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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340518/prevalence-and-distribution-of-sesamoid-bones-in-the-hand-determined-using-digital-tomosynthesis
#1
Bon San Koo, Yoonah Song, Yoon-Kyoung Sung, Seunghun Lee, Jae-Bum Jun
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and distribution of sesamoid bones in the hand using digital tomosynthesis (DTS) in comparison to previous studies. Using conventional radiography (CR) and DTS, hand images (81 left and 100 right) taken at a tertiary hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The sesamoid bones were identified in the interphalangeal (IP) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the thumb (I), and in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) of index (II), middle (III), ring (IV), and little (V) fingers...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340498/academic-difficulties-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-presence-profile-and-neural-correlates
#2
Leila Glass, Eileen M Moore, Natacha Akshoomoff, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
BACKGROUND: Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. METHODS: Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61)...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340448/structural-correlates-of-creative-thinking-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#3
Pei-Chi Tu, Yi-Hsuan Kuan, Cheng-Ta Li, Tung-Ping Su
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to understand the possible neural mechanism of creative thinking in BD. METHODS: We recruited 59 patients with BD I or BD II (35.3±8.5 y) and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (HCs; 34±7.4 y). Each participant underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of creative thinking, which was assessed using two validated tools: the Chinese version of the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults for divergent thinking and the Chinese Word Remote Associates Test for remote association...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340267/digital-phenotyping-for-quantification-of-genetic-diversity-in-inbred-guava-psidium-guajava-families
#4
W Krause, A P Viana, N R Cavalcante, M Ambrósio, E A Santos, H D Vieira
Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340213/effects-of-alcohol-dependence-severity-on-neural-correlates-of-delay-discounting
#5
Aaron C Lim, Anita Cservenka, Lara A Ray
Aims: The current study examines the relationship between alcohol dependence severity and delay discounting neural activation. Methods: Participants (N = 17; 6 female) completed measures of alcohol use and severity and a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of a delay discounting task. Results: Alcohol dependence severity was negatively associated with activation in superior frontal gyrus during impulsive relative to delayed decisions, and positively associated with activation in paracingulate gyrus and frontal pole in delayed relative to impulsive decisions...
March 18, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340172/repositioning-disulfiram-as-a-radiosensitizer-against-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor
#6
Young Eun Lee, Seung Ah Choi, Pil Ae Kwack, Hak Jae Kim, Il Han Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Sangjoon Chong, Sung-Hye Park, Kyung Duk Park, Do Won Hwang, Kyeung Min Joo, Seung-Ki Kim
Background.: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is one of the most common malignant brain tumors in infants. Although cancer stem cells of AT/RT express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), effective chemotherapies against AT/RT have not been established. Here, we examined radiosensitizing effects of disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH against AT/RT for a novel therapeutic method. Methods.: Patient-derived primary cultured AT/RT cells (SNU.AT/RT-5 and SNU...
March 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340131/interobserver-variability-in-histologic-evaluation-of-liver-fibrosis-using-categorical-and-quantitative-scores
#7
Michael Pavlides, Jacqueline Birks, Eve Fryer, David Delaney, Nikita Sarania, Rajarshi Banerjee, Stefan Neubauer, Eleanor Barnes, Kenneth A Fleming, Lai Mun Wang
Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the interobserver agreement for categorical and quantitative scores of liver fibrosis. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive biopsy specimens from patients with mixed liver disease etiologies were assessed by three pathologists using the Ishak and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) scoring systems, and the fibrosis area (collagen proportionate area [CPA]) was estimated by visual inspection (visual-CPA)...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340098/effect-of-fluoride-releasing-resin-composite-in-white-spot-lesions-prevention-a-single-centre-split-mouth-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Mohannad M Alabdullah, Alaa Nabawia, Mowaffak A Ajaj, Humam Saltaji
Introduction: The objective of this two-arm split-mouth randomized trial, was to evaluate the ability of fluoride-releasing resin composite to prevent demineralization and white spot lesion (WSL) formation, during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: Patients needing comprehensive orthodontic treatment were randomly allocated into two groups, according to the half split-mouth technique. This trial examined a total of 300 teeth in each group: the control group, in which brackets were fixed with a non-fluoride-containing adhesive resin; and the intervention group, in which brackets were fixed with a fluoride-containing adhesive resin...
