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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055254/the-effect-of-visual-cues-on-performance-in-the-ultimatum-game-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Daisuke Ikuse, Masayuki Tani, Takashi Itahashi, Hiroki Yamada, Haruhisa Ohta, Teppei Morita, Gousuke Arai, Nobuyuki Saga, Takahiro Tokumasu, Marie Ohta, Ayaka Sato, Akira Iwanami
The Ultimatum Game (UG) allows for the assessment of altruistic behavior as well as the perception of fairness. We examined the effects of visual social cues (gaze of others), factors associated with autism, and trust on UG performance in typical adults (TAs) and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized that individuals with ASD would be less affected by visual social cues than TAs. We recruited 30 TAs and 30 individuals with ASD. Participants completed 30 trials of the UG, during which the visual background was altered to include either stylized eyespots, flowers, or a neutral background...
October 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054073/discourse-production-of-mandarin-speaking-children-with-high-functioning-autism-the-effect-of-mental-and-action-verbs-semantic-pragmatic-features
#2
Yiqi Song, Zhongheng Jia, Shunhua Liu, Dandan Liang
The present study investigated the syntactic and pragmatic performance of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) during a discourse production task with mental verbs. Children with HFA and typically developing (TD) children were matched by chronological age, verbal IQ (VIQ) and full-scale IQ (FIQ). We found that children with HFA tended to select a nominal object given a mental verb with either a nominal or clausal object. They committed few syntactic errors but generated syntactic stereotypes with mental verbs...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054034/an-exploration-of-common-dopaminergic-variants-and-behavior-problems-in-siblings-at-high-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Devon N Gangi, Lauren V Usher, Daniel S Messinger
Younger siblings of children with ASD often exhibit elevated internalizing and externalizing problems. We investigated common dopaminergic variants (DRD4 and DRD2) in relation to behavior problems at 36 months. Genotypes linked to less efficient dopaminergic functioning were associated with higher internalizing problems in high-risk siblings.
October 17, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054024/social-skills-plus-relaxation-training-with-a-child-with-asd-in-the-schools
#4
Margaret T Floress, Kim Zoder-Martell, Rachel Schaub
A social skills plus relaxation training (SSRT) program was developed using direct training, relaxation training, and reinforcement principles. The aim was to examine the effectiveness of SSRT on increasing the frequency of three target behaviors for one 8-year-old, student classified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple-baseline across behaviors design was used to evaluate the effects of SSRT. During baseline, intervention, and maintenance sessions the student's responses were videotaped and then subsequently viewed and coded after the session...
October 17, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053124/-the-efficacy-of-cerebrolysin-in-the-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
L S Chutko, E A Yakovenko, S Yu Surushkina, E M Kryukova, S V Palaieva
AIM: To evaluate clinical and neurophysiological changes in children with different variants of autism spectrum disorders during treatment with cerebrolysin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-three children with autism spectrum disorders, aged 4-6 years, were included in the study. To assess the degree of autism, the quantitative scale of assessing the severity of child autism CARS ('Childhood Autism Rating Scale') was used. A comparative analysis of the clinical picture of disease and data of the electroencephalographic examination in endogenous and exogenous (organic) variant of autism was made...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052841/cognitive-mechanisms-of-inhibitory-control-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Lauren M Schmitt, Stormi P White, Edwin H Cook, John A Sweeney, Matthew W Mosconi
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory control deficits are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associated with more severe repetitive behaviors. Inhibitory control deficits may reflect slower execution of stopping processes, or a reduced ability to delay the onset of behavioral responses in contexts of uncertainty. Previous studies have documented relatively spared stopping processes in ASD, but whether inhibitory control deficits in ASD reflect failures to delay response onset has not been systematically assessed...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052838/research-review-early-intervention-for-infants-and-young-children-with-or-at-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Lorna French, Eilis M M Kennedy
