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Apoptosis, cancer

Jianwen Long, Qiqige Menggen, Qimige Wuren, Quan Shi, Xianming Pi
BACKGROUND Malignant melanoma is a class of malignant tumors derived from melanocytes. lncRNAs have been considered as pro-/anti-tumor factors in progression of cancers. The function of lncRNA TUG1 on growth of melanoma was investigated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS The TUG1 and miR-129-5p expression were examined via qRT-PCR. The protein expression was investigated by Western blotting assay. Luciferase reporter assay was used to assess if lncRNA TUG1 can bind to miR-129-5p and if miR-129-5p can target AEG1 mRNA...
March 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jin Ah Cha, Hyo-Sook Song, Beomku Kang, Moon Nyeo Park, Kyoung Sun Park, Sung-Hoon Kim, Bum-Sang Shim, Bonglee Kim
Though Cnidium officinale Makino (COM) was known to have anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer effects, the underlying anticancer mechanism of COM using endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and miRNA remained unclear until now. Thus, in the current study, the inhibitory mechanism of COM in lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) cells was elucidated. COM exerted cytotoxicity in U937 and U266 but not Raw264.7 cells. COM treatment increased the expression of ER stress-related proteins such as p-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), p-eukaryotic initiation factor (p-eIF2α), and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Allison M Weis, Raymond Soto, June L Round
The commensal microbiota influences many aspects of immune system regulation, including T cells, but molecular details of how this occurs are largely unknown. Here we review our findings that the microbiota regulates Erdr1, a secreted apoptotic factor, to control T cell survival. Erdr1 is highly upregulated in CD4+ T cells from germfree mice and antibiotic treated animals, and our study shows that Erdr1 is suppressed by the microbiota via Toll-like receptor signaling and MyD88 dependent pathways. Erdr1 functions in an autocrine fashion and promotes apoptosis through the FAS/FASL pathway...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Xuejiao Song, Tiantao Gao, Qian Lei, Lidan Zhang, Yuqin Yao, Jingyuan Xiong
Malignant melanoma is a devastating skin cancer due to its severe drug resistance and prompt metastasis. Piperlongumine is an anti-inflammation and tumor-suppressing natural product with defined structure. While numerous studies revealed exceptional inhibitory effects of piperlongumine on several carcinomas, few investigations were performed on melanoma. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-tumor effects of piperlongumine on human melanoma cells in vitro, and explored the mechanisms of action...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Isabel Cristina Vieira da Silva, Goran Kaluderovic, Pollyana Felix de Oliveira, Denise Oliveira Guimaraes, Carla Holandino Quaresma, Andrea Porzel, Michelle Frazao Muzitano, Ludger A Wessjohann, Ivana Correa Ramos Leal
The genus Passiflora is knew for food consumption mainly and it extracts present a variety of methabolites, including flavones, alkaloids and triterpenes usually correlated with their antioxidant and antitumoral activities. P. mucronata (Pm) is from Brazil South America and is characterized as "Maracujá de Restinga", being used in the folk medicine for treating insomnia and soothing. The present study evaluated in the first time, the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the hydroalcoholic leaves extract and fractions from Pm...
