Read by QxMD icon Read

String theory

Athanasios Ch Mitropoulos, Evangelos P Favvas, Konstantinos L Stefanopoulos, Etienne F Vansant
Everett's theorem-6 of the domain theory was examined by conducting adsorption in situ with small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) supplemented by the contrast matching technique. The study focuses on the spectrum differences of a point to which the system arrives from different scanning paths. It is noted that according to this theorem at a common point the system has similar macroscopic properties. Furthermore it was examined the memory string of the system. We concluded that opposite to theorem-6: a) at a common point the system can reach in a finite (not an infinite) number of ways, b) a correction for the thickness of the adsorbed film prior to capillary condensation is necessary, and c) the scattering curves although at high-Q values coincide, at low-Q values are different indicating different microscopic states...
2016: PloS One
Carleigh B Krubiner, Maria W Merritt
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) present a promising approach to simultaneously tackle chronic poverty and poor health. While these programmes clearly embody beneficent aims, questions remain regarding the ethical design of CCTs. Limited guidance exists for the ethical evaluation of the defining feature of these programmes: the conditionalities. Drawing upon prominent public health ethics frameworks and social justice theories, this paper outlines five categories of morally relevant considerations that CCT programme designers should consider when assessing which behaviours or outcomes they select as conditionalities for payment: (1) likelihood of yielding desired health outcomes, (2) risks and burdens, (3) receptivity, (4) attainability and (5) indirect impacts and externalities...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Ravini Jayawardena, Heather Winskel
The current study aimed to test the applicability of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Sinhalese native speakers (Experiment 2), who were skilled readers of both Sinhala and Roman scripts. A two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Sinhala letters or symbols was conducted. For Roman script, the English and Sinhalese speakers displayed analogous results as in previous studies for Roman letters and symbols (i...
September 23, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Robert J Robbins, Leonard Krishtalka, John C Wooley
BACKGROUND: Efforts to harmonize genomic data standards used by the biodiversity and metagenomic research communities have shown that prokaryotic data cannot be understood or represented in a traditional, classical biological context for conceptual reasons, not technical ones. RESULTS: Biology, like physics, has a fundamental duality-the classical macroscale eukaryotic realm vs. the quantum microscale microbial realm-with the two realms differing profoundly, and counter-intuitively, from one another...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Wei Song, Qiang Wen, Jianfei Xu
For spacetimes that are not asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (non AAdS) space, we adapt the Lewkowycz-Maldacena procedure to find the holographic entanglement entropy. The key observation, which to our knowledge is not very well appreciated, is that asymptotic boundary conditions play an essential role on extending the replica trick to the bulk. For non AAdS, we expect the following three main modifications: (1) the expansion near the special surface has to be compatible with the asymptotic expansion; (2) periodic conditions are imposed to coordinates on the phase space with diagonalized symplectic structure, not to all fields appearing in the action; (3) evaluating the entanglement functional using the boundary term method amounts to evaluating the presymplectic structure at the special surface, where some additional exact form may contribute...
July 1, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jun Li, Fu-Kuo Chiang, Zhen Chen, Chao Ma, Ming-Wen Chu, Cheng-Hsuan Chen, Huanfang Tian, Huaixin Yang, Jianqi Li
Essential structural properties of the non-trivial "string-wall-bounded" topological defects in hexagonal manganites are studied through homotopy group theory and spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The appearance of a "string-wall-bounded" configuration in RMnO3 is shown to be strongly linked with the transformation of the degeneracy space. The defect core regions (~50 Å) mainly adopt the continuous U(1) symmetry of the high-temperature phase, which is essential for the formation and proliferation of vortices...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bagavathy Shanmugam Karthikeyan, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha, Subbiah Parthasarathy
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that degrade xenobiotics play a critical role in the metabolism and biotransformation of drugs and xenobiotics in humans as well as experimental animal models such as mouse and rat. These proteins function as a network collectively as well as independently. Though there are several reports on the organization, regulation and functionality of various CYP enzymes at the molecular level, the understanding of organization and functionality of these proteins at the holistic level remain unclear...
June 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Fabian Maucher, Paul Sutcliffe
We introduce and illustrate a new approach to the unknotting problem via the dynamics of vortex strings in a nonlinear partial differential equation of reaction-diffusion type. To untangle a given knot, a Biot-Savart construction is used to initialize the knot as a vortex string in the FitzHugh-Nagumo equation. Remarkably, we find that the subsequent evolution preserves the topology of the knot and can untangle an unknot into a circle. Illustrative test case examples are presented, including the untangling of a hard unknot known as the culprit...
April 29, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Qing Wang, Changhou Lu, Ran Huang, Wei Pan, Xueyong Li
Yarn tension is an important parameter for assuring textile quality. In this paper, an optical method to measure microtension of moving yarn automatically in the winding system is proposed. The proposed method can measure microtension of the moving yarn by analyzing the captured images. With a line laser illuminating the moving yarn, a linear array CCD camera is used to capture the images. Design principles of yarn microtension measuring equipment based on computer vision are presented. A local border difference algorithm is used to search the upper border of the moving yarn as the characteristic line, and Fourier descriptors are used to filter the high-frequency noises caused by unevenness of the yarn diameter...
