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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444840/intestinal-%C3%AE-glycosidase-transcriptional-responses-during-development-and-diet-adjustment-in-altricial-birds
#1
Claudia Gatica-Sosa, Pawel Brzęk, Melisa Magallanes, William H Karasov, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
We describe developmental changes in maltasic activity and its mRNA through adulthood, and in response to increase in dietary starch. We studied house sparrows (HOSP; Passer domesticus L.), which undergo a natural switch from insects to starch-containing seed diet during development, and zebra finch (ZEBF; Taeniopygia guttata V.), which have a relatively fixed starchy-seed diet during development. In ZEBF, in whom maltasic activity increased with age but not with dietary starch, α -glycosidase (AG) mRNA was not affected by either age or dietary starch level...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433292/inhibitory-activity-of-phenolic-rich-pistachio-green-hull-extract-enriched-pasta-on-key-type-2-diabetes-relevant-enzymes-and-glycemic-index
#2
Sajjad Lalegani, Hassan Ahmadi Gavlighi, Mohammad Hossein Azizi, Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi
Phenolic compounds as agro-industrial by-products have been associated with health benefits since they exhibit high antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, polyphenol-rich extract from pistachio green hull (PGH) was evaluated for antioxidant activity and its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effect of PGH extract powder on in vitro starch digestibility was also evaluated. The results showed that PGH had stronger antioxidant activity than Trolox...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429513/protective-roles-of-rutin-against-restraint-stress-on-spermatogenesis-in-testes-of-adult-mice
#3
Asif Mehfooz, Quanwei Wei, Kaizhi Zheng, Mohamed Babo Fadlalla, Gracijela Maltasic, Fangxiong Shi
In order to investigate the effects of Rutin against restraint stress, 50 adult male mice were divided into five groups: control, restraint stress (RS), and RS with 2 doses of Rutin treatments. Mice were restrained in a conical tube for 4 h daily and Rutin was injected intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days. Restraint stress significantly decreases body weights, testis and epididymis weights, thymus weights, visceral fats, serum concentrations of testosterone, sperm counts, sperm motility and sperm viability, while it increases serum epinephrine levels, adrenal gland weights and abnormal sperms...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421697/a-new-entry-into-the-portfolio-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-as-potent-therapeutics-for-type-2-diabetes-design-bioevaluation-and-one-pot-multi-component-synthesis-of-diamine-bridged-coumarinyl-oxadiazole-conjugates
#4
Madiha Kazmi, Sumera Zaib, Aliya Ibrar, Sayyeda Tayyeba Amjad, Zainab Shafique, Saifullah Mehsud, Aamer Saeed, Jamshed Iqbal, Imtiaz Khan
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic multifarious metabolic disorder resulting from impaired glucose homeostasis has become one of the most challenging diseases with severe life threat to public health. The inhibition of α-glucosidase, a key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme, could serve as one of the effective methodology in both preventing and treating diabetes through controlling the postprandial glucose levels and suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia. In this context, three series of diamine-bridged bis-coumarinyl oxadiazole conjugates were designed and synthesized by one-pot multi-component methodology...
January 16, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421509/morning-glory-resin-glycosides-as-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in-silico-analysis
#5
Daniel Rosas-Ramírez, Sonia Escandón-Rivera, Rogelio Pereda-Miranda
Twenty-seven individual resin glycosides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. Four of these compounds displayed an inhibitory activity comparable to acarbose, which was used as a positive control. Molecular modeling studies performed by docking analysis were accomplished to predict that the active compounds and acarbose bind to the α-1,4-glucosidase enzyme catalytic site of MAL12 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through stable hydrogen bonds primarily with the amino acid residues HIS279 and GLN322...
