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Li Guo, Yu Xiao, Chenchen Zhu, Shuilin Wang, Xianfeng Du, Bo Cui
The effects of the molecular structures of amylopectins on the enzymatic hydrolysis of waxy-rice amylopectin (WRA) and normal-rice amylopectin (NRA) were investigated. The results indicated that compared to NRA, WRA possessed larger chain length, number of chains, internal chain length, degree of polymerisation, interblock chain length, and lower degree of branching and short:long B-chains, which caused WRA was much less susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than NRA. The digestibility curves for WRA and NRA were well fitted by the first-order kinetic equation...
July 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Diana P Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Paolina K Lukova, Mariana M Nikolova, Rumen D Mladenov, Ilia N Iliev
BACKGROUND: Vaccinium myrtillus L. is a species belonging to the genus Vaccinium of the family Ericaceae. Bilberries have drawn attention due to the multiple benefits for the human health, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-neurodegenerative, and cardioprotective effects. Recently, bilberries were shown to inhibit the activity of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes that can help reduce the intensity of the metabolic syndrome and prevent type 2 diabetes. AIM: In this study, we investigated the α-glucosidase and amyloglucosidase inhibitory activities of polyphenol-rich extracts from fruit of Vaccinium myrtillus L...
June 1, 2017: Folia Medica
Liuxi Xia, Yuxiang Bai, Wanmeng Mu, Jinpeng Wang, Xueming Xu, Zhengyu Jin
Instead of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), branched β-CDs have been increasingly used in many aspects as they possess better solubility and higher bioadaptability. But most commercialized branched β-CDs were chemically synthesized. Thus, the glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G1-β-CD) prepared via enzymatic approach could be a nice substitute. However, the yield of G1-β-CD was low. Here, we reported a controlled two-step reaction to efficiently prepare G1-β-CD from maltodextrins by β-cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase (β-CGTase) and amyloglucosidase (AG)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Burak Altınel, S Sezgin Ünal
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, glucose oxidase, hemicellulase (mainly consist of endo-1,4-β-xylanase), cellulase, lipase, and the combination of phospholipase and hemicellulase (phospholipase + hemicellulase) on the extensographic properties of dough and the quality characteristics of bread prepared from wheat meal. The enzymes were added separately in two different amounts. The addition of glucose oxidase (at 0.0003-0.001%) caused a significant decrease in the resistance to extension, ratio of resistance to extensibility and energy values of the wheat meal dough compared with the control dough...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Angela Dura, Devin J Rose, Cristina M Rosell
Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Cristina M Rosell
Porous starches might offer an attractive alternative as bio-adsorbents of a variety of compounds. However, morphology and physicochemical properties of starches must be understood before exploring their applications. Objective was to study the action of different amylolytic enzymes for producing porous starches. Wheat, rice, potato and cassava starches were treated with Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM) and cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase). Morphological characteristics, chemical composition, adsorptive capacity and pasting/thermal properties were assessed...
October 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Marta Martinez-Garcia, Akrivi Kormpa, Marc J E C van der Maarel
Highly branched glucose polymers produced from starch are applied in various products, such as peritoneal dialysis solutions and sports drinks. Due to its insoluble, granular nature, the use of native starch as substrate requires an energy consuming pre-treatment to achieve solubilization at the expense of process costs. Glycogen, like starch, is also a natural glucose polymer that shows more favorable features, since it is readily soluble in cold water and more accessible by enzymes. The extremophilic red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria accumulates large amounts of a small, highly branched glycogen that could represent a good alternative to starch as substrate for the production of highly branched glucose polymers...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Pascal Humbert, Marina Vemmer, Marco Giampà, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Anant V Patel
CO2 is known as a major attractant for many arthropod pests which can be exploited for pest control within novel attract-and-kill strategies. This study reports on the development of a slow-release system for CO2 based on calcium alginate beads containing granular corn starch, amyloglucosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our aim was to evaluate the conditions which influence the CO2 release and to clarify the biochemical reactions taking place within the beads. The amyloglucosidase was immobilized with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87% in Ca-alginate beads supplemented with corn starch and S...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Gabriela N Barrera, Carmen C Tadini, Alberto E León, Pablo D Ribotta
The objective of this work was to investigate the contribution of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase to dough fermentation process and bread quality, as an alternative to reduce the negative effects caused by high damaged starch in flour. The dough properties during the proofing process were modified by higher damaged starch content. Higher damaged starch in flour resulted into breads with darker crusts and firmer crumbs. The enzymes reduced the negative influence of damaged starch, producing a positive effect on the maximum carbon dioxide pressure reached during fermentation and the carbon dioxide volume retained by dough...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Cristina M Rosell
The objective was to compare the action of different hydrolases for producing porous corn starches. Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM), cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and branching enzyme (BE) were tested using a range of concentrations. Microstructure, adsorptive capacity, pasting and thermal properties were assessed on the porous starches. SEM micrographs showed porous structures with diverse pore size distribution and pore area depending on the enzyme type and its level; AMG promoted the largest holes...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sidra Pervez, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader
Current study deals with immobilization of amyloglucosidase using two different strategies (entrapment and covalent binding). Chitosan beads were prepared using neutralization method while alginate beads were synthesized by simple gelation. Results of this study showed that percent recovery of amyloglucosidase after covalent binding was 85% however in case of entrapment it was 66%. Immobilization was optimized by standardizing various conditions including concentrations of polysaccharide (alginate: 4%; chitosan: 3%), divalent ions (0...
