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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920784/the-arabidopsis-angustifolia3-yoda-gene-cascade-induces-anthocyanin-accumulation-by-regulating-sucrose-levels
#1
Lai-Sheng Meng, Ying-Qiu Li, Meng-Qian Liu, Ji-Hong Jiang
Anthocyanin accumulation specifically depends on sucrose (Suc) signaling/levels. However, the gene cascades specifically involved in the Suc signaling/level-mediated anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway are still unknown. Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3), a transcription coactivator, is involved in the regulation of leaf shape and drought tolerance. Recently, an AN3-CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 gene cascade has been reported to regulate the light signaling-mediated anthocyanin accumulation. Target gene analysis indicates that AN3 is associated with the YODA (YDA) promoter, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, in vivo for inducing anthocyanin accumulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919813/designing-of-a-novel-dextransucrase-efficient-in-synthesizing-oligosaccharides
#2
Qiu-Ping Li, Chao Wang, Hong-Bin Zhang, Xue-Qin Hu, Ruo-Han Li, Jing-Han Hua
Dextransucrase (EC2.4.5.1) from strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides 0326, which synthesizes dextran and oligosaccharides, which act as prebiotics, are popularly used in such industries as food and medicine. A novel dextransucrase efficient in synthesizing oligosaccharides was designed. We constructed the truncation mutant DSR-S1-ΔA (residues 1-3087bp) by deleting the 1494bp fragment of the C-terminal. The novel enzyme (MW: 110kDa) loss activity, when sucrose was used as only substrate. After adding an acceptor, DSR-S1-ΔA was fully activated but with heavily impaired polysaccharide synthesis ability...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919695/metabolomics-identifies-perturbations-in-amino-acid-metabolism-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-the-learned-helplessness-rat-model-of-depression
#3
Xinyu Zhou, Lanxiang Liu, Yuqing Zhang, Juncai Pu, Lining Yang, Chanjuan Zhou, Shuai Yuan, Hanping Zhang, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric condition associated with high rates of suicide and is a leading cause of health burden worldwide. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of major depression are still essentially unclear. In our study, a non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex of the learned helplessness rat model of depression. Body-weight measurements and behavioral tests including the active escape test, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, elevated plus-maze and open field test were used to assess changes in the behavioral spectrum after inescapable footshock stress...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919319/chemogenetic-inhibition-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-the-effects-of-rem-sleep-loss-on-sucrose-consumption
#4
Kristopher McEown, Yohko Takata, Yoan Cherasse, Nanae Nagata, Kosuke Aritake, Michael Lazarus
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep loss is associated with increased consumption of weight-promoting foods. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to mediate reward anticipation. However, the precise role of the PFC in mediating reward responses to highly palatable foods (HPF) after REM sleep deprivation is unclear. We selectively reduced REM sleep in mice over a 25-48 hr period and chemogenetically inhibited the medial PFC (mPFC) by using an altered glutamate-gated and ivermectin-gated chloride channel that facilitated neuronal inhibition through hyperpolarizing infected neurons...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918270/interaction-of-inhibitory-and-facilitatory-effects-of-conditioning-trials-on-long-term-memory-formation
#5
Shouhei Hosono, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Makoto Mizunami
Animals learn through experience and consolidate the memories into long-time storage. Conditioning parameters to induce protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) have been the subject of extensive studies in many animals. Here we found a case in which a conditioning trial inhibits or facilitates LTM formation depending on the intervals from preceding trials. We studied the effects of conditioning parameters on LTM formation in olfactory conditioning of maxillary-palpi extension response with sucrose reward in the cockroach Periplaneta americana We found, at first, that translation- and transcription-dependent LTM forms 1 h after training, the fastest so far reported in insects...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918241/detection-of-oil-palm-root-penetration-by-agrobacterium-mediated-transformed-ganoderma-boninense-expressing-green-fluorescent-protein
#6
Nisha Thopla Govender, Mui-Yun Wong
A highly efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Ganoderma boninense was developed to facilitate observation of the early stage infection of basal stem rot (BSR). The method was proven amenable to different explants (basidiospore, protoplast and mycelium) of G. boninense. The transformation efficiency was highest (62%) under a treatment combination of protoplast explants and Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 with successful expression of hygromycin (hyg) marker gene and gus-gfp fusion gene, under the control of heterologous p416 gpd promoter...