March 14, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Jitendrakumar Patel, Jitendra Amrutiya, Priyanka Bhatt, Ankit Javia, Mukul Jain, Ambikanandan Misra
Aim of this study was to develop anti EGFR antibody conjugated poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NPs) to target epidermal growth factor receptor, highly expressed on non-small cell lung cancer cells to improve cytotoxicity and site specificity. Cetuximab was conjugated to Docetaxel loaded PLGA NPs by known EDC/NHS chemistry and characterized for size, zeta potential, conjugation efficiency and results were 128.4 ±3.6 nm, -31.0 ± 0.8 mV and 39.77 ± 3.4% respectively. In-vitro release study demonstrated sustained release of drug from NPs with 25% release at pH 5...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Xiaoye Yang, Xiaoqun Shi, Jianbo Ji, Guangxi Zhai
The development of imaging-guided smart drug delivery systems for combinational photodynamic/chemotherapy of the tumor has become highly demanded in oncology. Herein, redox-responsive theranostic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated innovatively using low molecular weight heparin (LWMH) as the backbone. Chlorin e6 (Ce6) and alpha-tocopherol succinate (TOS) were conjugated to LMWH via cystamine as the redox-sensitive linker, forming amphiphilic Ce6-LMWH-TOS (CHT) polymer, which could self-assemble into NPs in water and encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX) inside the inner core (PTX/CHT NPs)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Weinan Guo, Jinyuan Ma, Tianli Pei, Tao Zhao, Sen Guo, Xiuli Yi, Yu Liu, Shiyu Wang, Guannan Zhu, Zhe Jian, Tianwen Gao, Chunying Li, Wenjun Liao, Qiong Shi
Melanoma is the most malignant skin cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. Although innovative therapies such as BRAF inhibitor and immune checkpoint inhibitor have gained remarkable advances, metastatic melanoma remains an incurable disease for its notorious aggressiveness. Therefore, further clarification of the underlying mechanism of melanoma pathogenesis is critical for the improvement of melanoma therapy. Ubiquitination is an important regulatory event for cancer hallmarks and melanoma development, and the deubiquitinating enzymes including ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP) families are greatly implicated in modulating cancer biology...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Nengyi Hou, Zhiyi Guo, Gaoping Zhao, Guiqing Jia, Bin Luo, Xiaogang Shen, Yifeng Bai
MicroRNA-21-3p (miR-21-3p), the passenger strand of pre-mir-21, has been found to be high-expressing in various cancers and to be associated with tumor malignancy, which is proposed as a novel focus in malignant tumors. Colorectal cancer (CRC), currently known as one of the most prevalent malignancy, is a leading cause of cancer death. This study aimed to investigate the key role of miR-21-3p in CRC by inhibiting its expression using transfection with miR-21-3p inhibitors into human CRC HCT116 cells. Results showed that the expression of miR-21-3p was higher than other CRC cells used in the study including Lovo, HT29, Colo320 and SW480 cells, inhibition of which suppressed the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells...
March 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Michelle M J Mens, Mohsen Ghanbari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation...
March 14, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Xun Yuan, Ambikai Gajan, Qian Chu, Hua Xiong, Kongming Wu, Gen Sheng Wu
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily that can initiate the apoptosis pathway by binding to its associated death receptors DR4 and DR5. The activation of the TRAIL pathway in inducing tumor-selective apoptosis leads to the development of TRAIL-based cancer therapies, which include recombinant forms of TRAIL, TRAIL receptor agonists, and other therapeutic agents. Importantly, TRAIL, DR4, and DR5 can all be induced by synthetic and natural agents that activate the TRAIL apoptosis pathway in cancer cells...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Josip Madunić, Maja Antunović, Mladen Paradžik, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Davorka Breljak, Inga Marijanović, Goran Gajski
Apigenin is found in several dietary plant foods such as vegetables and fruits. To investigate potential anticancer properties of apigenin on human breast cancer, ER-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA MB-231 cells were used. Moreover, toxicological safety of apigenin towards normal cells was evaluated in human lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity of apigenin towards cancer cells was evaluated by MTT assay whereas further genotoxic and oxidative stress parameters were measured by comet and lipid peroxidation assays, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Dilip Baral, Long Wu, Gaurav Katwal, Xiong Yan, Yanfeng Wang, Qifa Ye
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common and fatal cancers. It is a multistage and multifactorial carcinoma, in which a number of factors serve roles in its initiation and progression. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), considered to serve a role in various cancers, have recently been identified to have significant contributions to HCC tumorigenesis. Recent studies suggest that snoRNAs have a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCC. Moreover, detailed studies have demonstrated that various snoRNAs are involved in a range of biological processes associated with HCC, including initiation, proliferation, tumor growth, the cell cycle, apoptosis and metastasis...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Masumeh Sanaei, Fraidoon Kavoosi, Ali Valiani, Mohamed Amin Ghobadifar
