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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814716/the-inhibitory-activity-of-herbal-medicines-on-the-keys-enzymes-and-steps-related-to-carbohydrate-and-lipid-digestion
#1
Weerachat Sompong, Nuttapat Muangngam, Artitaya Kongpatpharnich, Chadakarn Manacharoenlarp, Chanatkarn Amorworasin, Tanyawan Suantawee, Thavaree Thilavech, Sirichai Adisakwattana
BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight are consistently associated with metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Herbal medicines have been currently suggested as an alternative source of potentially useful antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro inhibitory effects of eleven herbal medicines on carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes and the key steps of lipid digestion including the inhibition of micelle formation and the ability to bind bile acid...
November 4, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764522/combination-of-acid-phosphatase-positivity-and-rimmed-vacuoles-as-useful-markers-in-the-diagnosis-of-adult-onset-pompe-disease-lacking-specific-clinical-and-pathological-features
#2
C Dolfus, J-P Simon, G Landemore, F Leroy, F Chapon
INTRODUCTION: The clinical and histological presentations of the adult form of Pompe disease may be atypical. In such cases, identifying histological signs that point to the diagnosis would be crucial to avoid a delay in care. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of rimmed vacuoles and acid phosphatase positivity in muscle biopsies of patients with late-onset Pompe disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied muscle biopsies of all cases of the adult form of Pompe disease diagnosed at the University Hospital of Caen...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747873/antioxidants-from-black-and-green-tea-from-dietary-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-to-pharmacological-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Ilaria Peluso, Mauro Serafini
The consumption of tea (Camellia sinensis) has been correlated with a low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, in which oxidative stress plays a critical role. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of green tea (GT) and black tea (BT). In addition to their redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as the ability to lower glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA) levels...
October 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729007/intestinal-microbiota-could-transfer-host-gut-characteristics-from-pigs-to-mice
#4
H Diao, H L Yan, Y Xiao, B Yu, J Yu, J He, P Zheng, B H Zeng, H Wei, X B Mao, D W Chen
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to compare the differences in gut microbiota composition and gut-phenotypes among pig breeds, and determine whether these differences would transmit to mice colonized with fecal microbiota of different pig breeds. A total of 24 1-day-old germ-free BALB/C mice were divided into 3 groups (TFM, YFM and RFM), which were transplanted with intact fecal microbiota of Tibetan pig (TP), Yorkshire pig (YP) and Rongchang pig (RP), respectively. RESULTS: Results showed that different pig breeds exhibited distinct gut microbiota profile based on high-throughput pyrosequencing...
October 11, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704744/influence-of-low-protein-diets-on-gene-expression-of-digestive-enzymes-and-hormone-secretion-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-young-weaned-piglets
#5
Zhi-Mei Tian, Xian-Yong Ma, Xue-Fen Yang, Qiu-Li Fan, Yun-Xia Xiong, Yue-Qin Qiu, Li Wang, Xiao-Lu Wen, Zong-Yong Jiang
To investigate dietary protein level effects on digestive mechanisms, weaned piglets were fed for 45 d with diets containing 20%, 17%, or 14% crude protein (CP) supplemented to meet requirements for essential amino acids. This article describes the influence of dietary protein on gastrointestinal hormones and expression of an array of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, except for maltase in the duodenum...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695931/modulation-of-digestive-enzyme-activities-in-the-avian-digestive-tract-in-relation-to-diet-composition-and-quality
#6
Kevin D Kohl, M Eugenia Ciminari, Juan G Chediack, James O Leafloor, William H Karasov, Scott R McWilliams, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
In nature, birds are faced with variable food sources that may differ in composition (protein vs. carbohydrates) and quality (highly digestible material vs. indigestible fiber). Studies in passerine birds and some commercial poultry demonstrate that the gastrointestinal tract can respond to varying diet composition and quality by changing morphology and/or activities of digestive enzymes. However, studies in additional avian species are warranted to understand generalities of these trends. We first fed juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and quails (Coturnix coturnix) on either high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664199/effect-of-different-amylases-on-the-utilization-of-cornstarch-in-broiler-chickens
#7
Jianmin Yuan, Xingyu Wang, Dafei Yin, Maofei Wang, Xiaonan Yin, Zhao Lei, Yuming Guo
This study compared the effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Three-day-old Arbor Acres plus male chickens were randomly divided into 7 treatments and fed a diet supplemented with different sources and concentrations of amylase: 1,500 U/kg and 3,000 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (α-amylase A); 480 U/kg and 960 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Bacillus subtilis (α-amylase B); 200 U/kg and 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase from B...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651751/intestinal-adaptations-to-a-combination-of-different-diets-with-and-without-endurance-exercise