February 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373684/the-effects-of-dietary-sulfur-amino-acids-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-enzyme-activity-and-nutrient-transporters-in-weaning-piglets
#6
E Y Zong, P F Huang, H S Yang, W Zhang, J Z Li, Y L Li, X Q Ding, X Xiong, Y L Yin
Early weaning results in intestinal dysfunction in piglets while sulfur amino acids (SAA) are involved in improving intestinal functions. We tested a hypothesis that dietary supplementation with SAA can improve intestinal functions of weaning piglets and analyzed the effects of different dietary SAA levels on intestinal functions. A total of 80 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 21 d of age and randomly assigned to one of five diets that contained 0.53, 0.63, 0.74, 0.85, or 0.96% SAA, which corresponded to 70, 85, 100, 115 or, 130% of the SAA:Lys ratio recommended by the NRC (2012)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304440/evaluation-of-an-insect-meal-of-the-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-as-soybean-substitute-intestinal-morphometry-enzymatic-and-microbial-activity-in-laying-hens
#7
Monica Isabella Cutrignelli, Maria Messina, Francesca Tulli, Basilio Randazzi, Ike Olivotto, Laura Gasco, Rosa Loponte, Fulvia Bovera
This research investigated the ileum morphometry and enzymatic activity, the caecal volatile fatty acid production and the apparent nutrient digestibility in laying hens fed a Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) as a complete replacement of diet soybean meal (SBM). The hens fed HILM exhibited a lower live weight (P<0.05) and a higher incidence of the full digestive tract (P<0.05) than the SBM group. In the duodenum, the maltase exhibited a higher (P<0.05) activity in the HILM group while the intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) had a higher (P<0...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180238/glucose-homeostasis-in-the-euryhaline-crab-cytograpsus-angulatus-effects-of-the-salinity-in-the-amylase-maltase-and-sucrase-activities-in-the-hepatopancreas-and-in-the-carbohydrate-reserves-in-different-tissues
#8
Antonela Asaro, Roberto Alejandro Paggi, Juana Cristina Del Valle, Alejandra Antonia López Mañanes
We studied the existence, biochemical characteristics and response to different environmental salinities of amylase, maltase and sucrase activity in the intertidal euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana, 1852) along with the response to distinct salinities of glycogen and free glucose content in storage organs. Amylase, maltase and sucrase activities were kept over a broad range of pH and temperature and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Zymography showed the existence of two amylase forms in crabs exposed to 35 (osmoconformation) and low (6-10psu; hyper-regulation) or high (40psu) (hypo-regulation) salinities...
November 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168619/gut-microbes-limit-growth-in-house-sparrows-nestlings-passer-domesticus-but-not-through-limitations-in-digestive-capacity
#9
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Seth R Bordenstein, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142393/investigation-of-antihyperglycaemic-activity-of-banana-musa-sp-var-nanjangud-rasa-bale-flower-in-normal-and-diabetic-rats
#10
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, S P Dhanabal, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The vital enzymes of starch digestion and absorption are intestinal α-glucosidases and their inhibition improves postprandial hyperglycaemia, constituting an effective mode of therapy in diabetes. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the inhibitory potential of ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) on mammalian α-glucosidases and its pharmacological effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: EF was evaluated for its inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition on mammalian α-glucosidases...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#11
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994704/characterization-of-mucosal-disaccharidases-from-human-intestine
#12
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
In this study, we used a brush border membrane (BBM) preparation from human small intestine to analyze the proportion and the activity of major intestinal disaccharidases, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). SI, MGAM and LPH respectively constituted 8.2%, 2.7% and 1.4% of total BBM protein. The activity of SI and LPH decreased threefold after purification from the brush border membrane, which highlights the effect of membrane microdomains on the functional capacity of these enzymes...
October 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974035/nutritional-and-health-related-effects-of-a-diet-containing-apple-seed-meal-in-rats-the-case-of-amygdalin
#13
Paulina M Opyd, Adam Jurgoński, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Joanna Milala, Zenon Zduńczyk, Bogusław Król
Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C) and amygdalin (AMG) groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM) group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground...
