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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294712/frequency-and-chunking-in-derived-words-a-parametric-fmri-study
#1
Alice Blumenthal-Dramé, Volkmar Glauche, Tobias Bormann, Cornelius Weiller, Mariacristina Musso, Bernd Kortmann
In usage-based linguistic theories, the assumption that high-frequency language strings are mentally represented as unitary chunks has been invoked to account for a wide range of phenomena. However, neurocognitive evidence in support of this assumption is still lacking. In line with Gestalt psychological assumptions, we propose that a language string qualifies as a chunk if the following two conditions are simultaneously satisfied: The perception of the whole string does not involve strong activation of its individual component parts, but the component parts in isolation strongly evoke the whole...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275766/minimum-free-energy-paths-for-the-self-organization-of-polymer-brushes
#2
Ignacio Gleria, Esteban Mocskos, Mario Tagliazucchi
A methodology to calculate minimum free-energy paths based on the combination of a molecular theory and the improved string method is introduced and applied to study the self-organization of polymer brushes under poor solvent conditions. Polymer brushes in a poor solvent cannot undergo macroscopic phase separation due to the physical constraint imposed by the grafting points; therefore, they microphase separate forming aggregates. Under some conditions, the theory predicts that the homogeneous brush and the aggregates can exist as two different minima of the free energy...
March 9, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250099/computing-exponentially-faster-implementing-a-non-deterministic-universal-turing-machine-using-dna
#3
Andrew Currin, Konstantin Korovin, Maria Ababi, Katherine Roper, Douglas B Kell, Philip J Day, Ross D King
The theory of computer science is based around universal Turing machines (UTMs): abstract machines able to execute all possible algorithms. Modern digital computers are physical embodiments of classical UTMs. For the most important class of problem in computer science, non-deterministic polynomial complete problems, non-deterministic UTMs (NUTMs) are theoretically exponentially faster than both classical UTMs and quantum mechanical UTMs (QUTMs). However, no attempt has previously been made to build an NUTM, and their construction has been regarded as impossible...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243670/narrative-review-of-frameworks-for-translating-research-evidence-into-policy-and-practice
#4
Andrew J Milat, Ben Li
BACKGROUND: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. METHODS: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207632/are-we-ready-for-epitope-based-hla-matching-in-clinical-organ-transplantation
#5
Rene J Duquesnoy
This overview describes recent developments demonstrating the significance of epitopes in HLA antibody responses and matching for organ transplantation. HLA epitopes are defined by molecular modeling and amino acid comparisons between HLA alleles and the HLAMatchmaker algorithm considers eplets as essential components. Each allele represents a distinct string of eplets and matching is done by aligning donor and recipient strings. Evidence is summarized how mismatched eplet loads affect antibody responses and transplant outcomes...
February 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155662/an-ensemble-micro-neural-network-approach-for-elucidating-interactions-between-zinc-finger-proteins-and-their-target-dna
#6
Shayoni Dutta, Spandan Madan, Harsh Parikh, Durai Sundar
BACKGROUND: The ability to engineer zinc finger proteins binding to a DNA sequence of choice is essential for targeted genome editing to be possible. Experimental techniques and molecular docking have been successful in predicting protein-DNA interactions, however, they are highly time and resource intensive. Here, we present a novel algorithm designed for high throughput prediction of optimal zinc finger protein for 9 bp DNA sequences of choice. In accordance with the principles of information theory, a subset identified by using K-means clustering was used as a representative for the space of all possible 9 bp DNA sequences...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141523/the-plausibility-of-a-string-quartet-performance-in-virtual-reality
#7
Ilias Bergstrom, Sergio Azevedo, Panos Papiotis, Nuno Saldanha, Mel Slater
We describe an experiment that explores the contribution of auditory and other features to the illusion of plausibility in a virtual environment that depicts the performance of a string quartet. 'Plausibility' refers to the component of presence that is the illusion that the perceived events in the virtual environment are really happening. The features studied were: Gaze (the musicians ignored the participant, the musicians sometimes looked towards and followed the participant's movements), Sound Spatialization (Mono, Stereo, Spatial), Auralization (no sound reflections, reflections corresponding to a room larger than the one perceived, reflections that exactly matched the virtual room), and Environment (no sound from outside of the room, birdsong and wind corresponding to the outside scene)...