March 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Amit Samanta, Miguel A Morales, Eric Schwegler
Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Hitoshi Koyano, Morihiro Hayashida, Tatsuya Akutsu
Numbers and numerical vectors account for a large portion of data. However, recently, the amount of string data generated has increased dramatically. Consequently, classifying string data is a common problem in many fields. The most widely used approach to this problem is to convert strings into numerical vectors using string kernels and subsequently apply a support vector machine that works in a numerical vector space. However, this non-one-to-one conversion involves a loss of information and makes it impossible to evaluate, using probability theory, the generalization error of a learning machine, considering that the given data to train and test the machine are strings generated according to probability laws...
March 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Iosif Bena, Mariana Graña, Stanislav Kuperstein, Praxitelis Ntokos, Michela Petrini
A common way to obtain standard-model-like Lagrangians in string theory is to place D3-branes inside flux compactifications. The bosonic and fermionic masses and couplings of the resulting gauge theory are determined by the ten-dimensional metric and the fluxes, respectively, and the breaking of supersymmetry is soft. However, not any soft-supersymmetry-breaking Lagrangian can be obtained this way since the string theory equations of motion impose certain relations between the soft couplings. We show that for D3-branes in background fluxes, these relations imply that the sums of the squares of the boson and of the fermion masses are equal and that, furthermore, one- and two-loop quantum corrections do not spoil this equality...
April 8, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Yacine Ikhlef, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen, Hubert Saleur
The possibility of extending the Liouville conformal field theory from values of the central charge c≥25 to c≤1 has been debated for many years in condensed matter physics as well as in string theory. It was only recently proven that such an extension-involving a real spectrum of critical exponents as well as an analytic continuation of the Dorn-Otto-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov formula for three-point couplings-does give rise to a consistent theory. We show in this Letter that this theory can be interpreted in terms of microscopic loop models...
April 1, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Ning Yu, Xuan Guo, Feng Gu, Yi Pan
Conventional character-analysis-based techniques in genome analysis manifest three main shortcomings-inefficiency, inflexibility, and incompatibility. In our previous research, a general framework, called DNA As X was proposed for character-analysis-free techniques to overcome these shortcomings, where X is the intermediates, such as digit, code, signal, vector, tree, graph network, and so on. In this paper, we further implement an ontology of DNA As Signal, by designing a tool named Signalign for comparative gene structure analysis, in which DNA sequences are converted into signal series, processed by modified method of dynamic time warping and measured by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)...
March 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
R Haghshenas, A Langari, A T Rezakhani
The phase diagram of the quantum compass ladder model is investigated through numerical density matrix renormalization group based on infinite matrix product state algorithm and analytic effective perturbation theory. For this model we obtain two symmetry-protected topological phases, protected by a Z2 × Z2 symmetry, and a topologically-trivial Z2-symmetry-breaking phase. The symmetry-protected topological phases--labeled by symmetry fractionalization--belong to different topological classes, where the complex-conjugate symmetry uniquely distinguishes them...
May 5, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jannika De Rubeis, Stefan Sütterlin, Diane Lange, Markus Pawelzik, Annette van Randenborgh, Daniela Victor, Claus Vögele
Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45)...
2016: PloS One
Stefano Martiniani, K Julian Schrenk, Jacob D Stevenson, David J Wales, Daan Frenkel
We present a numerical calculation of the total number of disordered jammed configurations Ω of N repulsive, three-dimensional spheres in a fixed volume V. To make these calculations tractable, we increase the computational efficiency of the approach of Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.245502] and Asenjo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.098002] and we extend the method to allow computation of the configurational entropy as a function of pressure...
January 2016: Physical Review. E
V Avetisov, A Gorsky, S Nechaev, O Valba
We consider an equilibrium ensemble of large Erdős-Renyi topological random networks with fixed vertex degree and two types of vertices, black and white, prepared randomly with the bond connection probability p. The network energy is a sum of all unicolor triples (either black or white), weighted with chemical potential of triples μ. Minimizing the system energy, we see for some positive μ the formation of two predominantly unicolor clusters, linked by a string of N_{bw} black-white bonds. We have demonstrated that the system exhibits critical behavior manifested in the emergence of a wide plateau on the N_{bw}(μ) curve, which is relevant to a spinodal decomposition in first-order phase transitions...
January 2016: Physical Review. E
F Anvari Vind, A Foerster, I S Oliveira, R S Sarthour, D O Soares-Pinto, A M Souza, I Roditi
The Yang-Baxter equation is an important tool in theoretical physics, with many applications in different domains that span from condensed matter to string theory. Recently, the interest on the equation has increased due to its connection to quantum information processing. It has been shown that the Yang-Baxter equation is closely related to quantum entanglement and quantum computation. Therefore, owing to the broad relevance of this equation, besides theoretical studies, it also became significant to pursue its experimental implementation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Asimina Arvanitaki, Savas Dimopoulos, Ken Van Tilburg
The fine-structure constant and the electron mass in string theory are determined by the values of scalar fields called moduli. If the dark matter takes on the form of such a light modulus, it oscillates with a frequency equal to its mass and an amplitude determined by the local dark-matter density. This translates into an oscillation of the size of a solid that can be observed by resonant-mass antennas. Existing and planned experiments, combined with a dedicated resonant-mass detector proposed in this Letter, can probe dark-matter moduli with frequencies between 1 kHz and 1 GHz, with much better sensitivity than searches for fifth forces...
January 22, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"