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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820081/effects-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-on-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-and-hydrogen-excretion-in-rats-and-healthy-humans
#1
Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Kazuhiro Yoshinaga, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780468/design-and-synthesis-of-2-6-di-substituted-phenyl-thiazolo-3-2-b-1-2-4-triazoles-as-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitors-co-relative-pharmacokinetics-and-3d-qsar-and-risk-analysis
#2
Pervaiz Ali Channar, Aamer Saeed, Fayaz Ali Larik, Sajid Rashid, Qaiser Iqbal, Maryam Rozi, Saima Younis, Jamaluddin Mahar
Ten fused heterocyclic derivatives bearing the 2,6-di(subsituted phenyl)thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazoles as central rings were synthesized and structures of the compounds were established by analytical and spectral data using FTIR, EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR techniques. In vitro inhibitory activities of synthesized compounds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and α-burylcholinesterase (α-BuChE) were evaluated using a purified enzyme assays. Compound 5c demonstrated strong and selective α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=1...
August 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763149/three-cases-of-multi-generational-pompe-disease-are-current-practices-missing-diagnostic-and-treatment-opportunities
#3
Paul McIntosh, Stephanie Austin, Jennifer Sullivan, Lauren Bailey, Carrie Bailey, David Viskochil, Priya S Kishnani
Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II, GSDII, or acid maltase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive metabolic myopathy with a broad clinical spectrum, ranging from infantile to late-onset presentations. In 2015, Pompe disease was added as a core condition to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for state newborn screening (NBS). The clinical importance of Pompe disease is evolving with the use of NBS, increasing awareness of the disease, and higher than previously reported disease prevalence; however, current practices miss additional diagnostic and potential treatment opportunities in close relatives of the family proband...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727166/hepatocytes-contribute-to-residual-glucose-production-in-a-mouse-model-for-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia
#4
Brenda S Hijmans, Andreas Boss, Theo H van Dijk, Maud Soty, Henk Wolters, Elodie Mutel, Albert K Groen, Terry G J Derks, Gilles Mithieux, Arend Heerschap, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Fabienne Rajas, Maaike H Oosterveer
It is a longstanding enigma how glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I patients retain a limited capacity for endogenous glucose production (EGP) despite the loss of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity. Insight into the source of residual EGP is of clinical importance given the risk of sudden death in these patients, but so far contradictory mechanisms have been proposed. We investigated G6Pase-independent EGP in hepatocytes isolated from a liver-specific GSD Ia mouse model (L-G6pc(-/-) mice), and performed real-time analysis of hepatic glucose fluxes and glycogen metabolism in L-G6pc(-/-) mice using state-of-the-art stable isotope methodologies...
July 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#5
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726400/quinoliniumolate-and-2h-1-2-3-triazole-derivatives-from-the-stems-of-paramignya-trimera-and-their-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-activities-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#6
Nhan T Nguyen, Phu H Dang, Ngoc X T Vu, Tho H Le, Mai T T Nguyen
From a CHCl3-soluble extract of the stems of Paramignya trimera, two new alkaloids, (E)-2-(prop-1-enyl)-N-methylquinolinium-4-olate (1) and (R)-2-ethylhexyl 2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate (2), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data interpretation. Compound 2 possesses α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 137.9 μM. Molecular docking studies of 1 and 2 with human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) were performed for the first time; thus, the 2,3-diH(+)-1H-1,2,3-triazolium cation (2i) showed good interactions with both MGAM-N (2QMJ) and -C (3TOP) terminal subunits...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722496/lamesticumin-g-a-new-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-from-the-fruit-peels-of-lansium-parasiticum
#7
Thammatee Potipiranun, Wisuttaya Worawalai, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan
A novel onoceranoid triterpene, named lamesticumin G (1) along with four known compounds (2-5) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit peels of Lansium parasiticum. The structure of lamesticumin G (1) was fully characterised using spectroscopic data. Lamesticumin G (1) inhibited α-glucosidase (maltase) with IC50 value of 2.27 mM, while 2-5 showed no inhibition.
July 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722261/dietary-rice-improves-growth-performance-mucosal-enzyme-activities-and-plasma-urea-nitrogen-in-weaning-piglets
#8
Kazuki Yagami, Ryozo Takada
In this study, we evaluated the nutritional functions of rice for weaning piglets. Sixteen weaning piglets with an average initial weight of 7.2 kg were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and the other was fed a rice-soybean meal based diet, containing 50% corn and rice, respectively. A 2 weeks growth trial was conducted and growth performance, intestinal mucosal enzyme activities and plasma urea nitrogen were measured. The average daily gain in rice-fed piglets was significantly higher than that in corn-fed piglets and the average daily feed intake tended to be higher in rice-fed piglets than in corn-fed piglets...
