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Pascal Humbert, Marina Vemmer, Marco Giampà, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Anant V Patel
CO2 is known as a major attractant for many arthropod pests which can be exploited for pest control within novel attract-and-kill strategies. This study reports on the development of a slow-release system for CO2 based on calcium alginate beads containing granular corn starch, amyloglucosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our aim was to evaluate the conditions which influence the CO2 release and to clarify the biochemical reactions taking place within the beads. The amyloglucosidase was immobilized with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87% in Ca-alginate beads supplemented with corn starch and S...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Gabriela N Barrera, Carmen C Tadini, Alberto E León, Pablo D Ribotta
The objective of this work was to investigate the contribution of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase to dough fermentation process and bread quality, as an alternative to reduce the negative effects caused by high damaged starch in flour. The dough properties during the proofing process were modified by higher damaged starch content. Higher damaged starch in flour resulted into breads with darker crusts and firmer crumbs. The enzymes reduced the negative influence of damaged starch, producing a positive effect on the maximum carbon dioxide pressure reached during fermentation and the carbon dioxide volume retained by dough...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Cristina M Rosell
The objective was to compare the action of different hydrolases for producing porous corn starches. Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM), cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and branching enzyme (BE) were tested using a range of concentrations. Microstructure, adsorptive capacity, pasting and thermal properties were assessed on the porous starches. SEM micrographs showed porous structures with diverse pore size distribution and pore area depending on the enzyme type and its level; AMG promoted the largest holes...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sidra Pervez, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader
Current study deals with immobilization of amyloglucosidase using two different strategies (entrapment and covalent binding). Chitosan beads were prepared using neutralization method while alginate beads were synthesized by simple gelation. Results of this study showed that percent recovery of amyloglucosidase after covalent binding was 85% however in case of entrapment it was 66%. Immobilization was optimized by standardizing various conditions including concentrations of polysaccharide (alginate: 4%; chitosan: 3%), divalent ions (0...
March 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eliane Colla, Lucielen Oliveira Santos, Kricelle Deamici, Glênio Magagnin, Mauricio Vendruscolo, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
Simultaneous production of amyloglucosidase (AMG) and exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) was carried out by Aspergillus niger in substrate of defatted rice bran in a rotating drum bioreactor (RDB) and studied by a 3(1) × 2(2) factorial experimental design. Variables under study were A. niger strains (A. niger NRRL 3122 and A. niger t0005/007-2), types of inoculum (spore suspension and fermented bran), and types of inducer (starch, pectin, and a mix of both). Solid-state fermentation process (SSF) was conducted at 30 °C under 60-vvm aeration for 96 h in a pilot scale...
February 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Natta Kachenpukdee, Charles R Santerre, Mario G Ferruzzi, Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai
The ability of modified dietary fiber (MDF) generated from cassava pulp to modulate the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of heavy metals may be helpful to mitigate health risk associated with select foods including select fish high in methyl mercury. Using a coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 human intestinal cell model, the reduction of fish mercury bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake by MDF was investiaged. MDF was prepared from cassava pulp, a byproduct of tapioca production. The highest yield (79...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science
Hye-Won Lee, Hye-Yeon Jeon, Hye-Jeong Choi, Na-Ri Kim, Woo-Jae Choung, Ye-Seul Koo, Dam-Seul Ko, SangGuan You, Jae-Hoon Shim
In this study, a novel α-amylase was cloned from Bifidobacterium longum and named BiLA. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 20 °C and a pH value of 5.0. Kinetic analysis using various carbohydrate substrates revealed that BiLA had the highest k(cat/)K(m) value for amylose. Interestingly, analysis of the enzymatic reaction products demonstrated that BiLA specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides and starches up to G5 from the nonreducing ends. To determine whether BiLA can be used to generate slowly digestible starch (SDS), starch was treated with BiLA, and the kinetic parameters were analyzed using porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG)...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bingqian Lin, Dan Liu, Jinmao Yan, Zhi Qiao, Yunxin Zhong, Jiawei Yan, Zhi Zhu, Tianhai Ji, Chaoyong James Yang
There is considerable demand for sensitive, selective, and portable detection of disease-associated proteins, particularly in clinical practice and diagnostic applications. Portable devices are highly desired for detection of disease biomarkers in daily life due to the advantages of being simple, rapid, user-friendly, and low-cost. Herein we report an enzyme-encapsulated liposome-linked immunosorbent assay for sensitive detection of proteins using personal glucose meters (PGM) for portable quantitative readout...
March 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ji-Yun Kwak, Min-Gyu Kim, Young-Wan Kim, Hyun-Seung Ban, Mi-Sun Won, Jong-Tae Park, Kwan-Hwa Park
Escherichia coli mutant TBP38 lacks glycogen synthase (GlgA) and maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP). When grown on maltose in fed-batch fermentation TBP38 accumulated more than 50-fold higher glycogen-type polysaccharide than its parental strain. The polysaccharides were extracted at different growth stages and migrated as one peak in size-exclusion chromatography. TBP38 produced polysaccharides ranging 2.6 × 10(6)-4.6 × 10(6)Da. A ratio of short side-chains (DP ≦ 12) in the polysaccharides was greater than 50%, and number-average degree of polymerization varied from 9...