March 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eliane Colla, Lucielen Oliveira Santos, Kricelle Deamici, Glênio Magagnin, Mauricio Vendruscolo, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
Simultaneous production of amyloglucosidase (AMG) and exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) was carried out by Aspergillus niger in substrate of defatted rice bran in a rotating drum bioreactor (RDB) and studied by a 3(1) × 2(2) factorial experimental design. Variables under study were A. niger strains (A. niger NRRL 3122 and A. niger t0005/007-2), types of inoculum (spore suspension and fermented bran), and types of inducer (starch, pectin, and a mix of both). Solid-state fermentation process (SSF) was conducted at 30 °C under 60-vvm aeration for 96 h in a pilot scale...
February 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Natta Kachenpukdee, Charles R Santerre, Mario G Ferruzzi, Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai
The ability of modified dietary fiber (MDF) generated from cassava pulp to modulate the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of heavy metals may be helpful to mitigate health risk associated with select foods including select fish high in methyl mercury. Using a coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 human intestinal cell model, the reduction of fish mercury bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake by MDF was investiaged. MDF was prepared from cassava pulp, a byproduct of tapioca production. The highest yield (79...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science
Hye-Won Lee, Hye-Yeon Jeon, Hye-Jeong Choi, Na-Ri Kim, Woo-Jae Choung, Ye-Seul Koo, Dam-Seul Ko, SangGuan You, Jae-Hoon Shim
In this study, a novel α-amylase was cloned from Bifidobacterium longum and named BiLA. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 20 °C and a pH value of 5.0. Kinetic analysis using various carbohydrate substrates revealed that BiLA had the highest k(cat/)K(m) value for amylose. Interestingly, analysis of the enzymatic reaction products demonstrated that BiLA specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides and starches up to G5 from the nonreducing ends. To determine whether BiLA can be used to generate slowly digestible starch (SDS), starch was treated with BiLA, and the kinetic parameters were analyzed using porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG)...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bingqian Lin, Dan Liu, Jinmao Yan, Zhi Qiao, Yunxin Zhong, Jiawei Yan, Zhi Zhu, Tianhai Ji, Chaoyong James Yang
There is considerable demand for sensitive, selective, and portable detection of disease-associated proteins, particularly in clinical practice and diagnostic applications. Portable devices are highly desired for detection of disease biomarkers in daily life due to the advantages of being simple, rapid, user-friendly, and low-cost. Herein we report an enzyme-encapsulated liposome-linked immunosorbent assay for sensitive detection of proteins using personal glucose meters (PGM) for portable quantitative readout...
March 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ji-Yun Kwak, Min-Gyu Kim, Young-Wan Kim, Hyun-Seung Ban, Mi-Sun Won, Jong-Tae Park, Kwan-Hwa Park
Escherichia coli mutant TBP38 lacks glycogen synthase (GlgA) and maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP). When grown on maltose in fed-batch fermentation TBP38 accumulated more than 50-fold higher glycogen-type polysaccharide than its parental strain. The polysaccharides were extracted at different growth stages and migrated as one peak in size-exclusion chromatography. TBP38 produced polysaccharides ranging 2.6 × 10(6)-4.6 × 10(6)Da. A ratio of short side-chains (DP ≦ 12) in the polysaccharides was greater than 50%, and number-average degree of polymerization varied from 9...
January 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mary Beth Hall, Ronald D Hatfield
Microbial glycogen measurement is used to account for fates of carbohydrate substrates. It is commonly applied to washed cells or pure cultures which can be accurately subsampled, allowing the use of smaller sample sizes. However, the nonhomogeneous fermentation pellets produced with strained rumen inoculum cannot be accurately subsampled, requiring analysis of the entire pellet. In this study, two microbial glycogen methods were compared for analysis of such fermentation pellets: boiling samples for 3h in 30% KOH (KOH) or for 15min in 0...
November 2015: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Xurun Yu, Bo Li, Leilei Wang, Xinyu Chen, Wenjun Wang, Yunjie Gu, Zhong Wang, Fei Xiong
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to: (1) observe the effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (2) investigate the effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; and (3) compare the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. RESULTS: DS resulted in large A-type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B-type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars...
June 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
S Maaran, R Hoover, V Vamadevan, R N Waduge, Q Liu
The objective of this study was to understand the factors underlying the susceptibility of pulse (lablab bean, navy bean, rice bean, tepary bean, velvet bean, and wrinkled pea) and hylon VII starches towards in vitro hydrolysis by the combined action of pancreatin and amyloglucosidase. The time taken to reach an equivalent level of hydrolysis (50%) varied significantly among the starches. Changes to molecular order, crystallinity, double helical content, radial orientation of starch chains (polarized light), enthalpy and apparent amylose content during the progress of hydrolysis showed that rate and extent of hydrolysis were influenced both by the structure of the native starches at different levels (molecular, mesoscopic, microscopic) of granule organization, and by the extent of retrogradation between hydrolysed starch chains...
February 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Gabriela N Barrera, Alberto E León, Pablo D Ribotta
BACKGROUND: During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch...
May 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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