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breast cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer

Ting Ma, Rui-Ping Wang, Xi Zou
BACKGROUND: As a member of non-coding RNAs family, long non-coding RNAs' functions in cancer needs to be further investigated. It has been indicated that the functions of Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (lncRNA: HOTAIR) include reprogramming chromatin organization and promoting tumor metastasis such as breast and colorectal tumor. The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of Hox in gastric cancer. METHODS: In the present study, the expression level of HOTAIR was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 20 gastric cancer tissues and 20 normal tissues was included...
September 30, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Christopher I McHugh, Jawana M Lawhorn-Crews, Dipenkumar Modi, Kirk A Douglas, Steven K Jones, Thomas J Mangner, Jerry M Collins, Anthony F Shields
BACKGROUND: A principal goal for the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology is for real-time evaluation of tumor response to chemotherapy. Given that many contemporary anti-neoplastic agents function by impairing cellular proliferation, it is of interest to develop imaging modalities to monitor these pathways. Here we examined the effect of capecitabine on the uptake of thymidine analogs used with PET: 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) thymidine ((18)F-FMAU), and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil ((18)F-FAU) in patients with advanced cancer...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Hidehito Horinouchi
The mutation or expression of HER family members serves as a therapeutic target for tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies in diverse cancers, such as non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. HER3, which heterodimerizes with HER1 and HER2, has received much attention as a potential target for anti-EGFR treatment. Patritumab is a novel, fully human monoclonal antibody directed against HER3. Areas covered: In this review article, an overview of the market, chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of patritumab is provided based on data from phase I studies, a combination phase I trial, and a randomized phase II trial comparing two doses of patritumab...
October 17, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Cheng-Chi Chang, Yue-Ju Li, Min-Liang Kuo
CCN family members are involved in many physiologic and pathological functions, and be detected in many different cancer types. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important diagnostic pathology tool to demonstrate protein expression in clinical and research fields. Here, we explain the preparation of sample slides, staining procedure, and the problems that might be met during the time. The differential staining of CCN proteins is shown in breast cancer, oral cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and gastric cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
A Sankiewicz, Z Lukaszewski, K Trojanowska, E Gorodkiewicz
Serum collagen type IV (COLIV) is a promising tumor marker. High COLIV concentrations have been found in the serum of patients with colorectal, gastric, lung, liver and breast cancers. The aim of this work was to develop a biosensor for use with the Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) technique for COLIV determination. The biosensor consists of glass covered with gold and immobilized monoclonal mouse anti-human collagen type IV antibody via cysteamine linker. The biosensor works selectively within a dynamic response range between 10 and 300 ng mL(-1), with LOD 2...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Yosuke Hashimoto, Yumi Kawahigashi, Tomoyuki Hata, Xiangru Li, Akihiro Watari, Minoru Tada, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Yoshiaki Okada, Takefumi Doi, Masayoshi Fukasawa, Hiroki Kuniyasu, Kiyohito Yagi, Masuo Kondoh
Claudin-4 (CLDN-4), a tight-junction protein, is overexpressed in various malignant tumors, including gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancers. However, CLDN-4 is also expressed in normal tissues, including the liver, pancreas, kidney, and small intestine. Whether CLDN-4 is an effective and safe target for cancer therapy has been unclear owing to the lack of a binder with both CLDN-4 specificity and cross-reactivity to human and murine cells. In this study, we successfully generated a rat anti-CLDN-4 monoclonal antibody (5D12) that was specific to, and cross-reactive with, human and mouse CLDN-4...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Zeinab Almasi, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Hamid Salehiniya
PURPOSE: No comprehensive study of cancer incidence and mortality exists in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, mortality and epidemiological aspects of cancers in our country. METHODS: In this study, information of cancer incidence and mortality in Iran was retrieved from International Cancer Registry data and reported by numbers, crude and standardized incidence and mortality rates. Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran were mapped and compared with neighboring countries and the world...
July 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Dimitrios Kaldrymidis, Georgios Papadakis, Georgios Tsakonas, Philippos Kaldrymidis, Theofanis Flaskas, Andreas Seretis, Eleni Pantazi, Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Melpomeni Peppa, Paraskevi Roussou, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
PURPOSE: Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. METHODS: Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12...
July 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Sarah E R Bailey, Obi C Ukoumunne, Elizabeth Shephard, Willie Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Although the association between raised platelet count (thrombocytosis) and cancer has been reported in primary and secondary care studies, UK GPs are unaware of it, and it is insufficiently evidenced for laboratories to identify and warn of it. This systematic review aimed to identify and collate evidence from studies that have investigated thrombocytosis as an early marker of cancer in primary care. METHODS: EMBASE (OvidSP), Medline (Ovid), Web of Science and The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies...