January 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mary Beth Hall, Ronald D Hatfield
Microbial glycogen measurement is used to account for fates of carbohydrate substrates. It is commonly applied to washed cells or pure cultures which can be accurately subsampled, allowing the use of smaller sample sizes. However, the nonhomogeneous fermentation pellets produced with strained rumen inoculum cannot be accurately subsampled, requiring analysis of the entire pellet. In this study, two microbial glycogen methods were compared for analysis of such fermentation pellets: boiling samples for 3h in 30% KOH (KOH) or for 15min in 0...
November 2015: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Xurun Yu, Bo Li, Leilei Wang, Xinyu Chen, Wenjun Wang, Yunjie Gu, Zhong Wang, Fei Xiong
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to: (1) observe the effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (2) investigate the effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; and (3) compare the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. RESULTS: DS resulted in large A-type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B-type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars...
June 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
S Maaran, R Hoover, V Vamadevan, R N Waduge, Q Liu
The objective of this study was to understand the factors underlying the susceptibility of pulse (lablab bean, navy bean, rice bean, tepary bean, velvet bean, and wrinkled pea) and hylon VII starches towards in vitro hydrolysis by the combined action of pancreatin and amyloglucosidase. The time taken to reach an equivalent level of hydrolysis (50%) varied significantly among the starches. Changes to molecular order, crystallinity, double helical content, radial orientation of starch chains (polarized light), enthalpy and apparent amylose content during the progress of hydrolysis showed that rate and extent of hydrolysis were influenced both by the structure of the native starches at different levels (molecular, mesoscopic, microscopic) of granule organization, and by the extent of retrogradation between hydrolysed starch chains...
February 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Gabriela N Barrera, Alberto E León, Pablo D Ribotta
BACKGROUND: During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch...
May 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Murat Uygun, Begüm Akduman, Bülent Ergönül, Deniz Aktaş Uygun, Sinan Akgöl, Adil Denizli
Poly(methyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) [Poly(MMA-GMA)] cryogels were synthesized using monomers of methylmethacrylic acid and epoxy group bearing GMA via radical cryopolymerization technique. Synthesized cryogels were used for the immobilization of amyloglucosidase to the cryogel surface using epoxy chemistry. Characterizations of the free and immobilized amyloglucosidase were carried out by comparing the optimum and kinetic parameters of enzymes. For this, pH and temperature profiles of free and immobilized preparation were studied and, it was found that, optimum pH of enzyme was not change upon immobilization (pH 5...
2015: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
M Kapelko-Żeberska, T Zięba, R Spychaj, A Gryszkin
This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase...
December 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
Kenichi Tanabe, Sadako Nakamura, Katsuhisa Omagari, Tsuneyuki Oku
We have previously shown that the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) methods 2001.03 and 2009.01 were not able to measure accurately nondigestible oligosaccharide because they are incapable of hydrolyzing digestible oligosaccharide, leading to overestimation of nondigestible oligosaccharide. Subsequently, we have proposed improved AOAC methods 2001.03 and 2009.01 using porcine small intestinal disaccharidases instead of amyloglucosidase. In the present study, we tried to determine nondigestible oligosaccharide in marketed processed foods using the improved AOAC method (improved method), and the results were compared with those by AOAC method 2009...
June 24, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kishor S Gavale, Shrawan R Chavan, Ayesha Khan, Rakesh Joshi, Dilip D Dhavale
A simple strategy for the synthesis of hitherto unknown azetidine iminosugars 2a–2c and N-carboxylic azetidine iminosugar 2d has been reported. The methodology involves the conversion of 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-oxo-α-D-glucofuranose 3 to 3-azido-3-deoxy-3-C-(formyl)-1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-glucofuranose 5 using the Jocic–Reeve and Corey–Link approaches. Compound 5 was transformed to 5-OTs 10/5-OMs 19 derivatives that on intramolecular nucleophilic displacement with in situ generated 3-amino functionality afforded the key azetidine ring skeletons 11 and 20, respectively...
June 21, 2015: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Amandip Kaur, G S Dhingra, Richa Shri
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases. One antidiabetic therapeutic approach is to reduce gastrointestinal glucose production and absorption through the inhibition of α-amylase and α-amyloglucosidase enzymes, thereby preventing an increase in the postprandial glucose concentration in diabetics. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of 3 mushrooms, that is, Ganoderma philippii, Lenzites elegans, and Rigidoporus ulmarius, using an in vitro enzymatic starch digestion assay model...
2015: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Mary Beth Hall
Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme...
March 2015: Journal of AOAC International
Mohd Younis Rather, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
Substrates present in aggregated forms, such as micelles, are often poorly converted by enzymes. Alkyl glycosides constitute typical examples and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreases with increasing length of the alkyl group. In this study, possibilities to hydrolyse alkyl glycosides by glycoside hydrolases were explored, and α-cyclodextrin was used as an agent to form inclusion complexes with the alkyl glycosides, thereby preventing micelle formation. The cyclodextrin complexes were accepted as substrates by the enzymes to variable extent...
April 20, 2015: Journal of Biotechnology
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