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Liz Coldridge, Sarah Davies
BACKGROUND: midwifery is emotionally challenging work, and learning to be a midwife brings its own particular challenges. For the student midwife, clinical placement in a hospital labour ward is especially demanding. In the context of organisational tensions and pressures the experience of supporting women through the unpredictable intensity of the labour process can be a significant source of stress for student midwives. Although increasing attention is now being paid to midwives' traumatic experiences and wellbeing few researchers have examined the traumatic experiences of student midwives...
November 28, 2016: Midwifery
Mengyun Chen, Yang Zhao, Lijia Yan, Shuai Yang, Yanan Zhu, Imran Murtaza, Gufeng He, Hong Meng, Wei Huang
White-light-emitting materials with high mobility are necessary for organic white-light-emitting transistors, which can be used for self-driven OLED displays or OLED lighting. In this study, we combined two materials with similar structures-2-fluorenyl-2-anthracene (FlAnt) with blue emission and 2-anthryl-2-anthracence (2A) with greenish-yellow emission-to fabricate OLED devices, which showed unusual solid-state white-light emission with the CIE coordinates (0.33, 0.34) at 10 V. The similar crystal structures ensured that the OTFTs based on mixed FlAnt and 2A showed high mobility of 1...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Verónica G Vegas, Romina Lorca, Ana Latorre, Khaled Hassanein, Carlos J Gómez-García, Oscar Castillo, Álvaro Somoza, Félix Zamora, Pilar Amo-Ochoa
The direct reaction between copper nitrate, thymine-1-acetic acid, and 4,4'-bipyridine in water leads to the formation of a blue colloid comprising uniform crystalline nanoribbons (length >1 μm; width ca. 150-185 nm; diameter ca. 15-60 nm) of a coordination polymer. The polymer displays a thymine-based structure freely available for supramolecular interactions. These nanostructures show significant selective interaction with single-stranded oligonucleotides based on adenine. Remarkably, they present low cell toxicity in three cell lines-despite the copper(II) content-and can be used as nanocarriers of oligonucleotides...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Nisha Shabnam, P Sharmila, Hyunook Kim, P Pardha-Saradhi
The unique potential of chloroplasts/thylakoids to harness light energy to transport electrons from H2O to various entities was exploited for reduction of Ag+ to generate nanoparticles (NPs). Spinach thylakoids/chloroplasts turned AgNO3 solutions brown in light, but not in dark. Besides showing Ag-NPs specific surface plasmon resonance band, these brown solutions showed presence of 5-30 nm crystalline NPs composed of Ag. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis revealed that Ag-NPs were biphasic composed of face-centered cubic Ag0 and cubic Ag2O...
2016: PloS One
Hao Yang, Zi-Han Wang, Yan-Yu Zheng, Lan-Qi He, Chao Zhan, Xihong Lu, Zhong-Qun Tian, Ping-Ping Fang, Yexiang Tong
Photocatalysis is a promising technology for renewable energy production. Many photocatalysis have realized the visible-light-driven catalytic activity. However, it is still difficult to achieve the enhanced photocatalytic activity with tunable wavelength. We have designed tunable wavelength enhanced photoelectrochemical cells by tuning the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks, which can be controlled by the aspect ratios of the Au nanorods, for both the cathode with the hydrogen evolution reaction and the anode with the electrooxidation of methanol reaction...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Keiji Fushimi, Nathan C Rockwell, Gen Enomoto, Ni-Ni-Win, Shelley S Martin, Fei Gan, Donald A Bryant, Masahiko Ikeuchi, J Clark Lagarias, Rei Narikawa
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are cyanobacterial photoreceptors that sense near-ultraviolet to far-red light. Like the distantly related phytochromes, all CBCRs reported to date have a conserved Cys residue (the "canonical Cys" or "first Cys") that forms a thioether linkage to C3(1) of the linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore. Detection of ultraviolet, violet, and blue light is performed by at least three subfamilies of two-Cys CBCRs that require both the first Cys and a second Cys that forms a second covalent linkage to C10 of the bilin...
December 9, 2016: Biochemistry
X Li, D Kelly, J M Nolan, J L Dennison, S Beatty
In recent years, manufacturers and distributors have promoted commercially available intraocular lenses (IOLs) with transmittance properties that filter visible short-wavelength (blue) light on the basis of a putative photoprotective effect. Systematic literature review. Out of 21 studies reporting on outcomes following implantation of blue-light-filtering IOLs (involving 8914 patients and 12 919 study eyes undergoing cataract surgery), the primary outcome was vision, sleep pattern, and photoprotection in 9 (42...
December 9, 2016: Eye
Yuske Kobayashi, Ralf Hauptmann, Harald Kratz, Monika Ebert, Susanne Wagner, Matthias Taupitz
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic studies and histological detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) in biomedical research are limited due to a high iron background especially in pathological tissues. OBJECTIVE: The suitability of doping the iron oxide cores of SPIO with europium (Eu) was tested for improved histologic detection and for quantitative analysis without changing their properties as probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A special variant of SPIO, so called very small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP), was used for this approach...
December 2, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Aya Shimomura, Susumu Arima, Makoto Hayashi, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch, Akihiro Suzuki
Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A...
December 9, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lin Li, Sheng Shu, Qing Xu, Ya-Hong An, Jin Sun, Shi-Rong Guo
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), two important signalling molecules, are stimulated in plants by abiotic stresses. In this study, we investigated the role of NO and its interplay with H2 O2 in the response of self-grafted and salt-tolerant pumpkin-grafted (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) cucumber seedlings to 80 mM Ca(NO3 )2 stress. Endogenous NO and H2 O2 production in self-grafted seedlings increased in a time-dependent manner, reaching maximum levels after 24 h of Ca(NO3 )2 stress. In contrast, a transient increase in NO production, accompanied by H2 O2 accumulation, was observed at 2 h in rootstock-grafted plants...
