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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666544/efficiency-of-selected-food-ingredients-on-protein-efficiency-ratio-glycemic-index-and-in-vitro-digestive-properties
#1
M B Anusha, Naveen Shivanna, G Phani Kumar, K R Anilakumar
The human body on exposure to high-altitude, undergoes many physiological challenges. The cardiopulmonary reserves are favoured against the digestive system. Hence, the efficiency of digestion is compromised to a great extent, which leads to anorexia, hypophagia, epigastralgia, dyspepsia, nausea, and peptic ulcers. The present study was focused on in vitro digestive influence of selected food ingredients viz. cardamom, carom, cumin, coriander, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, pepper, star anise, turmeric, papaya, orange, pineapple, liquorice, valerian, and tarragon on the activities of digestive enzymes of rat pancreas, duodenum, and small intestine...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660529/bmsuc1-is-essential-for-glycometabolism-modulation-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#2
Quan Gan, Xinwei Zhang, Daobo Zhang, Liang Shi, Yue Zhou, Tongtong Sun, Song Jiang, Junshan Gao, Yan Meng
Sucrose is the most commonly transported sugar in plants and is easily assimilated by insects to fulfill the requirement of physiological metabolism. BmSuc1 is a novel animal β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase, EC 3.2.1.26)-encoding gene that was firstly cloned and identified in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmSUC1 was presumed to play an important role in the silkworm-mulberry enzymatic adaptation system by effectively hydrolyzing sucrose absorbed from mulberry leaves. However, this has not been proved with direct evidence thus far...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622220/individual-contributions-of-savinase-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-to-lentil-functionalization-during-alkaline-ph-controlled-fermentation
#3
Sara Bautista-Expósito, Elena Peñas, Montserrat Dueñas, José Manuel Silván, Juana Frias, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Legumes offer the possibility to develop multifunctional foods with benefits for metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to study the effect of alkaline fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Savinase (FLPS) as well the individual effects of both processes on peptides, phenolics and bioactivity of lentil. FLPS increased peptides and some flavonoids and enhanced antioxidant activity, inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and intestinal maltase activities of lentil soluble fraction. Savinase contributed to peptide release, ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of lentil soluble fraction...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615674/acute-metabolic-actions-of-the-major-polyphenols-in-chamomile-an-in-vitro-mechanistic-study-on-their-potential-to-attenuate-postprandial-hyperglycaemia
#4
Jose A Villa-Rodriguez, Asimina Kerimi, Laszlo Abranko, Sarka Tumova, Lauren Ford, Richard S Blackburn, Christopher Rayner, Gary Williamson
Transient hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and endothelial dysfunction, especially in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Nutritional interventions and strategies for controlling postprandial overshoot of blood sugars are considered key in preventing progress to the disease state. We have identified apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin, and (Z) and (E)-2-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid glucosides as the active (poly)phenols in Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) able to modulate carbohydrate digestion and absorption in vitro as assessed by inhibition of α-amylase and maltase activities...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562339/dietary-chlorogenic-acid-improves-growth-performance-of-weaned-pigs-through-maintaining-antioxidant-capacity-and-intestinal-digestion-and-absorption-function
#5
Jiali Chen, Yan Li, Bing Yu, Daiwen Chen, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural phenolic acid, which is an important component of biologically active dietary phenols isolated from various species. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CGA on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, intestinal digestion and absorption function, and the expression levels of intestinal digestion and absorption-related genes in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 200 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg CGA, respectively, in a 14-d trial...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548257/mechanistic-pathway-on-human-%C3%AE-glucosidase-maltase-glucoamylase-unveiled-by-qm-mm-calculations
#6
Natércia Fernandes Brás, Diogo Santos-Martins, Pedro A Fernandes, Maria João Ramos
The excessive consumption of starch in human diets is associated with highly prevalent chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. α-glucosidase enzymes contribute for the digestion of starch into glucose and are thus attractive therapeutic targets for diabetes. Given that the active sites of the various families of α-glucosidases have different sizes and structural features, atomistic descriptions of the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes can support the development of potent and selective new inhibitors...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524000/nutritional-implications-of-olives-and-sugar-attenuation-of-post-prandial-glucose-spikes-in-healthy-volunteers-by-inhibition-of-sucrose-hydrolysis-and-glucose-transport-by-oleuropein
#7
Asimina Kerimi, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Alison Pyner, Ebun Oladele, Julia S Gauer, Yala Stevens, Gary Williamson
PURPOSE: The secoiridoid oleuropein, as found in olives and olive leaves, modulates some biomarkers of diabetes risk in vivo. A possible mechanism may be to attenuate sugar digestion and absorption. METHODS: We explored the potential of oleuropein, prepared from olive leaves in a water soluble form (OLE), to inhibit digestive enzymes (α-amylase, maltase, sucrase), and lower [14 C(U)]-glucose uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing human GLUT2 and [14 C(U)]-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508680/medium-chain-tag-improve-intestinal-integrity-by-suppressing-toll-like-receptor-4-nucleotide-binding-oligomerisation-domain-proteins-and-necroptosis-signalling-in-weanling-piglets-challenged-with-lipopolysaccharide
