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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#1
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994704/characterization-of-mucosal-disaccharidases-from-human-intestine
#2
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
In this study, we used a brush border membrane (BBM) preparation from human small intestine to analyze the proportion and the activity of major intestinal disaccharidases, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). SI, MGAM and LPH respectively constituted 8.2%, 2.7% and 1.4% of total BBM protein. The activity of SI and LPH decreased threefold after purification from the brush border membrane, which highlights the effect of membrane microdomains on the functional capacity of these enzymes...
October 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974035/nutritional-and-health-related-effects-of-a-diet-containing-apple-seed-meal-in-rats-the-case-of-amygdalin
#3
Paulina M Opyd, Adam Jurgoński, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Joanna Milala, Zenon Zduńczyk, Bogusław Król
Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C) and amygdalin (AMG) groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM) group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground...
October 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919251/inhibition-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-growth-by-simultaneous-uptake-of-glucose-and-maltose
#4
Haruyo Hatanaka, Hitoshi Mitsunaga, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916914/the-effects-of-protein-and-fiber-content-on-gut-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Samantha C Leigh, Bao-Quang Nguyen-Phuc, Donovan P German
Chemical reactor theory (CRT) suggests that the digestive tract functions as a chemical reactor for processing food. Presumably, gut structure and function should match diet to ensure adequate nutrient and energy uptake to maintain performance. Within CRT, dietary biochemical composition is the most important factor affecting gut structure and function in vertebrates. We fed Danio rerio (zebrafish) diets ranging from high- to moderate- to low-quality (i.e., ranging from high-protein, low-fiber to low-protein, high-fiber), and observed how gut length and surface area, as well as the activity levels of digestive enzymes (amylase, maltase, trypsin, aminopeptidase, and lipase) shifted in response to these dietary changes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914528/inhibition-of-human-and-rat-sucrase-and-maltase-activities-to-assess-antiglycemic-potential-optimization-of-the-assay-using-acarbose-and-polyphenols
#6
Alison Pyner, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Gary Williamson
We optimized the assays used to measure inhibition of rat and human α-glucosidases (sucrase and maltase activities), intestinal enzymes which catalyze the final steps of carbohydrate digestion. Cell-free extracts from fully differentiated intestinal Caco-2/TC7 monolayers were shown to be a suitable source of sucrase-isomaltase, with the same sequence as human small intestine, and were compared to a rat intestinal extract. The kinetic conditions of the assay were optimized, including comparison of enzymatic and chromatographic methods to detect the monosaccharide products...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875706/dietary-flavonoids-and-acarbose-synergistically-inhibit-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-lower-postprandial-blood-glucose
#7
Bo-Wei Zhang, Xia Li, Wen-Long Sun, Yan Xing, Zhi-Long Xiu, Chun-Lin Zhuang, Yue-Sheng Dong
The inhibition of porcine pancreatic α-amylase and mammalian α-glucosidase by 16 individual flavonoids was determined. The IC50 values for baicalein, (+)-catechin, quercetin, and luteolin were 74.1 ± 5.6, 175.1 ± 9.1, 281.2 ± 19.2, and 339.4 ± 16.3 μM, respectively, against α-glucosidase. The IC50 values for apigenin and baicalein were 146.8 ± 7.1 and 446.4 ± 23.9 μM, respectively, against α-amylase. The combination of baicalein, quercetin, or luteolin with acarbose showed synergistic inhibition, and the combination of (+)-catechin with acarbose showed antagonistic inhibition of α-glucosidase...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868668/green-and-chamomile-teas-but-not-acarbose-attenuate-glucose-and-fructose-transport-via-inhibition-of-glut2-and-glut5
#8
Jose A Villa-Rodriguez, Ebru Aydin, Julia S Gauer, Alison Pyner, Gary Williamson, Asimina Kerimi
SCOPE: High glycaemic sugars result in blood glucose spikes, while high doses of post-prandial fructose inundate the liver, causing an imbalance in energy metabolism, both leading to increased risk of metabolic malfunction and type 2 diabetes. Acarbose, used for diabetes management, reduces post-prandial hyperglycaemia by delaying carbohydrate digestion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chamomile and green teas both inhibited digestive enzymes (α-amylase and maltase) related to intestinal sugar release, as already established for acarbose...