January 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128622/search-for-an-ultralight-scalar-dark-matter-candidate-with-the-auriga-detector
#8
Antonio Branca, Michele Bonaldi, Massimo Cerdonio, Livia Conti, Paolo Falferi, Francesco Marin, Renato Mezzena, Antonello Ortolan, Giovanni A Prodi, Luca Taffarello, Gabriele Vedovato, Andrea Vinante, Stefano Vitale, Jean-Pierre Zendri
A search for a new scalar field, called moduli, has been performed using the cryogenic resonant-mass AURIGA detector. Predicted by string theory, moduli may provide a significant contribution to the dark matter (DM) component of our Universe. If this is the case, the interaction of ordinary matter with the local DM moduli, forming the Galaxy halo, will cause an oscillation of solid bodies with a frequency corresponding to the mass of moduli. In the sensitive band of AURIGA, some 100 Hz at around 1 kHz, the expected signal, with Q=△f/f∼10^{6}, is a narrow peak, △f∼1  mHz...
January 13, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121936/fatal-remote-cerebellar-hemorrhage-after-supratentorial-unruptured-aneurysm-surgery-in-patient-with-previous-cerebellar-infarction-a-case-report
#9
Eun-Jeong Koh, Jung-Soo Park
RATIONALE: Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is a rare complication of supratentorial and spinal surgeries, seldom requiring intervention but occasionally causing significant morbidity or even mortality. Although a number of theories have been proposed, the exact pathophysiology of RCH remains incompletely understood. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 62-year-old patient with RCH encountered following surgical clipping of an unruptured middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm in a patient with previous cerebellar infarction...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106446/exacerbating-the-cosmological-constant-problem-with-interacting-dark-energy-models
#10
M C David Marsh
Future cosmological surveys will probe the expansion history of the Universe and constrain phenomenological models of dark energy. Such models do not address the fine-tuning problem of the vacuum energy, i.e., the cosmological constant problem (CCP), but can make it spectacularly worse. We show that this is the case for "interacting dark energy" models in which the masses of the dark matter states depend on the dark energy sector. If realized in nature, these models have far-reaching implications for proposed solutions to the CCP that require the number of vacua to exceed the fine-tuning of the vacuum energy density...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101923/how-suboptimal-is-suboptimal-choice
#11
Jay E Hinnenkamp, Timothy A Shahan, Gregory J Madden
In a frequently used suboptimal-choice procedure pigeons choose between an alternative that delivers three food pellets with p = 1.0 and an alternative that delivers ten pellets with p = 0.2. Because pigeons reliably choose the probabilistic (suboptimal) alternative, the procedure has been proposed as a nonhuman analog of human gambling. The present experiments were conducted to evaluate two potential threats to the validity of this procedure. Experiments 1 and 2 evaluated if pigeons obtained food at a lower unit price (i...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054814/entrainment-to-an-auditory-signal-is-attention-involved
#12
Richard Kunert, Suzanne R Jongman
Many natural auditory signals, including music and language, change periodically. The effect of such auditory rhythms on the brain is unclear however. One widely held view, dynamic attending theory, proposes that the attentional system entrains to the rhythm and increases attention at moments of rhythmic salience. In support, 2 experiments reported here show reduced response times to visual letter strings shown at auditory rhythm peaks, compared with rhythm troughs. However, we argue that an account invoking the entrainment of general attention should further predict rhythm entrainment to also influence memory for visual stimuli...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036207/new-solutions-for-non-abelian-cosmic-strings
#13
Mark Hindmarsh, Kari Rummukainen, David J Weir
We study the properties of classical vortex solutions in a non-Abelian gauge theory. A system of two adjoint Higgs fields breaks the SU(2) gauge symmetry to Z_{2}, producing 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles trapped on cosmic strings, termed beads; there are two charges of monopole and two degenerate string solutions. The strings break an accidental discrete Z_{2} symmetry of the theory, explaining the degeneracy of the ground state. Further symmetries of the model, not previously appreciated, emerge when the masses of the two adjoint Higgs fields are degenerate...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028716/evaluation-of-the-health-status-of-six-volunteers-from-the-mars-500-project-using-pulse-analysis
#14
Hong-Zhi Shi, Quan-Chun Fan, Jian-Yi Gao, Jun-Lian Liu, Gui-E Bai, Tao Mi, Shuang Zhao, Yu Liu, Dong Xu, Zhi-Feng Guo, Yong-Zhi Li
