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Maltase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894505/mal73-a-novel-regulator-of-maltose-fermentation-is-functionally-impaired-by-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-sake-brewing-yeast
#1
Takumi Ohdate, Fumihiko Omura, Haruyo Hatanaka, Yan Zhou, Masami Takagi, Tetsuya Goshima, Takeshi Akao, Eiichiro Ono
For maltose fermentation, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae operates a mechanism that involves transporters (MALT), maltases (MALS) and regulators (MALR) collectively known as MAL genes. However, functional relevance of MAL genes during sake brewing process remains largely elusive, since sake yeast is cultured under glucose-rich condition achieved by the co-culture partner Aspergillus spp.. Here we isolated an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized sake yeast strain exhibiting enhanced maltose fermentation compared to the parental strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885400/biological-interaction-of-newly-synthesized-astaxanthin-s-allyl-cysteine-biconjugate-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-mammalian-%C3%AE-glucosidase-in-vitro-kinetics-and-in-silico-docking-analysis
#2
Sakayanathan Penislusshiyan, Loganathan Chitra, Iruthayaraj Ancy, Periyasamy Premkumar, Poomani Kumaradhas, Periasamy Viswanathamurthi, Thayumanavan Palvannan
In humans, alpha-glucosidase activity is present in sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM). α-glucosidase is involved in the hydrolyses of disaccharide into monosaccharides and results in hyperglycemia. Subsequently chronic hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress and ultimately leads to the secondary complications of diabetes. Hence, identifying compounds with dual beneficial activity such as efficient antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition property has attracted the attention in recent years...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803861/molecular-machinery-of-starch-digestion-and-glucose-absorption-along-the-midgut-of-musca-domestica
#3
André C Pimentel, Ignacio G Barroso, Jéssica M J Ferreira, Renata O Dias, Clélia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Until now there is no molecular model of starch digestion and absorption of the resulting glucose molecules along the larval midgut of Musca domestica. For addressing to this, we used RNA-seq analyses from seven sections of the midgut and carcass to evaluate the expression level of the genes coding for amylases, maltases and sugar transporters (SP). An amylase related protein (Amyrel) and two amylase sequences, one soluble and one with a predicted GPI-anchor, were identified. Three highly expressed maltase genes were correlated with biochemically characterized maltases: one soluble, other glycocalyx-associated, and another membrane-bound...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789207/antidiabetic-potential-of-phytochemicals-isolated-from-the-stem-bark-of-myristica-fatua-houtt-var-magnifica-bedd-sinclair
#4
B Prabha, S Neethu, S Lekshmy Krishnan, D R Sherin, M Madhukrishnan, R Ananthakrishnan, K B Rameshkumar, T K Manojkumar, P Jayamurthy, K V Radhakrishnan
Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Myristica fatua Houtt. led to the isolation of a new compound 1 (3-tridecanoylbenzoic acid), along with six known acylphenols (2-7). All the compounds displayed moderate inhibitory activity on α-amylase and significant activity on α-glucosidase; however malabaricone B (6) and C (7) were identified as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 values of 63.70 ± 0.546, and 43.61 ± 0.620 µM respectively. Acylphenols (compounds 3-7) also showed significant antiglycation property...
May 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762382/starch-malabsorption-in-infants
#5
Robert J Shulman
Based on the developmental physiology of pancreatic amylase production, starch digestion in young infants was anticipated to be compromised whenever compared with that in older infants and toddlers. This appears to be the case, but with great variability among infants to digest starch. Evidence points to the importance of maltase-glucoamylase in young infants and its effect on starch digestion. These observations have critical importance for recommendations regarding the feeding of starch-containing foods to young infants...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762381/13c-labeled-starch-breath-test-in-congenital-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency
#6
Claudia C Robayo-Torres, Marisela Diaz-Sotomayor, Bruce R Hamaker, Susan S Baker, Bruno P Chumpitazi, Antone R Opekun, Buford L Nichols
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Human starch digestion is a multienzyme process involving 6 different enzymes: salivary and pancreatic α-amylase; sucrase and isomaltase (from sucrose-isomaltase [SI]), and maltase and glucoamylase (from maltase-glucoamylase [MGAM]). Together these enzymes cleave starch to smaller molecules ultimately resulting in the absorbable monosaccharide glucose. Approximately 80% of all mucosal maltase activity is accounted for by SI and the reminder by MGAM. Clinical studies suggest that starch may be poorly digested in those with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID)...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762380/clinical-characteristics-of-disaccharidase-deficiencies-among-children-undergoing-upper-endoscopy
#7
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede, Benjamin D Gold, Aminu Mohammed, Heather E Elser
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology and clinical significance of disaccharidase deficiencies have not been thoroughly characterized. Recent work suggests at least genetic sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is more prevalent than previously believed. Because lactase deficiency (LD) is well described, the present study focuses on the clinical characteristics of children with disaccharidase deficiencies determined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. METHODS: Endoscopic records were reviewed from patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopies with biopsies assayed for disaccharidase activity performed by 13 pediatric gastroenterologists during 5 years (2010-2014)...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762374/structure-and-digestion-of-common-complementary-food-starches