BACKGROUND: There has been increased interest in early screening and intervention for young children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This has generated a debate about the potential harms versus benefits of early identification and treatment. This review aims to identify the evidence base for early intervention in ASD. METHODS: A systematic review searching for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for children up to 6 years of age with, or at risk of, ASD was undertaken...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052806/profiling-autism-symptomatology-an-exploration-of-the-q-asc-parental-report-scale-in-capturing-sex-differences-in-autism
#8
Sarah Ormond, Charlotte Brownlow, Michelle Sarah Garnett, Agnieszka Rynkiewicz, Tony Attwood
The Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Conditions (Q-ASC) was developed by Attwood et al. (2011) to identify gender-sensitive profiles of autism symptomatology; prioritise and adjust the direction of clinical interventions; and support positive psychosocial outcomes and prognosis into adulthood. The current research piloted the Q-ASC with parents of 238 children with a clinical diagnosis of ASD-Level 1 (without intellectual or language impairment). Data analysis revealed eight interpretable and reliable components of the Q-ASC using Principle components analysis...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#9
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
October 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052364/sensorimotor-learning-and-associated-visual-perception-are-intact-but-unrelated-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Spencer J Hayes, Matthew Andrew, Nathan C Foster, Digby Elliott, Emma Gowen, Simon J Bennett
Humans show an astonishing capability to learn sensorimotor behaviours. However, data from sensorimotor learning experiments suggest the integration of efferent sensorimotor commands, afferent sensorimotor information, and visual consequences of a performed action during learning is different in autism, leading to atypical representation of internal action models. Here, we investigated the generalization of a sensorimotor internal action model formed during sensorimotor learning to a different, but associated, visual perception task...
October 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052348/shank3-deficient-rats-exhibit-degraded-cortical-responses-to-sound
#11
Crystal T Engineer, Kimiya C Rahebi, Michael S Borland, Elizabeth P Buell, Kwok W Im, Linda G Wilson, Pryanka Sharma, Sven Vanneste, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Joseph D Buxbaum, Michael P Kilgard
Individuals with SHANK3 mutations have severely impaired receptive and expressive language abilities. While brain responses are known to be abnormal in these individuals, the auditory cortex response to sound has remained largely understudied. In this study, we document the auditory cortex response to speech and non-speech sounds in the novel Shank3-deficient rat model. We predicted that the auditory cortex response to sounds would be impaired in Shank3-deficient rats. We found that auditory cortex responses were weaker in Shank3 heterozygous rats compared to wild-type rats...
October 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052014/predictive-validity-of-a-service-setting-based-measure-to-identify-infancy-mental-health-problems-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Janni Ammitzbøll, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Bjørn E Holstein, Anette Andersen, Anne Mette Skovgaard
Measures to identify infancy mental health problems are essential to guide interventions and reduce the risk of developmental psychopathology in early years. We investigated a new service-setting-based measure the Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Screening (CIMHS) within the general child health surveillance by community health nurses (CHN). The study population of 2973 infants was assessed by CIMHS at age 9-10 months. A subsample of 416 children was examined at age 1½ years, using parent interviews including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1½-5), Check List of Autism and Toddlers (CHAT), Infant-Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSCL), and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) and observations of behavior, communication, and interaction...