#8
Janice L Daniels, Richard J Bloomer, Marie van der Merwe, Samantha L Davis, Karyl K Buddington, Randal K Buddington
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes search for diet regimens that will improve performance and decrease gastrointestinal disturbances during training and events. Although the intestine can adapt to changes in the amount and composition of dietary inputs, the responses to the combination of endurance exercise and diet are poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated small intestinal dimensions and mucosal architecture and calculated the capacities of the entire small intestine to digest maltose and maltodextrin and absorb glucose in response to two different diet types; a western human diet and the Daniel Fast, a vegan style diet, and with moderate intensity endurance training or a no-exercise sedentary lifestyle for a 13 week period (n = 7 per group)...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640169/salivary-amylase-digestion-and-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Catherine Peyrot des Gachons, Paul A S Breslin
Salivary amylase is a glucose-polymer cleavage enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands. It comprises a small portion of the total amylase excreted, which is mostly made by the pancreas. Amylases digest starch into smaller molecules, ultimately yielding maltose, which in turn is cleaved into two glucose molecules by maltase. Starch comprises a significant portion of the typical human diet for most nationalities. Given that salivary amylase is such a small portion of total amylase, it is unclear why it exists and whether it conveys an evolutionary advantage when ingesting starch...
October 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637013/effects-of-hull-scratching-soaking-and-boiling-on-antinutrients-in-japanese-red-sword-bean-canavalia-gladiata
#10
Satsuki Une, Koji Nonaka, Junich Akiyama
The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477394/comparative-proteome-analysis-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-identifies-metabolic-targets-to-improve-protein-production-and-secretion
#11
Chien-Wen Hung, Tobias Klein, Liam Cassidy, Dennis Linke, Sabrina Lange, Uwe Anders, Matthias Bureik, Elmar Heinzle, Konstantin Schneider, Andreas Tholey
Protein secretion in yeast is a complex process and its efficiency depends on a variety of parameters. We performed a comparative proteome analysis of a set of Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains producing the α-glucosidase maltase in increasing amounts to investigate the overall proteomic response of the cell to the burden of protein production along the various steps of protein production and secretion. Proteome analysis of these strains, utilizing an isobaric labeling/two dimensional LC-MALDI MS approach, revealed complex changes, from chaperones and secretory transport machinery to proteins controlling transcription and translation...
October 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465726/persimmon-tannin-an-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitor-retards-carbohydrate-absorption-in-rats
#12
Takahiro Tsujita
Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes play an important role in controlling postprandial blood glucose levels. Thus the effect of persimmon tannin on pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase has been investigated. Persimmon tannin inhibits pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase in a concentration-dependent manner with the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for amylase, maltase and sucrase being 1.7 μg/mL, 632 μg/mL and 308 μg/mL, respectively. The effect of persimmon-tannin extract on carbohydrate absorption in rats has also been investigated...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406797/ionic-liquid-promoted-multicomponent-synthesis-of-fused-tetrazolo-1-5-a-pyrimidines-as-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors
#13
Lingala Suresh, P Onkara, P Sagar Vijay Kumar, Y Pydisetty, G V P Chandramouli
A simple and facile synthesis of fused tetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives based on the multicomponent reaction of acetophenone, dimethylformamidedimethylacetal and 5-aminotetrazole is described. A green chemical synthesis has been achieved by using1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Bmim]HSO4 ionic liquid as a reusable medium. Short synthetic route, operational simplicity, good yields, eco-friendliness and recyclability of the ionic liquid are the advantages of this method. The synthesized compounds were screened for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using yeast maltase (MAL12) as a model enzyme...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391986/-radiation-induced-radiculopathy-with-paresis-of-the-neck-and-autochthonous-back-muscles-with-additional-myopathy
#14
G Ellrichmann, C Lukas, I A Adamietz, C Grunwald, C Schneider-Gold, R Gold
Radiation-induced tissue damage is caused by ionizing radiation mainly affecting the skin, vascular, neuronal or muscle tissue. Early damages occur within weeks and months while late damages may occur months or even decades after radiation.Radiation-induced paresis of the spine or the trunk muscles with camptocormia or dropped-head syndrome are rare but have already been described as long-term sequelae after treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma. The differential diagnosis includes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) or lysosomal storage diseases (e...