September 28, 2016: Family Practice
Juncheng Dai, Wei Shen, Wanqing Wen, Jiang Chang, Tongmin Wang, Haitao Chen, Guangfu Jin, Hongxia Ma, Chen Wu, Lian Li, Fengju Song, YiXin Zeng, Yue Jiang, Jiaping Chen, Cheng Wang, Meng Zhu, Wen Zhou, Jiangbo Du, Yongbing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Zhibin Hu, Weiping Zhou, Kexin Chen, Jianfeng Xu, Weihua Jia, Dongxin Lin, Wei Zheng, Hongbing Shen
The familial aggregation indicated the inheritance of cancer risk. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Following heritability analyses have shown that SNPs could explain a moderate amount of variance for different cancer phenotypes among Caucasians. However, little information was available in Chinese population. We performed a genome-wide complex trait analysis for common cancers at nine anatomical sites in Chinese population (14,629 cancer cases vs...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
N V Soldatkina, O I Kit, Yu A Gevorkyan, A G Milakin
AIM: to define some clinical characteristics of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation was concerned with the data of 150 patients with T1-4N0-2M0-1 multiple primary CRC. The clinical, biological, and morphological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous tumors were analyzed. RESULTS: Multiple primary tumors were 6.01% of all the cases of CRC. There was a preponderance of synchronous CRC (63...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Sioned Owen, Huishan Zhao, Alwyn Dart, Yamei Wang, Fiona Ruge, Yong Gao, Cong Wei, Yiling Wu, Wen G Jiang
Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is a member of the heat shock protein family which has been linked to tumour progression and, most interestingly, to chemotherapy resistance in cancer patients. The present study examined the potential interplay between HSP27 and YangZheng XiaoJi, a traditional Chinese medicine used in cancer treatment. A range of cell lines from different tumour types including pancreatic, lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer (both wild-type and resistant) were used. Levels and activation of HSP27 and its potential associated signalling pathways were evaluated by protein array and western blotting...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Massimo Mallardo, Carmen Caiazza
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs able to suppress gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs for translational repression or, at lesser extent, degradation. miRNAs are widely expressed in tissues and organs and play fundamental roles in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, cell migration, autophagy and metabolism. Uncontrolled expression of miRNAs has been associated with cancer progression, and miRNA up- or down-regulation has been linked to oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles in cancers such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and glioblastoma...
September 4, 2016: MicroRNA
Xin Wang, Feifei Teng, Li Kong, Jinming Yu
PD-L1 is an immunoinhibitory molecule that suppresses the activation of T cells, leading to the progression of tumors. Overexpression of PD-L1 in cancers such as gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and bladder cancer is associated with poor clinical outcomes. In contrast, PD-L1 expression correlates with better clinical outcomes in breast cancer and merkel cell carcinoma. The prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and melanoma is controversial...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ming-Yen Tsai, Yu-Chiang Hung, Yen-Hao Chen, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Yu-Chuen Huang, Chao-Wei Kao, Yu-Li Su, Hsien-Hsueh Elley Chiu, Kun-Ming Rau
BACKGROUND: Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a popular medicinal mushroom in Taiwan that has been widely used for treatment of various cancers. Few clinical studies have reported its application and efficiency in therapeutic chemotherapy strategies. We performed a double-blind, randomized clinical study to investigate whether AC given for 30 days had acceptable safety and efficacy in advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with advanced and/or metastatic adenocarcinoma, performance status (PS) 0-2, and adequate organ function who had previously been treated with standard chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive routine chemotherapy regimens with AC (20 ml twice daily) orally for 30 days or placebo...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Jasbir Makker, Niraj Karki, Binita Sapkota, Masooma Niazi, Prospere Remy
BACKGROUND Gastroesophageal cancers, previously considered rare, are rapidly increasing worldwide. We present here a unique case of gastroesophageal carcinoma with metastasis to the rectum. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old female patient presented with constipation, bloating, and weight loss of 4-month duration. She had undergone sleeve gastrectomy 6 years before. Endoscopies performed revealed a friable-looking mucosa in the lower esophagus and a polypoid rectal mass. Histopathological examination from both the esophageal and rectal lesions revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Klara Piletič, Tanja Kunej
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that act as important regulators of gene expression as part of the epigenetic machinery. In addition to posttranscriptional gene silencing by miRNAs, the epigenetic mechanisms also include DNA methylation, histone modifications and their crosstalk. Epigenetic modifications were reported to play an important role in many disease onsets and progressions and can be used to explain several features of complex diseases, such as late onset and fluctuation of symptoms. However, miRNAs not only function as a part of epigenetic machinery, but are also epigenetically modified by DNA methylation and histone modification like any other protein-coding gene...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Yasuhiro Tamaki
The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay was initially developed for the intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer. This assay measures cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA copy number and is widely used in hospitals. The results of the IBCSG 23-01, ACOSOG Z0011, and AMAROS trials demonstrated that no further axillary dissection is required for patients with sentinel lymph nodes that tested positive for cancer, which has led to a decreasing trend in the need for intraoperative assessment of lymph nodes...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Mariana C Stern, Laura Fejerman, Rina Das, V Wendy Setiawan, Marcia R Cruz-Correa, Eliseo J Perez-Stable, Jane C Figueiredo
Latinos have lower rates for most common cancer sites and higher rates of some less common cancers (gallbladder, liver, gastric, and cervical) than other ethnic/racial groups. Latinos are a highly heterogeneous population with diverse national origins, unique genetic admixture patterns, and wide spectrum of socio-demographic characteristics. Across the major cancers (breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and liver) US-born Latinos have higher incidence and worse survival than foreign-born, and those with low-socioeconomic status have the lowest incidence...
2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
Paulina Kuczma, Jordi Vidal Fortuny, Saiji Essia, Ariane de Lassus, Philippe Morel, Frédéric Ris
INTRODUCTION: More than 96% of signet-ring cell carcinomas occur in the stomach and the rest in other organs, including the gallbladder, pancreas, urinary bladder and breast. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum is very rare, accounting for 0.1%-2.4% of all colorectal cancers. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 55-year old man who is operated for a caecal mass evocative of an appendicitis abscess. Intraoperatively, we discover a large, ulcerated ilio-caecal mass with several lymphadenopathies...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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