December 9, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Sally M Yacout, Elizabeth R Gaillard
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly metabolic layer of post-mitotic cells lining the Bruch's membrane in the retina. While these cells contain endogenous photosensitizers that mediate blue light induced damage, it has also been shown that blue light exposure damages mitochondrial DNA in RPE cells resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and unregulated generation of reactive oxygen species. As RPE cells are post-mitotic, it is imperative to decrease oxidative stress to these cells and preserve function...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Hongwen Huang, Mei Liu, Jing Li, Laihao Luo, Jiangtao Zhao, Zhenlin Luo, Xiaoping Wang, Zhizhen Ye, Haiping He, Jie Zeng
We report a room-temperature colloidal synthesis of few-unit-cell-thick CsPbBr3 QWs with lengths over a hundred nanometers. The surfactant-directed oriented attachment growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of such CsPbBr3 QWs. Owing to the strong quantum confinement effect, the photoluminescence (PL) emission peak of few-unit-cell-thick CsPbBr3 QWs blue-shifted to 430 nm. The ensemble PL quantum yield (PLQY) of the few-unit-cell-thick CsPbBr3 QWs increased to 21.13% through a simple heat-treatment process...
December 9, 2016: Nanoscale
Hoi Ling Luk, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Fabio Montisci, James M Morrow, Federico Melaccio, Akimori Wada, Mudi Sheves, Francesca Fanelli, Belinda S W Chang, Massimo Olivucci
Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the most ancient lakes in the world. Its unique ecology has resulted in the colonization of a diversity of depth habitats by a unique fauna that includes a group of teleost fish of the sub-order Cottoidei. This relatively recent radiation of cottoid fishes shows a gradual blue-shift in the wavelength of the absorption maximum of their visual pigments with increasing habitat depth. Here we combine homology modeling and quantum chemical calculations with experimental in vitro measurements of rhodopsins to investigate dim-light adaptation...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Kummu, J H A Guillaume, H de Moel, S Eisner, M Flörke, M Porkka, S Siebert, T I E Veldkamp, P J Ward
Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20(th) century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Inga Möller, Rajmohan Murali, Hansgeorg Müller, Thomas Wiesner, Louise A Jackett, Simone L Scholz, Ioana Cosgarea, Johannes Ap van de Nes, Antje Sucker, Uwe Hillen, Bastian Schilling, Annette Paschen, Heinz Kutzner, Arno Rütten, Martin Böckers, Richard A Scolyer, Dirk Schadendorf, Klaus G Griewank
Blue nevi are common melanocytic tumors arising in the dermal layer of the skin. Similar to uveal melanomas, blue nevi frequently harbor GNAQ and GNA11 mutations. Recently, recurrent CYSLTR2 and PLCB4 mutations were identified in uveal melanomas not harboring GNAQ or GNA11 mutations. All four genes (GNAQ, GNA11, CYSLTR2, and PLCB4) code for proteins involved in the same signaling pathway, which is activated by mutations in these genes. Given the related functional consequences of these mutations and the known genetic similarities between uveal melanoma and blue nevi, we analyzed a cohort of blue nevi to investigate whether CYSLTR2 and PLCB4 mutations occur in tumors lacking GNAQ or GNA11 mutations (as in uveal melanoma)...
December 9, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
J P Lyon, C R Carvalho, R R Rezende, C J Lima, F V Santos, L M Moreira
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proved to be effective against fungi and it may be employed as a coadjutant to conventional antifungal agents, leading to a more effective microbial control minimising side effects. This work evaluates the combined effect of PDT and fluconazole against resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. The yeasts were submitted to methylene blue-PDT (MB-PDT) in sub-inhibitory concentrations. In the present work, MB-PDT combined with fluconazole was more efficient in the inhibition of the C...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
A J Kindo, A Tupaki-Sreepurna, M Yuvaraj
AIM: Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Juan I Fuxman Bass, John S Reece-Hoyes, Albertha J M Walhout
In this protocol, we present a qualitative assay for monitoring the level of expression of β-galactosidase, an enzyme encoded by the LacZ gene, in yeast. This is useful both for determining autoactivity of LacZ expression in yeast DNA "bait" strains and for assessing LacZ reporter gene activation mediated by a transcription factor "prey" interaction with a DNA bait of interest in yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assays. In this colorimetric assay, yeast are lysed in liquid nitrogen and then assayed for β-galactosidase expression using the colorless compound X-gal, which turns blue in the presence of this enzyme...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Juan I Fuxman Bass, John S Reece-Hoyes, Albertha J M Walhout
Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assays are used to identify which transcription factor (TF) "prey" molecules can bind a DNA fragment of interest that is used as "bait". Y1H assays involve introducing plasmids that encode TFs into a yeast "bait strain" in which the DNA fragment of interest is integrated upstream of one or more reporters, and activation of these reporters indicates that a TF-DNA interaction has occurred. These plasmids express each TF as a hybrid protein (hence the "one-hybrid" name) fused to the activation domain (AD) of the yeast TF Gal4...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Juan I Fuxman Bass, John S Reece-Hoyes, Albertha J M Walhout
Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assays are used to identify which transcription factor (TF) "preys" can bind a DNA fragment of interest that is used as the "bait." Undertaking Y1H assays requires the generation of a yeast "bait strain" for each DNA fragment of interest that features the DNA bait coupled to a reporter(s). Plasmids encoding TFs fused to the Gal4 activation domain (AD) are then introduced into the bait strain, and activation of the reporter(s) indicates that a TF-DNA interaction has occurred. Here, we present a protocol for the first part of the strategy-the generation of a bait strain for Y1H assays...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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