Background: One of the main causes of mortality is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which accounts for the third leading cause of deaths and one in forty deaths worldwide. The flavonoids, natural antioxidant compounds, account for a major group of polyphenolic compounds. One of the major isoflavones in soybean is genistein (GE) which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. Isoflavones, major type of phenolic materials, derived from dietary plants and medicinal herbs play a significant role in cancer prevention and treatment...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Hyun-Jung Moon, Hak-Bong Kim, Su-Hoon Lee, So-Eun Jeun, Chi-Dug Kang, Sun-Hee Kim
NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) have potential use as anticancer agents, either alone or in combination with other cancer therapies. We found that NSAIDs including celecoxib (CCB) and ibuprofen (IBU) significantly potentiated the cytotoxicity of Hsp90 inhibitors in human multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells expressing high levels of mutant p53 (mutp53) protein and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and reversed Hsp90 inhibitor resistance caused by activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and by up-regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and P-gp...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Tony Tong-Lin Wu, Yat-Ching Tong, I-Hung Chen, Ho-Shan Niu, Yingxiao Li, Juei-Tang Cheng
The therapeutic action of ginsenoside Rh2 on several cancer models has been reported. This study aimed to evaluate its apoptotic effect on prostate cancer and the underlying mechanism. Cultured DU145 cells were treated with Rh2 (5 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-4 M), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) antagonist GSK0660 (1 × 10-6 to 5 × 10-6 M); or small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PPAR-delta. The treatment effects were evaluated with cell viability assay, life/death staining and flow cytometry for apoptosis...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
David W McIlwain, Melissa L Fishel, Alexander Boos, Mark R Kelley, Travis J Jerde
A key feature of prostate cancer progression is the induction and activation of survival proteins, including the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) family member survivin. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that is essential in activating oncogenic transcription factors. Because APE1/Ref-1 is expressed and elevated in prostate cancer, we sought to characterize APE1/Ref-1 expression and activity in human prostate cancer cell lines and determine the effect of selective reduction-oxidation (redox) function inhibition on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo ...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Sujuan Yuan, Tiankui Qiao, Xuan Li, Xibing Zhuang, Wei Chen, Xue Chen, Qi Zhang
Unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine (CpG)-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are synthetic DNA sequences that mimic bacterial DNA, and are known to serve as ligands for Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). The interaction between a CpG ODNs with TLR9 activates the complex downstream cascade that contributes to exerting its function. In the present study, the results of clonogenic assays demonstrated that the activation of TLR9 by CpG ODNs significantly increased the radiosensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells, with a sensitivity enhancement ratio (SER) of 1...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jung Mi Byun, Su Sun Kim, Ki Tae Kim, Mi Seon Kang, Dae Hoon Jeong, Dae Sim Lee, Eun Jung Jung, Young Nam Kim, Jin Han, In Sung Song, Kyoun Bok Lee, Moon Su Sung
Endometrial cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that serve important roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. In the present study, the potential associations between PRDX expression and endometrial cancer were investigated. The expression levels of various PRDX mRNAs were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in endometrial cancer tissues (n=26) and normal endometrial tissues (n=10)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Deyuan Zhu, Wenxi Gao, Zhongmin Zhang
In the present study, the aim was to investigate the role of microRNA-1180 (miR-1180) in the growth and apoptosis of prostate cancer, as well as to identify its direct targets. Initially, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to examine the expression of miR-1180 in the prostate cancer tissues and adjacent normal prostate tissues of 30 patients, as well as in DU145 and RWPE-1 cells. Next, DU145 cells were transfected with miR-1180 mimics, and the expression levels of associated proteins were determined by western blot assay...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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