#8
Amy Hui-Mei Lin
Starch is the major source of dietary glucose for rapid development of children. Starches from various crops naturally differ in molecular structures and properties. Cooking, processing, and storage may change their molecular properties and affect their digestibility and functionality. Starch digestion is affected by its susceptibility to α-amylase and α-glucosidase (maltase), and the susceptibility is determined by starch granule architecture and glucan structures, as well as the interaction between starch and other food components...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762372/metabolic-impacts-of-maltase-deficiencies
#9
Buford L Nichols, Susan S Baker, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo
The mucosal maltase enzymes are characterized by an activity that produces glucose from linear glucose polymers, assayed with the disaccharide maltose. The related enzyme isomaltase produces glucose from branched glucose polymers, assayed with palatinose. Maltase and isomaltase activities are part of the 4 disaccharidases assayed from clinical duodenal biopsy homogenates. The reported maltase activities are more difficult to interpret than lactase or sucrase activities because both the sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase proteins have overlapping maltase activities...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762371/posttranslational-processing-and-function-of-mucosal-maltases
#10
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
The final step of carbohydrate digestion in the intestine is performed by 2 major α-glucosidases of the intestinal mucosa, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase. Both of these enzymes are type II membrane glycoproteins, which share a significant level of homology in gene and protein structures and yet have differences in the posttranslational processing, substrate specificity and functional capacity. Insufficient activity of these disaccharidases particularly SI as a result of genetic mutations or secondary intestinal pathologies is associated with carbohydrate maldigestion and gastrointestinal intolerances...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762370/molecular-regulations-of-mucosal-maltase-expressions
#11
Toshinao Goda, Kazue Honma
Two major α-glucosidase (maltase) genes, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), respectively, are expressed in the small intestine. In this review, we have summarized whether jejunal expression of these maltase genes is regulated by dietary manipulations, which may affect carbohydrate availability from the luminal side, through changes in the binding of transcription factors and/or histone code on these genes. Studies using a model of mice fed either a low-starch or a high-starch diet for 7 days, found the mRNA levels of SI, MGAM, and Na-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) genes in the jejunum to be increased in parallel by feeding a high-starch diet...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762369/structural-studies-of-the-intestinal-%C3%AE-glucosidases-maltase-glucoamylase-and-sucrase-isomaltase
#12
David R Rose, Marcia M Chaudet, Kyra Jones
OBJECTIVES: Maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase are enzymes in the brush-border membrane of the small intestinal lumen responsible for the breakdown of postamylase starch polysaccharides to release monomeric glucose. As such, they are critical players in healthy nutrition and their malfunction can lead to severe disorders. METHODS: This review covers investigations of the structures and functions of these enzymes. RESULTS: Each consists of 2 enzyme domains of the glycoside hydrolase family GH31 classification, yet with somewhat differing enzymatic properties...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762368/maltase-has-most-versatile-%C3%AE-hydrolytic-activity-among-the-mucosal-%C3%AE-glucosidases-of-the-small-intestine
#13
Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker
Complete digestion of the glycemic carbohydrates to glucose takes place through the combined action of the 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase) in the small intestine. Maltase digests α-1,2- and α-1,3-disaccharides better than the other α-glucosidases, and has, as well, the capability to effectively hydrolyze α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages that form the major backbone of a starch molecule. This broad hydrolytic activity on α-linkages makes it an enzyme that has the most versatile α-hydrolytic activity among the 4mucosal α-glucosidases...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762367/the-history-of-maltose-active-disaccharidases
#14
Michael J Lentze
The history of maltose-active disaccharidases is closely related to the history of the sugar and starch industry. It began in the 19th century, when a shortage of cane sugar occurred in continental Europe, because Napoleon Bonaparte decreed that no goods could be imported from England to the countries he occupied. Other sugar sources had to be found, and it led to the identification of sugar beets as alternative source of sugar by Marggraf in 1774, to the detection of starch hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid by Kirchhoff in 1812, and to the starch digestion enzyme, α-amylase, by Payen in 1833...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761590/the-interaction-of-anti-diabetic-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-and-gut-bacteria-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#15
Kemin Tan, Christine Tesar, Rosemarie Wilton, Robert P Jedrzejczak, Andrzej Joachimiak
Carbohydrate hydrolyzing α-glucosidases are commonly found in microorganisms present in the human intestine microbiome. We have previously reported crystal structures of an α-glucosidase from the human gut bacterium Blaubia (Ruminococcus) obeum (Ro-αG1) and its substrate preference/specificity switch. This novel member of the GH31 family is a structural homolog of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) with a highly conserved active site that is predicted to be common in Ro-αG1 homologs among other species that colonize the human gut...