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the health status of 6 volunteers from the Mars 500 Project through analyzing their pulse graphs and determining the changes in cardiovascular function, degree of fatigue and autonomic nervous function. METHODS: Six volunteers were recruited; all were male aged 26-38 years (average 31.83±4.96 years). Characteristic parameters reflflecting the status of cardiovascular functions were extracted, which included left ventricular contraction, vascular elasticity and peripheral resistance...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009201/loops-and-strings-in-a-superconducting-lattice-gauge-simulator
#15
G K Brennen, G Pupillo, E Rico, T M Stace, D Vodola
We propose an architecture for an analog quantum simulator of electromagnetism in 2+1 dimensions, based on an array of superconducting fluxonium devices. The encoding is in the integer (spin-1) representation of the quantum link model formulation of compact U(1) lattice gauge theory. We show how to engineer Gauss' law via an ancilla mediated gadget construction, and how to tune between the strongly coupled and intermediately coupled regimes. The witnesses to the existence of the predicted confining phase of the model are provided by nonlocal order parameters from Wilson loops and disorder parameters from 't Hooft strings...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997192/stabilization-and-antifouling-of-polymer-films-on-a-planar-surface-by-co2-pressurization
#16
Xiaofei Xu, Yibing Dai
In this article, we study the dewetting phenomenon of a polymer and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixture on a planar surface by combining density functional theory and the string method. It is found that dewetting is a first-order discontinuous phase transition. When the pressure is lower than the completely dewetting pressure (Pd), CO2 stabilizes the polymer films. The density fluctuation of the polymer decreases significantly with the inclusion of CO2. When the pressure is above Pd, the polymer film is depleted far away from the surface, leaving a thick layer of pure CO2 in the region near the surface...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982620/one-loop-one-point-functions-in-gauge-gravity-dualities-with-defects
#17
Isak Buhl-Mortensen, Marius de Leeuw, Asger C Ipsen, Charlotte Kristjansen, Matthias Wilhelm
We initiate the calculation of loop corrections to correlation functions in 4D defect conformal field theories (dCFTs). More precisely, we consider N=4 SYM theory with a codimension-one defect separating two regions of space, x_{3}>0 and x_{3}<0, where the gauge group is SU(N) and SU(N-k), respectively. This setup is made possible by some of the real scalar fields acquiring a nonvanishing and x_{3}-dependent vacuum expectation value for x_{3}>0. The holographic dual is the D3-D5 probe brane system where the D5-brane geometry is AdS_{4}×S^{2} and a background gauge field has k units of flux through the S^{2}...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982059/the-role-of-the-unusual-threonine-string-in-the-conversion-of-prion-protein
#18
Romany Abskharon, Fei Wang, Kayla J Vander Stel, Kumar Sinniah, Jiyan Ma
The conversion of normal prion protein (PrP) into pathogenic PrP conformers is central to prion disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. The α-helix 2 of PrP contains a string of four threonines, which is unusual due to the high propensity of threonine to form β-sheets. This structural feature was proposed as the basis for initiating PrP conversion, but experimental results have been conflicting. We studied the role of the threonine string on PrP conversion by analyzing mouse Prnp(a) and Prnp(b) polymorphism that contains a polymorphic residue at the beginning of the threonine string, and PrP mutants in which threonine 191 was replaced by valine, alanine, or proline...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911542/higher-loop-amplitude-monodromy-relations-in-string-and-gauge-theory
#19
Piotr Tourkine, Pierre Vanhove
The monodromy relations in string theory provide a powerful and elegant formalism to understand some of the deepest properties of tree-level field theory amplitudes, like the color-kinematics duality. This duality has been instrumental in tremendous progress on the computations of loop amplitudes in quantum field theory, but a higher-loop generalization of the monodromy construction was lacking. In this Letter, we extend the monodromy relations to higher loops in open string theory. Our construction, based on a contour deformation argument of the open string diagram integrands, leads to new identities that relate planar and nonplanar topologies in string theory...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908056/reconstruction-of-piano-hammer-force-from-string-velocity
#20
Antoine Chaigne
A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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