October 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919251/inhibition-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-growth-by-simultaneous-uptake-of-glucose-and-maltose
#14
Haruyo Hatanaka, Hitoshi Mitsunaga, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916914/the-effects-of-protein-and-fiber-content-on-gut-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Samantha C Leigh, Bao-Quang Nguyen-Phuc, Donovan P German
Chemical reactor theory (CRT) suggests that the digestive tract functions as a chemical reactor for processing food. Presumably, gut structure and function should match diet to ensure adequate nutrient and energy uptake to maintain performance. Within CRT, dietary biochemical composition is the most important factor affecting gut structure and function in vertebrates. We fed Danio rerio (zebrafish) diets ranging from high- to moderate- to low-quality (i.e., ranging from high-protein, low-fiber to low-protein, high-fiber), and observed how gut length and surface area, as well as the activity levels of digestive enzymes (amylase, maltase, trypsin, aminopeptidase, and lipase) shifted in response to these dietary changes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914528/inhibition-of-human-and-rat-sucrase-and-maltase-activities-to-assess-antiglycemic-potential-optimization-of-the-assay-using-acarbose-and-polyphenols
#16
Alison Pyner, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Gary Williamson
We optimized the assays used to measure inhibition of rat and human α-glucosidases (sucrase and maltase activities), intestinal enzymes which catalyze the final steps of carbohydrate digestion. Cell-free extracts from fully differentiated intestinal Caco-2/TC7 monolayers were shown to be a suitable source of sucrase-isomaltase, with the same sequence as human small intestine, and were compared to a rat intestinal extract. The kinetic conditions of the assay were optimized, including comparison of enzymatic and chromatographic methods to detect the monosaccharide products...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875706/dietary-flavonoids-and-acarbose-synergistically-inhibit-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-lower-postprandial-blood-glucose
#17
Bo-Wei Zhang, Xia Li, Wen-Long Sun, Yan Xing, Zhi-Long Xiu, Chun-Lin Zhuang, Yue-Sheng Dong
The inhibition of porcine pancreatic α-amylase and mammalian α-glucosidase by 16 individual flavonoids was determined. The IC50 values for baicalein, (+)-catechin, quercetin, and luteolin were 74.1 ± 5.6, 175.1 ± 9.1, 281.2 ± 19.2, and 339.4 ± 16.3 μM, respectively, against α-glucosidase. The IC50 values for apigenin and baicalein were 146.8 ± 7.1 and 446.4 ± 23.9 μM, respectively, against α-amylase. The combination of baicalein, quercetin, or luteolin with acarbose showed synergistic inhibition, and the combination of (+)-catechin with acarbose showed antagonistic inhibition of α-glucosidase...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868668/green-and-chamomile-teas-but-not-acarbose-attenuate-glucose-and-fructose-transport-via-inhibition-of-glut2-and-glut5
#18
Jose A Villa-Rodriguez, Ebru Aydin, Julia S Gauer, Alison Pyner, Gary Williamson, Asimina Kerimi
SCOPE: High glycaemic sugars result in blood glucose spikes, while high doses of post-prandial fructose inundate the liver, causing an imbalance in energy metabolism, both leading to increased risk of metabolic malfunction and type 2 diabetes. Acarbose, used for diabetes management, reduces post-prandial hyperglycaemia by delaying carbohydrate digestion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chamomile and green teas both inhibited digestive enzymes (α-amylase and maltase) related to intestinal sugar release, as already established for acarbose...
September 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820081/effects-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-on-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-and-hydrogen-excretion-in-rats-and-healthy-humans
#19
Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Kazuhiro Yoshinaga, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780468/design-and-synthesis-of-2-6-di-substituted-phenyl-thiazolo-3-2-b-1-2-4-triazoles-as-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitors-co-relative-pharmacokinetics-and-3d-qsar-and-risk-analysis
#20
Pervaiz Ali Channar, Aamer Saeed, Fayaz Ali Larik, Sajid Rashid, Qaiser Iqbal, Maryam Rozi, Saima Younis, Jamaluddin Mahar
Ten fused heterocyclic derivatives bearing the 2,6-di(subsituted phenyl)thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazoles as central rings were synthesized and structures of the compounds were established by analytical and spectral data using FTIR, EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR techniques. In vitro inhibitory activities of synthesized compounds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and α-burylcholinesterase (α-BuChE) were evaluated using a purified enzyme assays. Compound 5c demonstrated strong and selective α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=1...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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