June 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363037/immunotherapeutic-effect-of-spiramycin-in-experimental-giardiasis
#15
Howaida I H Ismail, Hassan T Sheir
Giardiasis is a major global cause of water borne diarrheal disease, which contributes greatly to the burden of malnutrition and malabsorption especially in children. There is a great demand for a new effective therapeutic agent against giardiasis that can be used safely during pregnancy, lactation and in infants. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of spiramycin as well as its immunomodulatory mechanism of action in giardiasis had been investigated. 90 Swiss albino mice were used in this study and classified into 3 groups: GI: 40 mice infected with Giardia lamblia cysts, GII: 40 infected mice that received spiramycin treatment in a daily oral dose of 1000 IU/gm body weight for one week starting one week post infection and GIII: 10 control uninfected untreated mice...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325449/hydrophobic-substituents-increase-the-potency-of-salacinol-a-potent-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-from-ayurvedic-traditional-medicine-salacia
#16
Genzoh Tanabe, Weijia Xie, Gorre Balakishan, Mumen F A Amer, Nozomi Tsutsui, Haruka Takemura, Shinya Nakamura, Junji Akaki, Kiyofumi Ninomiya, Toshio Morikawa, Isao Nakanishi, Osamu Muraoka
Using an in silico method, seven analogs bearing hydrophobic substituents (8a: Me, 8b: Et, 8c: n-Pent, 8d: n-Hept, 8e: n-Tridec, 8f: isoBu and 8g: neoPent) at the 3'-O-position in salacinol (1), a highly potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor from Ayurvedic traditional medicine 'Salacia', were designed and synthesized. In order to verify the computational SAR assessments, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated in vitro. All analogs (8a-8g) exhibited an equal or considerably higher level of inhibitory activity against rat small intestinal α-glucosidases compared with the original sulfonate (1), and were as potent as or higher in potency than the clinically used anti-diabetics, voglibose, acarbose or miglitol...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304828/dietary-nucleotides-supplementation-improves-the-intestinal-development-and-immune-function-of-neonates-with-intra-uterine-growth-restriction-in-a-pig-model
#17
Lianqiang Che, Liang Hu, Yan Liu, Chuan Yan, Xie Peng, Qin Xu, Ru Wang, Yuanfang Cheng, Hong Chen, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Daiwen Chen, De Wu
The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR) neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 days old) were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet) or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet) for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238050/bis-pyrano-prenyl-isoflavone-improves-glucose-homeostasis-by-inhibiting-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-in-hyperglycemic-rats
#18
Delsi Altenhofen, Gabrielle da Luz, Marisa Jádna Silva Frederico, Dalila Venzke, Mayara Brich, Silvana Vigil, Tania Silvia Fröde, Carlos Eduardo Blanco Linares, Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva
Isoflavones widely distributed in plants prevent diabetes. This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effect of 3',4'-dihydroxy-6″,6″,6″',6″'-tetramethylbis(pyrano[2″,3″:5,6::2″',3″':7,8]isoflavone (bis-pyrano prenyl isoflavone) on glucose homeostasis in hyperglycemic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction from aerial parts of Polygala molluginifolia that contain isoflavones was assayed on glucose tolerance, on in vitro maltase activity and on protein glycation. The isoflavone bis-pyrano prenyl isolated from this fraction was investigated on glucose homeostasis...
January 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226105/hibiscus-sabdariffa-roselle-extracts-and-wine-phytochemical-profile-physicochemical-properties-and-carbohydrase-inhibition
#19
Idolo Ifie, Lisa J Marshall, Peter Ho, Gary Williamson
Three varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa were analyzed for their phytochemical content and inhibitory potential on carbohydrate-digesting enzymes as a basis for selecting a variety for wine production. The dark red variety was chosen as it was highest in phenolic content and an aqueous extract partially inhibited α-glucosidase (maltase), with delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid accounting for 65% of this activity. None of the varieties significantly inhibited α-amylase...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188780/stimulation-of-phenolics-antioxidant-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-activities-during-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-seed-germination
#20
K-S Ha, S-H Jo, V Mannam, Y-I Kwon, E Apostolidis
The rationale of this study was to enhance the nutritional quality of dry barley seeds. In this study we are evaluating the effect of germination on barley seeds relevant to total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity (in terms of DPPH free-radical scavenging) and the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Barley seeds were germinated for 18.5, 24, 30, 48, and 67 h and then extracted in water. The total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities changed with germination time...
June 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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