#8
Xiao Xu, Shaokui Chen, Haibo Wang, Zhixiao Tu, Shuhui Wang, Xiuying Wang, Huiling Zhu, Chunwei Wang, Jiadong Zhu, Yulan Liu
This study was conducted to evaluate whether medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury by regulating intestinal epithelial inflammatory response, as well as necroptosis. A total of twenty-four weanling piglets were randomly allotted to one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement including diet type (5 % maize oil v. 4 % MCT+1 % maize oil) and immune stress (saline v. E. coli LPS). The piglets were fed diets containing maize oil or MCT for 21 d...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495635/the-postprandial-anti-hyperglycemic-effect-of-pyridoxine-and-its-derivatives-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-animal-models
#9
Hyuk Hwa Kim, Yu-Ri Kang, Jung-Yun Lee, Hung-Bae Chang, Ki Won Lee, Emmanouil Apostolidis, Young-In Kwon
In the current study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, against various digestive enzymes such as α-glucosidases, sucrase, maltase, and glucoamylase. Inhibition of these enzymes involved in the absorption of disaccharide can improve post-prandial hyperglycemia due to a carbohydrate-based diet. Pyridoxal (4.14 mg/mL of IC50 ) had the highest rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, followed by pyridoxamine and pyridoxine (4.85 and 5.02 mg/mL of IC50 , respectively)...
February 28, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465310/dietary-starch-breakdown-product-sensing-mobilizes-and-apically-activates-%C3%AE-glucosidases-in-small-intestinal-enterocytes
#10
Mohammad Chegeni, Mahdi Amiri, Buford L Nichols, Hassan Y Naim, Bruce R Hamaker
Dietary starch is finally converted to glucose for absorption by the small intestine mucosal α-glucosidases (sucrase-isomaltase [SI] and maltase-glucoamylase), and control of this process has health implications. Here, the molecular mechanisms were analyzed associated with starch-triggered maturation and transport of SI. Biosynthetic pulse-chase in Caco-2 cells revealed that the high MW SI species (265 kDa) induced by maltose (an α-amylase starch digestion product) had a higher rate of early trafficking and maturation compared with a glucose-induced SI (245 kDa)...
February 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444840/intestinal-%C3%AE-glycosidase-transcriptional-responses-during-development-and-diet-adjustment-in-altricial-birds
#11
Claudia Gatica-Sosa, Pawel Brzęk, Melisa Magallanes, William H Karasov, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
We describe developmental changes in maltasic activity and its mRNA through adulthood, and in response to increase in dietary starch. We studied house sparrows (HOSP; Passer domesticus L.), which undergo a natural switch from insects to starch-containing seed diet during development, and zebra finch (ZEBF; Taeniopygia guttata V.), which have a relatively fixed starchy-seed diet during development. In ZEBF, in whom maltasic activity increased with age but not with dietary starch, α -glycosidase (AG) mRNA was not affected by either age or dietary starch level...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433292/inhibitory-activity-of-phenolic-rich-pistachio-green-hull-extract-enriched-pasta-on-key-type-2-diabetes-relevant-enzymes-and-glycemic-index
#12
Sajjad Lalegani, Hassan Ahmadi Gavlighi, Mohammad Hossein Azizi, Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi
Phenolic compounds as agro-industrial by-products have been associated with health benefits since they exhibit high antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, polyphenol-rich extract from pistachio green hull (PGH) was evaluated for antioxidant activity and its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effect of PGH extract powder on in vitro starch digestibility was also evaluated. The results showed that PGH had stronger antioxidant activity than Trolox...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429513/protective-roles-of-rutin-against-restraint-stress-on-spermatogenesis-in-testes-of-adult-mice
#13
Asif Mehfooz, Quanwei Wei, Kaizhi Zheng, Mohamed Babo Fadlalla, Gracijela Maltasic, Fangxiong Shi
In order to investigate the effects of Rutin against restraint stress, 50 adult male mice were divided into five groups: control, restraint stress (RS), and RS with 2 doses of Rutin treatments. Mice were restrained in a conical tube for 4 h daily and Rutin was injected intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days. Restraint stress significantly decreases body weights, testis and epididymis weights, thymus weights, visceral fats, serum concentrations of testosterone, sperm counts, sperm motility and sperm viability, while it increases serum epinephrine levels, adrenal gland weights and abnormal sperms...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421697/a-new-entry-into-the-portfolio-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-as-potent-therapeutics-for-type-2-diabetes-design-bioevaluation-and-one-pot-multi-component-synthesis-of-diamine-bridged-coumarinyl-oxadiazole-conjugates
#14
Madiha Kazmi, Sumera Zaib, Aliya Ibrar, Sayyeda Tayyeba Amjad, Zainab Shafique, Saifullah Mehsud, Aamer Saeed, Jamshed Iqbal, Imtiaz Khan
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic multifarious metabolic disorder resulting from impaired glucose homeostasis has become one of the most challenging diseases with severe life threat to public health. The inhibition of α-glucosidase, a key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme, could serve as one of the effective methodology in both preventing and treating diabetes through controlling the postprandial glucose levels and suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia. In this context, three series of diamine-bridged bis-coumarinyl oxadiazole conjugates were designed and synthesized by one-pot multi-component methodology...