December 5, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917301/separation-of-bacteria-protozoa-and-carbon-nanotubes-by-density-gradient-centrifugation
#7
Monika Mortimer, Elijah J Petersen, Bruce A Buchholz, Patricia A Holden
Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates...
2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916945/cytokinins-and-expression-of-sweet-sut-cwinv-and-aap-genes-increase-as-pea-seeds-germinate
#8
Paula E Jameson, Pragatheswari Dhandapani, Ondrej Novak, Jiancheng Song
Transporter genes and cytokinins are key targets for crop improvement. These genes are active during the development of the seed and its establishment as a strong sink. However, during germination, the seed transitions to being a source for the developing root and shoot. To determine if the sucrose transporter (SUT), amino acid permease (AAP), Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET), cell wall invertase (CWINV), cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT), activation (LOG) and degradation (CKX) gene family members are involved in both the sink and source activities of seeds, we used RT-qPCR to determine the expression of multiple gene family members, and LC-MS/MS to ascertain endogenous cytokinin levels in germinating Pisum sativum L...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915456/use-of-iron-sucrose-and-red-blood-cell-transfusions-in-anaemic-cancer-patients-in-france-oncofer-study
#9
Elisabeth Luporsi, Alain Toledano, Dominique Spaeth, Florian Scotté, Marc Espié, Stéphanie Perot, Ladan Duvillié, Isabelle Pithois Merli, Roland Bugat
PURPOSE: This report describes the results of an observational, retrospective cohort study, evaluating the use of iron sucrose (IS) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in patients with cancer in routine clinical practice in France. A parallel investigated cohort treated with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been reported earlier. METHODS: Data of patients with a solid tumour or haematological malignancy who have received IS or an RBC transfusion during 2010 from 3 months prior (M-3) to 3 months post first treatment (M+3) were analysed...
December 3, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915410/the-properties-and-potential-metabolic-role-of-glucokinase-in-halotolerant-obligate-methanotroph-methylomicrobium-alcaliphilum-20z
#10
Ildar I Mustakhimov, Olga N Rozova, Natalia P Solntseva, Valentina N Khmelenina, Alexander S Reshetnikov, Yuri A Trotsenko
Aerobic bacteria utilizing methane as the carbon and energy source do not use sugars as growth substrates but possess the gene coding for glucokinase (Glk), an enzyme converting glucose into glucose 6-phosphate. Here we demonstrate the functionality and properties of Glk from an obligate methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. The recombinant Glk obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli was found to be close in biochemical properties to other prokaryotic Glks. The homodimeric enzyme (2 × 35 kDa) catalyzed ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose and glucosamine with nearly equal activity, being inhibited by ADP (K i = 2...
December 3, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915092/acupuncture-ameliorates-inflammatory-response-in-a-chronic-unpredictable-stress-rat-model-of-depression
#11
Jun Lu, Run-Hui Shao, Shu-Ying Jin, Li Hu, Ya Tu, Jian-You Guo
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Chronic inflammatory response has been viewed as a key factor in depression. Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying antidepressant effect of acupuncture. The rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 28days to induce depressive-like behaviors. Acupuncture treatment was applied once every other day during the 28-day stress period...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914794/modeling-the-secondary-drying-stage-of-freeze-drying-development-and-validation-of-an-excel-based-model
#12
Ekneet K Sahni, Michael J Pikal
Although several mathematical models of primary drying have been developed over the years, with significant impact on the efficiency of process design, models of secondary drying have been confined to highly complex models. The simple-to-use Excel-based model developed here is, in essence, a series of steady state calculations of heat and mass transfer in the 2 halves of the dry layer where drying time is divided into a large number of time steps, where in each time step steady state conditions prevail. Water desorption isotherm and mass transfer coefficient data are required...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914320/biochemical-precursor-effects-on-the-fatty-acid-production-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-theobroma-cacao-l
#13
O Parra, A M Gallego, A Urrea, L F Rojas, C Correa, L Atehortúa
Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913282/proteomics-provides-insights-into-biological-pathways-altered-by-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-sorghum-grown-in-marginal-soil
#14
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913241/evaluation-of-highly-branched-cyclic-dextrin-in-inhalable-particles-of-combined-antibiotics-for-the-pulmonary-delivery-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#15