March 2, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340008/pre-treatment-interleukin-6-levels-strongly-affect-bone-erosion-progression-and-repair-detected-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#9
Yasushi Kondo, Yuko Kaneko, Hiroaki Sugiura, Shunsuke Matsumoto, Naoshi Nishina, Masataka Kuwana, Masahiro Jinzaki, Tsutomu Takeuchi
Objective.: To examine the relationship between MRI structural damage and repair and plasma inflammatory cytokines in patients with RA. Methods.: A total of 88 newly diagnosed, untreated RA patients were enrolled. Contrast MRI of the dominant hand and X-rays of the hands and feet were performed at baseline and 1 year later. MR images were evaluated using RA MRI scoring, and X-ray. were assessed by the modified total Sharp score. Erosion progression was defined as changes in RA MRI scoring erosion or modified total Sharp score erosion of >0...
March 8, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339950/improving-the-quality-of-radiological-examinations-effectiveness-of-an-internal-participatory-approach
#10
Francisco Manuel Batista Mamede, Zenewton André da Silva Gama, Pedro Jesus Saturno-Hernández
Quality problem or issue: To assess the quality of radiological examinations (REs) and to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory continuous improvement approach to ensure best practices in a Portuguese hospital imaging department. Initial assessment: At baseline, we found 232 (10.2%) non-compliances, mostly related to the criteria image centering and framing in chest radiography (CXR), proper use of radiological protection equipment in other conventional RE (CR) and X-ray beam collimation (CXR/CR)...
March 2, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339777/support-system-for-fine-focusing-and-astigmatism-correction-using-an-auditory-signal-in-scanning-electron-microscopy
#11
Eisaku Oho, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Sadao Yamazaki
The current study describes a new support system for fine focusing and near-perfect astigmatism correction for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The signal-to-noise ratio of a series of SEM images obtained from fast scan rates (TV scan) was adopted as a new metric for evaluating focus. Measured signal-to-noise ratio values were converted to an acoustic signal (sound wave frequency) using digital image processing techniques, enabling the SEM user to evaluate image focus using the auditory modality. Accurate focusing and correcting astigmatism in general-purpose SEM is traditionally time-consuming and difficult...
February 24, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339612/orthodontically-induced-cervical-root-resorption-in-humans-is-associated-with-the-amount-of-tooth-movement
#12
Alexander Dudic, Catherine Giannopoulou, Paolo Meda, Xavier Montet, Stavros Kiliaridis
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in the amount of the orthodontically induced cervical root resorption and the association with several factors, such as the amount of tooth displacement, location of tooth in the maxilla or mandible, and presence of an interference that may influence the amount of root resorption. Subjects and methods: This study included 30 subjects (20 females, 10 males) with an age range of 11.3 to 43.0 years...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339603/optimization-of-stem-imaging-conditions-for-cryo-tomography
#13
Kazuhiro Aoyama, Kotaro Nagano, Kaoru Mitsuoka
For three-dimensional analysis of cryo-specimens using tomography at low and medium magnifications, the use of STEM images has some important advantages over TEM. A clear understanding of the electron dose in STEM is essential for optimized cryo-microscopy so a dose estimation technique for STEM imaging has been developed. The STEM convergence angle was shown to have a large impact on the image quality, in particular on the signal-to-noise ratio in the acquired images. Importantly, there is a clear trade-off between good STEM spatial resolution in the images with a large convergence angle and the signal-to-noise ratio, which is improved by reducing the convergence angle as much as possible...
February 9, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339596/health-warning-labels-for-smokeless-tobacco-the-impact-of-graphic-images-on-attention-recall-and-craving
#14
Elizabeth G Klein, Amanda J Quisenberry, Abigail B Shoben, Sarah Cooper, Amy K Ferketich, Micah Berman, Ellen Peters, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. Methods: A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall)...