October 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051774/effectiveness-of-the-boost-a%C3%A2-online-transition-planning-program-for-adolescents-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Megan Hatfield, Marita Falkmer, Torbjorn Falkmer, Marina Ciccarelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of existing transition planning programs are focused on people with a disability in general and may not meet the specific need of adolescents on the autism spectrum. In addition, these interventions focus on specific skills (e.g. job readiness or self-determination) rather than the overall transition planning process and there are methodological limitations to many of the studies determining their effectiveness. The Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™) is an online program that supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051601/altered-behavioral-and-amygdala-habituation-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-fmri-study
#14
Friederike I Tam, Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Franziska M Korb, Juliane Sareng, Franziska Ritschel, Julius Steding, Katja U Albertowski, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
Habituation to repeatedly presented stimuli is an important adaptive property of the nervous system. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with reduced neural habituation, for example in the amygdala, which may be related to social impairments. The main focus of this study was to investigate habituation effects on the level of behavioral responses as well as amygdala responses in adults with ASD during a working memory task flanked by task-irrelevant face stimuli. Twenty-two patients with high-functioning autism and 24 healthy controls (HC) were included in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051506/an-integrated-eeg-and-eye-tracking-approach-for-the-study-of-responding-and-initiating-joint-attention-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Lucia Billeci, Antonio Narzisi, Alessandro Tonacci, Beatrice Sbriscia-Fioretti, Luca Serasini, Francesca Fulceri, Fabio Apicella, Federico Sicca, Sara Calderoni, Filippo Muratori
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impairment in joint attention (JA), which has two components: the response to JA and the initiation of JA. Literature suggests a correlation between JA and neural circuitries, although this link is still largely unexplored in ASD. In this pilot study, we aimed at investigating the neural correlates of responding and initiating JA in high-functioning children with ASD and evaluating the changes in brain function and visual pattern after six months of rehabilitative treatment using an integrated EEG/eye-tracking system...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049464/clustering-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-first-degree-and-second-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Margaret O'Brien, Tom Burke, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Russell McLaughlin, John Gibbons, Susan Byrne, Marta Pinto-Grau, Marwa Elamin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition primarily involving the motor system. There is increasing epidemiologic evidence of an association between ALS and a wider spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders among family members, including schizophrenia and psychotic illness and suicidal behavior. Objective: To examine the frequency and range of neuropsychiatric conditions that occur within individual first-degree and second-degree relatives of patients with ALS...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048968/vaccines-and-the-trump-administration-reasons-for-optimism-amid-uncertainty
#17
Jason L Schwartz
The election of President Donald Trump raised grave concerns for the future of vaccination in the United States. Trump had frequently embraced-both before and during his election campaign-baseless and discredited allegations linking childhood vaccines to autism.(1) Shortly before his inauguration, he met with Robert F. Kennedy Jr, one of the most prominent and vocal critics of vaccine safety and current US vaccine policy, who announced after that meeting that he would lead a presidential "vaccine safety commission" charged with investigating these topics...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048417/pathways-from-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis-to-genetic-testing
#18
Krysta S Barton, Holly K Tabor, Helene Starks, Nanibaa' A Garrison, Mercy Laurino, Wylie Burke
PurposeThis study examined challenges faced by families and health providers related to genetic testing for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).MethodsThis qualitative study of 14 parents and 15 health providers identified an unstandardized three-step process for families who pursue ASD genetic testing.ResultsStep 1 is the clinical diagnosis of ASD, confirmed by providers practicing alone or in a team. Step 2 is the offer of genetic testing to find an etiology. For those offered testing, step 3 involves the parents' decision whether to pursue testing...
October 19, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048365/integrating-autism-care-through-a-school-based-intervention-model-a-pilot-study
#19
Katherine Dang, Stephen Bent, Brittany Lawton, Tracy Warren, Felicia Widjaja, Michael G McDonald, Michael Breard, Whitney O'Keefe, Robert L Hendren
The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the progress of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) both in school and at home to promote a school-based integrated care model between parents, teachers, and medical providers. This is a prospective cohort study. To monitor progress, outcome measures were administered via an online platform developed for caregivers and teachers of children (n = 30) attending a school specializing in neurodevelopmental disorders and using an integrated medical and education program...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048245/self-esteem-internalizing-symptoms-and-theory-of-mind-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
James B McCauley, Michelle A Harris, Matthew C Zajic, Lindsay E Swain-Lerro, Tasha Oswald, Nancy McIntyre, Kali Trzesniewski, Peter Mundy, Marjorie Solomon
Self-esteem is a potent indicator of mental health in typically developing (TYP) individuals. It is surprising that there have been few comprehensive investigations of self-esteem in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), given that they are at high risk for comorbid mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. The objectives of the current study were to assess how youth with ASD rate their self-esteem compared to age-matched TYP youth and to examine how self-esteem relates to internalizing psychopathology and theory of mind in the two groups...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
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