May 15, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739578/seasonal-variation-in-hibiscus-sabdariffa-roselle-calyx-phytochemical-profile-soluble-solids-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibition
#16
Idolo Ifie, Beatrice E Ifie, Dorcas O Ibitoye, Lisa J Marshall, Gary Williamson
Seasonal variations in crops can alter the profile and amount of constituent compounds and consequentially any biological activity. Differences in phytochemical profile, total phenolic content and inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase (maltase) of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces grown in South Western Nigeria were determined over wet and dry seasons. The phenolic profile, organic acids and sugars were analysed using HPLC, while inhibition of rat intestinal maltase was measured enzymically. There was a significant increase (1...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710469/hydroxytyrosol-nicotinate-a-new-multifunctional-hypolipidemic-and-hypoglycemic-agent
#17
Yun-Dong Xie, Zi-Zhang Chen, Na Li, Wen-Fang Lu, Yan-Hong Xu, Yuan-Yuan Lin, Li-Hua Shao, Qiu-Tang Wang, Li-Ying Guo, Yu-Qiong Gao, Guang-De Yang, Yi-Ping Li, Xiao-Li Bian
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a natural polyphenol antioxidant that exists in olive oil. In the study of multifunctional hypolipidemic of nicotinic derivatives, we found that hydroxytyrosol nicotinate (HT-N) incorporation of niacin with HT displayed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro, such as yeast ?-glucosidase (IC50 ?=?117.72??M) and rat intestinal ?-glucosidases maltase (IC50 ?=?31.86??M) and sucrase (IC50 ?=?22.99??M), and had a good control of postprandial blood glucose (PBG). HT-N shown significantly hypoglycemic action by 16...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701065/total-synthesis-of-natural-hyacinthacine-c-5-and-six-related-hyacinthacine-c-5-epimers
#18
Anthony W Carroll, Kongdech Savaspun, Anthony C Willis, Masako Hoshino, Atsushi Kato, Stephen G Pyne
The total synthesis of natural (+)-hyacinthacine C5 was achieved, which allowed correction of its initially proposed structure, as well as six additional hyacinthacine C-type compounds. These compounds were readily accessible from two epimeric anti-1,2-amino alcohols. Keeping a common A-ring configuration, chemical manipulation occurred selectively on the B-ring of the hyacinthacine C-type products through methods of syn-dihydroxylation, SN 2 ring-opening of a cyclic sulfate, and also employing either ( R)- or ( R, S)-α-methylallyl amine for the Petasis borono Mannich reaction...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688335/crispr-cas9-enabled-targeted-mutagenesis-in-the-thermotolerant-methylotrophic-yeast-ogataea-thermomethanolica
#19
Chitwadee Phithakrotchanakoon, Aekkachai Puseenam, Sriwan Wongwisansri, Lily Eurwilaichitr, Supawadee Ingsriswang, Sutipa Tanapongpipat, Niran Roongsawang
Ogataea thermomethanolica TBRC656 is a thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast suitable for heterologous protein expression at various temperatures. However, the lack of efficient methods for targeted gene mutagenesis limits strain engineering in this yeast. In this study, we applied a CRISPR-Cas9-based tool for targeted gene mutagenesis in O. thermomethanolica. The putative unfolded protein response regulator OtHAC1, and the OtMAL1 (maltase) and OtMAL2 (maltose permease) genes involved with sucrose and maltose utilization were targeted for CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666544/efficiency-of-selected-food-ingredients-on-protein-efficiency-ratio-glycemic-index-and-in-vitro-digestive-properties
#20
M B Anusha, Naveen Shivanna, G Phani Kumar, K R Anilakumar
The human body on exposure to high-altitude, undergoes many physiological challenges. The cardiopulmonary reserves are favoured against the digestive system. Hence, the efficiency of digestion is compromised to a great extent, which leads to anorexia, hypophagia, epigastralgia, dyspepsia, nausea, and peptic ulcers. The present study was focused on in vitro digestive influence of selected food ingredients viz. cardamom, carom, cumin, coriander, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, pepper, star anise, turmeric, papaya, orange, pineapple, liquorice, valerian, and tarragon on the activities of digestive enzymes of rat pancreas, duodenum, and small intestine...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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