January 28, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339588/mri-features-predict-survival-and-molecular-markers-in-diffuse-lower-grade-gliomas
#15
Hao Zhou, Martin Vallières, Harrison X Bai, Chang Su, Haiyun Tang, Derek Oldridge, Zishu Zhang, Bo Xiao, Weihua Liao, Yongguang Tao, Jianhua Zhou, Paul Zhang, Li Yang
Background.: Previous studies have shown that MR imaging features can be used to predict survival and molecular profile of glioblastoma. However, no study of a similar type has been performed on lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). Methods.: Presurgical MRIs of 165 patients with diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas (histological grades II and III) were scored according to the Visually Accessible Rembrandt Images (VASARI) annotations. Radiomic models using automated texture analysis and VASARI features were built to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, 1p/19q codeletion status, histological grade, and tumor progression...
January 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339441/the-role-of-the-ligamentum-flavum-area-as-a-morphological-parameter-of-lumbar-central-spinal-stenosis
#16
Young Uk Kim, Jun Young Park, Doo Hwan Kim, Myung-Hwan Karm, Jae-Young Lee, Jee In Yoo, Sung Won Chon, Jeong Hun Suh
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (LF) has been considered as a major cause of lumbar central spinal stenosis (LCSS). Previous studies have found that ligamentum flavum thickness (LFT) is correlated with aging, disc degeneration, and lumbar spinal stenosis. However, hypertrophy is different from thickness. Thus, to evaluate hypertrophy of the whole LF, we devised a new morphological parameter, called the ligamentum flavum area (LFA). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the LFA is a key morphologic parameter in the diagnosis of LCSS...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339428/does-conservative-treatment-change-the-brain-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-a-systematic-review
#17
Jeroen Kregel, Iris Coppieters, Robby DePauw, Anneleen Malfliet, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs, Barbara Cagnie, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is characterized by maladaptive central neuroplastic changes. Many observational studies have demonstrated that chronic pain states are associated with brain alterations regarding structure and/or function. Rehabilitation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain may include cognitive, exercise, or multimodal therapies. OBJECTIVE: The current review aims to provide a constructive overview of the existing literature reporting neural correlates, based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, following conservative treatment in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339403/dopamine-transporter-imaging-has-no-impact-on-functional-outcomes-in-de-novo-probable-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Patrick T Hickey, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Burton Scott, Lisa Gauger, Mark A Stacy
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is among the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions. While motor and non-motor aspects of this disease have been well characterized, no objective biomarker exists to support an accurate clinical diagnosis. However, newer imaging techniques, including [123I]-FP-CIT (DaTSCAN), have demonstrated utility in differentiating between PD and non-neurodegenerative tremor disorders. OBJECTIVE: DaTSCAN has been primarily investigated in situations where diagnostic confusion exists, and in these instances has been shown to significantly impact clinical management...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339357/development-of-a-score-for-assessment-of-radiologic-damage-in-large-vessel-vasculitis-combined-arteritis-damage-score-cards
#19
Daiki Nakagomi, Claire Cousins, Jan Sznajd, Shunsuke Furuta, Aladdin J Mohammad, Raashid Luqmani, David Jayne
OBJECTIVES: Outcome assessment in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) remains challenging and this impairs patient management and the conduct of clinical studies. Previous proposals for outcome tools have not included imaging. This study aimed to develop an imaging score to quantify damage in LVV and to assess the difference between Takayasu (TAK) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: Ninety-six patients (41 TAK, 55 GCA) were identified from local registries at two University Hospitals in the UK...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339312/biomacromolecule-lipid-hybrid-nanoparticles-for-controlled-delivery-of-sorafenib-in-targeting-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapy
#20
Jing Zhang, Tianqi Wang, Shengjun Mu, Livesey D Olerile, Xiaoyue Yu, Na Zhang
AIM: Hybrids composed of various materials are highly versatile for drug delivery in tumor therapy including hepatocellular carcinoma. Herein, a sorafenib (SF)-loaded biomacromolecule hyaluronic acid (HA)/lipid hybrid nanoparticles (HA/SF-cLNS) were developed for targeting drug delivery. MATERIALS & METHODS: In vitro assays determined HA/SF-cLNS release behavior, enzymatic degradation, uptake and cytotoxicity. H22-bearing liver cancer xenograft murine models were used to evaluate the biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy in vivo...
March 24, 2017: Nanomedicine
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