Kazunori Kadota, Arisa Senda, Hideaki Tagishi, John Oluwasogo Ayorinde, Yuichi Tozuka
This work aims to identify a suitable formulation for the pulmonary delivery of combinations of inhalational drugs using highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) macromolecules. We compared the effectiveness between powders prepared from HBCD with those prepared from five alternative excipients (lactose, maltose, sucrose, β-cyclodextrin and methyl β-cyclodextrin) in the pulmonary delivery of a single-dosage form of two anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin). Fine particles of untreated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and combination products using excipients were prepared by spray drying...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913168/fermentative-production-of-high-titer-citric-acid-from-corn-stover-feedstock-after-dry-dilute-acid-pretreatment-and-biodetoxification
#16
Ping-Ping Zhou, Jiao Meng, Jie Bao
The aim of this work is to study the citric acid fermentation by a robust strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M288 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and biodetoxification. Citric acid at 100.04g/L with the yield of 94.11% was obtained, which are comparable to the starch or sucrose based citric acid fermentation. No free wastewater was generated in the overall process from the pretreatment to citric acid fermentation. Abundant divalent metal ions as well as high titer of potassium, phosphate, and nitrogen were found in corn stover hydrolysate...
November 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912968/validation-of-a-thin-layer-chromatography-densitometry-method-for-the-characterization-of-invertase-activity
#17
Justine Ferey, David Da Silva, Sophie Bravo-Veyrat, Pierre Lafite, Richard Daniellou, Benoît Maunit
This paper presents a kinetic study of invertase, a specific fructofuranosidase cloned from the Leishmania major genome. The kinetic parameters of the β-d-fructofuranosidase from Leishmania major (BfrA) were determined using Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and UV-densitometry (TLC@UV) specifically developed for the separation and detection of three carbohydrates namely sucrose, glucose and fructose. Separation was performed on TLC silica gel 60 F254 plates impregnated with sodium bisulphate and citrate and heated prior to development...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911360/development-of-a-more-sensitive-and-specific-chromogenic-agar-medium-for-the-detection-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-other-vibrio-species
#18
Marie Yeung, Trevor Thorsen
Foodborne infections in the US caused by Vibrio species have shown an upward trend. In the genus Vibrio, V. parahaemolyticus is responsible for the majority of Vibrio-associated infections. Thus, accurate differentiation among Vibrio spp. and detection of V. parahaemolyticus is critically important to ensure the safety of our food supply. Although molecular techniques are increasingly common, culture-depending methods are still routinely done and they are considered standard methods in certain circumstances...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909048/the-ph-dependence-of-saccharides-influence-on-thermal-denaturation-of-two-model-proteins-supports-an-excluded-volume-model-for-stabilization-generalized-to-allow-for-intramolecular-electrostatic-interactions
#19
Ilyas Beg, Allen P Minton, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
The reversible thermal denaturation of apo alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme was measured in the absence and presence of multiple concentrations of each of seven saccharides (glucose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose and stachyose) at multiple pH values. It was observed that with increasing pH, the absolute stability of alpha-lactalbumin decreased while the stabilizing effect per mole of all saccharides increased, and that the absolute stability of lysozyme increased, while the stabilizing effect per mole of all saccharides decreased...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908495/analysis-of-low-abundant-trehalose-6-phosphate-and-related-metabolites-in-medicago-truncatula-by-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#20
Ana Teresa Mata, Tiago Filipe Jorge, João Ferreira, Maria do Rosário Bronze, Diana Branco, Pedro Fevereiro, Susana Araújo, Carla António
Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is an important signaling metabolite involved in plant growth control that inhibits the sucrose nonfermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1), a key regulator of energy and carbon metabolism in plants. The quantification of T6P in plant tissues is fundamental to improve our understanding of sugar signaling and the links between plant growth and development in response to stress conditions. However, the almost undetectable levels of T6P together with the complex plant matrix and the presence of T6P isomers such as sucrose-6-phosphate (S6P), makes the detection of this metabolite challenging...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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