January 16, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421509/morning-glory-resin-glycosides-as-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in-silico-analysis
#15
Daniel Rosas-Ramírez, Sonia Escandón-Rivera, Rogelio Pereda-Miranda
Twenty-seven individual resin glycosides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. Four of these compounds displayed an inhibitory activity comparable to acarbose, which was used as a positive control. Molecular modeling studies performed by docking analysis were accomplished to predict that the active compounds and acarbose bind to the α-1,4-glucosidase enzyme catalytic site of MAL12 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through stable hydrogen bonds primarily with the amino acid residues HIS279 and GLN322...
February 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373684/the-effects-of-dietary-sulfur-amino-acids-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-enzyme-activity-and-nutrient-transporters-in-weaning-piglets
#16
E Y Zong, P F Huang, H S Yang, W Zhang, J Z Li, Y L Li, X Q Ding, X Xiong, Y L Yin
Early weaning results in intestinal dysfunction in piglets while sulfur amino acids (SAA) are involved in improving intestinal functions. We tested a hypothesis that dietary supplementation with SAA can improve intestinal functions of weaning piglets and analyzed the effects of different dietary SAA levels on intestinal functions. A total of 80 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 21 d of age and randomly assigned to one of five diets that contained 0.53, 0.63, 0.74, 0.85, or 0.96% SAA, which corresponded to 70, 85, 100, 115 or, 130% of the SAA:Lys ratio recommended by the NRC (2012)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304440/evaluation-of-an-insect-meal-of-the-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-as-soybean-substitute-intestinal-morphometry-enzymatic-and-microbial-activity-in-laying-hens
#17
Monica Isabella Cutrignelli, Maria Messina, Francesca Tulli, Basilio Randazzo, Ike Olivotto, Laura Gasco, Rosa Loponte, Fulvia Bovera
This research investigated the ileum morphometry and enzymatic activity, the caecal volatile fatty acid production and the apparent nutrient digestibility in laying hens fed a Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) as a complete replacement of diet soybean meal (SBM). The hens fed HILM exhibited a lower live weight (P<0.05) and a higher incidence of the full digestive tract (P<0.05) than the SBM group. In the duodenum, the maltase exhibited a higher (P<0.05) activity in the HILM group while the intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) had a higher (P<0...
April 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180238/glucose-homeostasis-in-the-euryhaline-crab-cytograpsus-angulatus-effects-of-the-salinity-in-the-amylase-maltase-and-sucrase-activities-in-the-hepatopancreas-and-in-the-carbohydrate-reserves-in-different-tissues
#18
Antonela Asaro, Roberto Alejandro Paggi, Juana Cristina Del Valle, Alejandra Antonia López Mañanes
We studied the existence, biochemical characteristics and response to different environmental salinities of amylase, maltase and sucrase activity in the intertidal euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana, 1852) along with the response to distinct salinities of glycogen and free glucose content in storage organs. Amylase, maltase and sucrase activities were kept over a broad range of pH and temperature and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Zymography showed the existence of two amylase forms in crabs exposed to 35 (osmoconformation) and low (6-10psu; hyper-regulation) or high (40psu) (hypo-regulation) salinities...
February 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168619/gut-microbes-limit-growth-in-house-sparrows-nestlings-passer-domesticus-but-not-through-limitations-in-digestive-capacity
#19
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Seth R Bordenstein, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142393/investigation-of-antihyperglycaemic-activity-of-banana-musa-sp-var-nanjangud-rasa-bale-flower-in-normal-and-diabetic-rats
#20
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, S P Dhanabal, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The vital enzymes of starch digestion and absorption are intestinal α-glucosidases and their inhibition improves postprandial hyperglycaemia, constituting an effective mode of therapy in diabetes. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the inhibitory potential of ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) on mammalian α-glucosidases and its pharmacological effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: EF was evaluated for its inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition on mammalian α-glucosidases...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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