July 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659733/attenuation-of-postprandial-blood-glucose-in-humans-consuming-isomaltodextrin-carbohydrate-loading-studies
#9
Tsuyoshi Sadakiyo, Yuki Ishida, Shin-Ichiro Inoue, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Takeo Sakurai, Ryodai Takagaki, Mayumi Kurose, Tetsuya Mori, Akiko Yasuda-Yamashita, Hitoshi Mitsuzumi, Michio Kubota, Hikaru Watanabe, Shigeharu Fukuda
Background: Isomaltodextrin (IMD) is a novel highly branched α-glucan and its function as a soluble dietary fiber is expected. Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMD on postprandial glucose excursions in healthy people and to make the mechanism clear. Design: Twenty-nine subjects ingested a solution containing maltodextrin (MD) or sucrose with or without IMD. Fourteen subjects ingested a solution containing glucose with or without IMD. Blood glucose concentrations were then compared between the groups...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#10
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618651/modulatory-effects-of-caralluma-fimbriata-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-abnormalities-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-wistar-rats
#11
Sudhakara Gujjala, Mallaiah Putakala, Srinivasulu Nukala, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Ramaswamy Rajendran, Saralakumari Desireddy
The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603839/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-in-broiler-diets
#12
J Pandi, P Glatz, R Forder, B Komolong, K Chousalkar
Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576440/photometric-assay-of-maltose-and-maltose-forming-enzyme-activity-by-using-4-alpha-glucanotransferase-dpe2-from-higher-plants
#13
Julia Smirnova, Alisdair R Fernie, Christian C M Spahn, Martin Steup
Maltose frequently occurs as intermediate of the central carbon metabolism of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Various mutants possess elevated maltose levels. Maltose exists as two anomers, (α- and β-form) which are rapidly interconverted without requiring enzyme-mediated catalysis. As maltose is often abundant together with other oligoglucans, selective quantification is essential. In this communication, we present a photometric maltose assay using 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (AtDPE2) from Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 31, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568243/rethinking-the-starch-digestion-hypothesis-for-amy1-copy-number-variation-in-humans
#14
EDITORIAL
Catalina I Fernández, Andrea S Wiley
Alpha-amylase exists across taxonomic kingdoms with a deep evolutionary history of gene duplications that resulted in several α-amylase paralogs. Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) exists in many taxa, but among primates, humans appear to have higher average AMY1 copies than nonhuman primates. Additionally, AMY1 CNV in humans has been associated with starch content of diets, and one known function of α-amylase is its involvement in starch digestion. Thus high AMY1 CNV is considered to result from selection favoring more efficient starch digestion in the Homo lineage...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547997/effect-of-purine-nucleosides-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-digestive-enzymes-serum-profile-and-immune-response-in-broiler-chickens
#15
A Daneshmand, Hassan Kermanshahi, M Danesh Mesgaran, A J King, S A Ibrahim
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, intestinal enzymes and immunity functions in broiler chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 360 1-d-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replications. Experimental diets consisted of a control without any additives and diets containing 0.1% pure adenosine, 0.1% pure guanosine and 0.1% equal aliquots of pure adenosine and guanosine. Two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were killed on d 11 and 21 in order to obtain serum samples for lipid profile, jejunal samples for morphology and mucosal immunity, digestive enzymes for epithelial maturation, and bursa and spleen samples for relative weight of immune organs to live body weight...
June 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540171/flavanols-from-the-camellia-sinensis-var-assamica-and-their-hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-activities
#16
Xin Wang, Quan Liu, Hongbo Zhu, Hongqing Wang, Jie Kang, Zhufang Shen, Ruoyun Chen
α-Glucosidase and lipase inhibitors play important roles in the treatment of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia. To identify novel naturally occurring inhibitors, a bioactivity-guided phytochemical research was performed on the pu-erh tea. One new flavanol, named (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(Z)-coumarate (1), and 16 known analogs (2-17) were isolated from the aqueous extract of the pu-erh tea. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Furthermore, the water extract of pu-erh tea and its fractions exhibited inhibitory activities against α-glucosidases and lipases in vitro; compound 15 showed moderate inhibitory effect against sucrase with an IC50 value of 32...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514399/-disaccharidase-deficiency-and-functional-bowel-diseases
#17
A I Parfenov, O V Akhmadullina, E A Sabelnikova, N I Belostotsky, M V Kirova, S G Khomeriki, S V Bykova
AIM: To elucidate the role of intestinal carbohydrases (glucoamylase, maltase, sucrose, and lactase) in the etiology and pathogenesis of functional bowel diseases (FBD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 74 patients (36 men and 38 women) aged 18 to 50 years with FBD were examined. According to Rome IV criteria (2016), there was diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in 21 patients, functional diarrhea (FD) in 33, constipation-predominant IBS in 6, functional constipation (FC) in 4, and mixed IBS in 10...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503900/effects-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-development-of-digestive-organs-intestinal-function-and-post-hatch-performance-of-broiler-embryos-and-hatchlings
#18
T Gao, M M Zhao, Y J Li, L Zhang, J L Li, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
This study was to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) L-arginine (Arg) solution on the development of digestive organs, the duodenal mucosa of broiler embryos and hatchlings, and the growth performance of chicks during the first week post-hatch. A total of 720 fertilized eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to three groups, consisting of eight replicates of 30 eggs each. Three treatments were arranged as non-injected control, diluent-injected (0.75% NaCl solution) group and Arg solution-injected group containing 1% Arg, dissolved in diluent...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443839/phenolic-compounds-increase-the-transcription-of-mouse-intestinal-maltase-glucoamylase-and-sucrase-isomaltase
#19
Meric Simsek, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Bruce R Hamaker
Diverse natural phenolic compounds show inhibition activity of intestinal α-glucosidases, which may constitute the molecular basis for their ability to control systemic glycemia. Additionally, phenolics can modify mRNA expression for proteins involved in nutritional, metabolic or immune processes. To explore the possibility that phenolics can regulate the mRNA expression, enzymatic activity, and protein synthesis/processing of intestinal Maltase-Glucoamylase (MGAM) and Sucrase-Isomaltase (SI), small intestinal explants from Balb/c mice were cultured for 24 h in the presence or absence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, and (+)-catechin at 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#20
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
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