapoor, Rajan Saxena
Backgrounds/Aims: A residual gallbladder (RGB) following a partial/subtotal cholecystectomy may cause symptoms that require its removal. We present our large study regarding the problem of a RGB over a 15 year period. Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of patients managed for symptomatic RGB from January 2000 to December 2015. Results: A RGB was observed in 93 patients, who had a median age of 45 (25-70) years, and were comprised of 69 (74...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Homero Martinez, Aliki P Weakland, Lynn B Bailey, Lorenzo D Botto, Luz Maria De-Regil, Kenneth H Brown
As infectious disease control programs achieve increasing success, further reductions in child mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) will require focused prevention strategies for birth defects and other noninfectious diseases. Neural tube defects (NTDs) can cause early death or lifelong disability. Preventing NTDs provides a feasible, significant opportunity to decrease the toll of birth defects and contribute to further reducing child mortality globally. The Micronutrient Forum convened a technical consultation on Folate Status in Women and Neural Tube Defects Prevention to develop a roadmap to inform and prioritize investments in NTD prevention in LMICs; help guide implementation efforts in terms of the feasibility of interventions and the potential for acceleration; and identify research and knowledge gaps...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Julie L Masters, Paige M Toller, Nancy J Kelley, Lyn M Holley
Death is among the most avoided topics of conversation. Although end-of-life planning may greatly benefit individuals and their survivors, research and practice indicate that family, friends, and even health care providers resist discussing end-of-life plans. Consequences of not planning ahead have created a public health issue. This article describes a community-level intervention that facilitates those necessary conversations among elders who have at least begun to talk with others about their wishes. A free, three-part educational workshop series on end-of-life planning titled "Begin with the End in Mind" was developed at a midwestern university...
March 12, 2018: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rafal Woycicki, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Gerlinde A S Metz, Olga Kovalchuk
Recent advances in cancer treatments have led to significant increases in cure rates. Most cancer patients are treated with various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. These treatment modalities are mutagenic and genotoxic and cause a wide array of late-occurring health problems, and even exert a deleterious influence on future offspring. The adverse effects from exposed parents on offspring are referred to as transgenerational effects, and currently little is known about chemotherapy-induced transgenerational effects...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Francisca Acevedo Gasman, Caroline Burgeff, Margarita Cano Ramírez, Daniel Piñero, José Sarukhán
Domestication has been influenced by formal plant breeding since the onset of intensive agriculture and the Green Revolution. Despite providing food security for some regions, intensive agriculture has had substantial detrimental consequences for the environment and does not fulfill smallholder's needs under most developing countries conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to look for alternative plant production techniques, effective for each environmental, socio-cultural, and economic conditions. This is particularly relevant for countries that are megadiverse and major centers of plant domestication and diversification...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
M A Broome, S K Gorman, M G House, S J Hile, J G Keizer, D Keith, C D Hill, T F Watson, W J Baker, L C L Hollenberg, M Y Simmons
Substitutional donor atoms in silicon are promising qubits for quantum computation with extremely long relaxation and dephasing times demonstrated. One of the critical challenges of scaling these systems is determining inter-donor distances to achieve controllable wavefunction overlap while at the same time performing high fidelity spin readout on each qubit. Here we achieve such a device by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy lithography. We measure anti-correlated spin states between two donor-based spin qubits in silicon separated by 16 ± 1 nm...
March 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Hüseyin Enis Karahan, Christian Wiraja, Chenjie Xu, Jun Wei, Yilei Wang, Liang Wang, Fei Liu, Yuan Chen
Graphene materials (GMs), such as graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced GO (rGO), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), are rapidly emerging as a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. This report describes their state-of-the-art and potential future covering both fundamental aspects and biomedical applications. First, the current understanding of the antimicrobial mechanisms of GMs is illustrated, and the complex picture of underlying structure-property-activity relationships is sketched. Next, the different modes of utilization of antimicrobial GMs are explained, which include their use as colloidal dispersions, surface coatings, and photothermal/photodynamic therapy agents...