September 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820081/effects-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-on-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-and-hydrogen-excretion-in-rats-and-healthy-humans
#9
Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Kazuhiro Yoshinaga, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780468/design-and-synthesis-of-2-6-di-substituted-phenyl-thiazolo-3-2-b-1-2-4-triazoles-as-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitors-co-relative-pharmacokinetics-and-3d-qsar-and-risk-analysis
#10
Pervaiz Ali Channar, Aamer Saeed, Fayaz Ali Larik, Sajid Rashid, Qaiser Iqbal, Maryam Rozi, Saima Younis, Jamaluddin Mahar
Ten fused heterocyclic derivatives bearing the 2,6-di(subsituted phenyl)thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazoles as central rings were synthesized and structures of the compounds were established by analytical and spectral data using FTIR, EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR techniques. In vitro inhibitory activities of synthesized compounds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and α-burylcholinesterase (α-BuChE) were evaluated using a purified enzyme assays. Compound 5c demonstrated strong and selective α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=1...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763149/three-cases-of-multi-generational-pompe-disease-are-current-practices-missing-diagnostic-and-treatment-opportunities
#11
Paul McIntosh, Stephanie Austin, Jennifer Sullivan, Lauren Bailey, Carrie Bailey, David Viskochil, Priya S Kishnani
Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II, GSDII, or acid maltase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive metabolic myopathy with a broad clinical spectrum, ranging from infantile to late-onset presentations. In 2015, Pompe disease was added as a core condition to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for state newborn screening (NBS). The clinical importance of Pompe disease is evolving with the use of NBS, increasing awareness of the disease, and higher than previously reported disease prevalence; however, current practices miss additional diagnostic and potential treatment opportunities in close relatives of the family proband...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727166/hepatocytes-contribute-to-residual-glucose-production-in-a-mouse-model-for-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia
#12
Brenda S Hijmans, Andreas Boss, Theo H van Dijk, Maud Soty, Henk Wolters, Elodie Mutel, Albert K Groen, Terry G J Derks, Gilles Mithieux, Arend Heerschap, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Fabienne Rajas, Maaike H Oosterveer
It is a longstanding enigma how glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I patients retain a limited capacity for endogenous glucose production (EGP) despite the loss of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity. Insight into the source of residual EGP is of clinical importance given the risk of sudden death in these patients, but so far contradictory mechanisms have been proposed. We investigated G6Pase-independent EGP in hepatocytes isolated from a liver-specific GSD Ia mouse model (L-G6pc(-/-) mice), and performed real-time analysis of hepatic glucose fluxes and glycogen metabolism in L-G6pc(-/-) mice using state-of-the-art stable isotope methodologies...
July 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#13
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726400/quinoliniumolate-and-2h-1-2-3-triazole-derivatives-from-the-stems-of-paramignya-trimera-and-their-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-activities-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#14
Nhan T Nguyen, Phu H Dang, Ngoc X T Vu, Tho H Le, Mai T T Nguyen
From a CHCl3-soluble extract of the stems of Paramignya trimera, two new alkaloids, (E)-2-(prop-1-enyl)-N-methylquinolinium-4-olate (1) and (R)-2-ethylhexyl 2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate (2), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data interpretation. Compound 2 possesses α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 137.9 μM. Molecular docking studies of 1 and 2 with human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) were performed for the first time; thus, the 2,3-diH(+)-1H-1,2,3-triazolium cation (2i) showed good interactions with both MGAM-N (2QMJ) and -C (3TOP) terminal subunits...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722496/lamesticumin-g-a-new-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-from-the-fruit-peels-of-lansium-parasiticum
#15
Thammatee Potipiranun, Wisuttaya Worawalai, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan
A novel onoceranoid triterpene, named lamesticumin G (1) along with four known compounds (2-5) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit peels of Lansium parasiticum. The structure of lamesticumin G (1) was fully characterised using spectroscopic data. Lamesticumin G (1) inhibited α-glucosidase (maltase) with IC50 value of 2.27 mM, while 2-5 showed no inhibition.
July 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722261/dietary-rice-improves-growth-performance-mucosal-enzyme-activities-and-plasma-urea-nitrogen-in-weaning-piglets
#16
Kazuki Yagami, Ryozo Takada
In this study, we evaluated the nutritional functions of rice for weaning piglets. Sixteen weaning piglets with an average initial weight of 7.2 kg were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and the other was fed a rice-soybean meal based diet, containing 50% corn and rice, respectively. A 2 weeks growth trial was conducted and growth performance, intestinal mucosal enzyme activities and plasma urea nitrogen were measured. The average daily gain in rice-fed piglets was significantly higher than that in corn-fed piglets and the average daily feed intake tended to be higher in rice-fed piglets than in corn-fed piglets...
July 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659733/attenuation-of-postprandial-blood-glucose-in-humans-consuming-isomaltodextrin-carbohydrate-loading-studies
#17
Tsuyoshi Sadakiyo, Yuki Ishida, Shin-Ichiro Inoue, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Takeo Sakurai, Ryodai Takagaki, Mayumi Kurose, Tetsuya Mori, Akiko Yasuda-Yamashita, Hitoshi Mitsuzumi, Michio Kubota, Hikaru Watanabe, Shigeharu Fukuda
Background: Isomaltodextrin (IMD) is a novel highly branched α-glucan and its function as a soluble dietary fiber is expected. Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMD on postprandial glucose excursions in healthy people and to make the mechanism clear. Design: Twenty-nine subjects ingested a solution containing maltodextrin (MD) or sucrose with or without IMD. Fourteen subjects ingested a solution containing glucose with or without IMD. Blood glucose concentrations were then compared between the groups...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#18
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
July 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618651/modulatory-effects-of-caralluma-fimbriata-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-abnormalities-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-wistar-rats
#19
Sudhakara Gujjala, Mallaiah Putakala, Srinivasulu Nukala, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Ramaswamy Rajendran, Saralakumari Desireddy
The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603839/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-in-broiler-diets
#20
J Pandi, P Glatz, R Forder, B Komolong, K Chousalkar
Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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