March 5, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Raúl F Pérez, Juan Ramón Tejedor, Gustavo F Bayón, Agustín F Fernández, Mario F Fraga
Cancer is an aging-associated disease, but the underlying molecular links between these processes are still largely unknown. Gene promoters that become hypermethylated in aging and cancer share a common chromatin signature in ES cells. In addition, there is also global DNA hypomethylation in both processes. However, the similarity of the regions where this loss of DNA methylation occurs is currently not well characterized, and it is unknown if such regions also share a common chromatin signature in aging and cancer...
March 5, 2018: Aging Cell
Lesley A Inker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nenad Bach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Joshua Osowicki, Johan Vekemans, David C Kaslow, Martin H Friede, Jerome H Kim, Andrew C Steer
While progress towards a Group A Streptococcus (GAS) vaccine has been stalled by a combination of scientific, regulatory, and commercial barriers, the problem persists. The high and globally-distributed burden of disease attributable to GAS makes vaccination an imperative global public health goal. Advances across a range of scientific disciplines in understanding GAS diseases have made the goal a realistic one and focused attention on the need for coordinated global action. With a view to accelerating GAS vaccine development, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) convened a global stakeholder consultation on the 12th and 13th of December 2016, in Seoul, South Korea...
February 26, 2018: Vaccine
Charles L Nunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
I Levchenko, S Xu, G Teel, D Mariotti, M L R Walker, M Keidar
Drastic miniaturization of electronics and ingression of next-generation nanomaterials into space technology have provoked a renaissance in interplanetary flights and near-Earth space exploration using small unmanned satellites and systems. As the next stage, the NASA's 2015 Nanotechnology Roadmap initiative called for new design paradigms that integrate nanotechnology and conceptually new materials to build advanced, deep-space-capable, adaptive spacecraft. This review examines the cutting edge and discusses the opportunities for integration of nanomaterials into the most advanced types of electric propulsion devices that take advantage of their unique features and boost their efficiency and service life...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, Elmar W Kuhn, Anton Sabashnikov, Carolyn Weber, Cherif Sahyoun, Tanja Rudolph, Stephan Baldus, Thorsten C W Wahlers, Navid Mader
BACKGROUND:  Advanced visualization software tools have been used in clinics to improve the safety and accuracy of transcatheter procedure. Imaging techniques have greatly evolved during the era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In a retrospective analysis, we investigated the feasibility of augmented fluoroscopy for iliofemoral access using a novel "Vascular Outlining" roadmapping technology. METHODS:  The Vascular Outlining prototype device (Philips Healthcare) application was used with iliofemoral angiography of 10 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI...
February 28, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Henrik Hartmann, Catarina F Moura, William R L Anderegg, Nadine K Ruehr, Yann Salmon, Craig D Allen, Stefan K Arndt, David D Breshears, Hendrik Davi, David Galbraith, Katinka X Ruthrof, Jan Wunder, Henry D Adams, Jasper Bloemen, Maxime Cailleret, Richard Cobb, Arthur Gessler, Thorsten E E Grams, Steven Jansen, Markus Kautz, Francisco Lloret, Michael O'Brien
Accumulating evidence highlights increased mortality risks for trees during severe drought, particularly under warmer temperatures and increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Resulting forest die-off events have severe consequences for ecosystem services, biophysical and biogeochemical land-atmosphere processes. Despite advances in monitoring, modelling and experimental studies of the causes and consequences of tree death from individual tree to ecosystem and global scale, a general mechanistic understanding and realistic predictions of drought mortality under future climate conditions are still lacking...
April 2018: New Phytologist
Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, Nicolas Delhomme, Bastian Schiffthaler, Chanaka Mannapperuma, Jakob Prestele, Ove Nilsson, Nathaniel R Street, Hannele Tuominen
Seasonal cues influence several aspects of the secondary growth of tree stems, including cambial activity, wood chemistry, and transition to latewood formation. We investigated seasonal changes in cambial activity, secondary cell wall formation, and tracheid cell death in woody tissues of Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout one seasonal cycle. RNA sequencing was simultaneously performed in both the xylem and cambium/phloem tissues of the stem. Principal component analysis revealed gradual shifts in the transcriptomes that followed a chronological order throughout the season...
February 27, 2018: Plant Physiology
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