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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458197/changes-in-motor-function-cognition-and-emotion-related-behavior-after-right-hemispheric-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-various-brain-regions-of-mouse
#1
Wei Zhu, Yufeng Gao, Jieru Wan, Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Shanshan Zhu, Weidong Zang, Xuemei Chen, Wendy Ziai, Daniel F Hanley, Scott J Russo, Ricardo E Jorge, Jian Wang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a detrimental type of stroke. Mouse models of ICH, induced by collagenase or blood infusion, commonly target striatum, but not other brain sites such as ventricular system, cortex, and hippocampus. Few studies have systemically investigated brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits that develop in animal models of ICH in these areas of the right hemisphere. Therefore, we evaluated the brain damage and neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with right hemispheric ICH in ventricle, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458117/agomelatine-s-effect-on-circadian-locomotor-rhythm-alteration-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#2
Leonardo C Souza, Bruno J Martynhak, Taysa B Bassani, Joelle de M Turnes, Meira M Machado, Eric Moura, Roberto Andreatini, Maria A B F Vital
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often suffer from circadian locomotor rhythms impairment and depression, important non-motor symptoms. It is known that toxin-based animal models of PD can reproduce these features. In a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) intranigral model, we first investigated the possible disturbances on circadian rhythms of locomotor activity. The rats were divided into 6-OHDA and Sham groups. After a partial dopaminergic lesion, the 6-OHDA group showed slight alterations in different circadian locomotor rhythms parameters...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454951/the-role-of-sucrose-concentration-in-self-assembly-kinetics-of-high-methoxyl-pectin
#3
Daniela Giacomazza, Donatella Bulone, Pier Luigi San Biagio, Rosamaria Marino, Romano Lapasin
Several natural and synthetic polysaccharides are able to form, under appropriate conditions, supramolecular structures, typically physical hydrogels, and, together with their biocompatibility, this explains their wide use in food, pharmaceutical and biomedical sectors. In the case of high methoxyl pectins (HMP) the gel formation is promoted by the presence of cosolutes (sugars or polyols) and low pH. The present investigation mainly regards the structuring kinetics of aqueous HMP solutions at acid pH (3.1) with the same pectin concentration (0...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454888/bioequivalence-decision-for-nanoparticular-iron-complex-drugs-for-parenteral-administration-based-on-their-disposition
#4
Julia Schnorr, Sören Fütterer, Karsten Spicher, Maria Catarinolo, Christoph Schlösser, Harald Enzmann, Peter Langguth
Although parenteral iron products have been established to medicinal use decades before, their structure and pharmacokinetic properties are not fully characterized yet. With its' second reflection paper on intravenous iron-based nano-colloidal products (EMA/CHMP/SWP/620008/2012) the European Medicine Agency provided an extensive catalogue of methods for quality, non-clinical and pharmacokinetic studies for the comparison of nano-sized iron products to an originator (EMA, 2015). For iron distribution studies, the reflection paper assumed the use of rodents...
February 15, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454843/impact-of-high-sucrose-diets-on-the-discrimination-of-spatial-and-object-memories-with-overlapping-features
#5
Cem Buyukata, Milijana Vukalo, Tanya J Xu, Madhavi A Khore, Amy C Reichelt
High sucrose diets (HSDs) have been shown to have detrimental effects on hippocampal dependent memory in rats, including the performance of spatial tasks reliant on pattern separation, a cognitive process involved in minimising interference during memory encoding. As such we sought to investigate the impact of HSDs on object and spatial recognition tasks that varied the cognitive load placed on pattern separation processes. Young male and female rats were 4 weeks old at the start of diet manipulations. Rats in the HSD condition were provided with daily access to 10% sucrose solution for 2 h per day across a 28 d period, during which they were assessed on their performance of memory tasks that varied the similarity of spatial arrangements (Spontaneous Location Recognition, SLR) and object features (Novel Object Recognition, NOR) to determine the effect of HSD on memory encoding processes...
February 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454579/nucleus-accumbens-inflammation-mediates-anxiodepressive-behavior-and-compulsive-sucrose-seeking-elicited-by-saturated-dietary-fat
#6
Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Cécile Hryhorczuk, Victor Issa Garcia, Philip A Barker, Nathalie Arbour, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454288/apocynum-venetum-leaf-extract-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-chronically-stressed-rats-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#7
Xiangting Li, Ting Wu, Zhonghai Yu, Tingting Li, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Min Cai, Wen Zhang, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious psychiatric disorder, but current treatments are inadequate for approximately half of the patients with MDD. Thus, better methods of treatment are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanism of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CUMS rat model of depression was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity and relevant mechanism of AVLE (30, 60, and 125 mg/kg, i...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454084/augmented-voluntary-consumption-of-ethanol-induced-by-reward-downshift-increases-locomotor-activity-of-male-wistar-rats-in-the-elevated-plus-maze
#8
Rocio Donaire, Shannon E Conrad, Joanna B Thompson, Mauricio R Papini, Carmen Torres
Rats exposed to unexpected reward loss increase voluntary oral consumption of ethanol. Such consumption has been assumed to attenuate loss-induced negative affect (called emotional self-medication). To test this assumption, food-deprived male Wistar rats were exposed to 10 sessions of access to 32% sucrose followed by 5 sessions of access to 4% sucrose (reward downshift). A two-bottle preference test was initiated immediately after each consummatory session to assess ethanol intake. The experimental group received access to 2% ethanol and water, whereas the control group received access to two water bottles...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454055/optimization-chain-conformation-and-characterization-of-exopolysaccharide-isolated-from-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-drp105
#9
Hanwen Xing, Renpeng Du, Fangkun Zhao, Ye Han, Huazhi Xiao, Zhijiang Zhou
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the fermentation condition of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRP105. Result showed that the optimum condition was sucrose 86.83 g/L, tryptone 15.47 g/L, initial pH 7.18 and maximum yield was 53.79 ± 0.78 g/L in 36 h fermentation. Chain conformation was characterized by Congo red test, β-elimination and circular dichroism (CD), which indicated that the EPS was O-linkage and exhibited random coil structure in aqueous solution...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453437/enhancement-of-immunomodulative-effect-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-with-sucrose-palmitate
#10
Masaya Kanayama, Yukiko Kato, Toshikazu Tsuji, Yuki Konoeda, Akiko Hashimoto, Osamu Kanauchi, Toshio Fujii, Daisuke Fujiwara
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in the immune response against viruses. In addition, recent research has suggested that pDCs possess direct and indirect tumoricidal activities. We previously found that a lactic acid bacteria strain, Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805 (LC-Plasma), stimulated pDCs and prevented viral infection in mouse and human studies. Meanwhile, emulsifiers have recently been highlighted as candidate adjuvants for some viral vaccines and cancer immunotherapies. In this study, we discovered some specific emulsifiers, mainly consisting of sucrose fatty acid esters, that drastically enhance the potency of LC-Plasma to activate pDCs in vitro...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453261/molecular-and-functional-study-of-a-branching-sucrase-like-glucansucrase-reveals-an-evolutionary-intermediate-between-two-subfamilies-of-the-gh70-enzymes
#11
Minghui Yan, Bing-Hua Wang, Xiaofen Xu, Peng Chang, Feng Hang, Zhengjun Wu, Chunping You, Zhenmin Liu
Family GH70 glucansucrases (GSs) catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans from sucrose, a reaction widely seen in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These enzymes have been implicated in many aspects of the microbial life. Products of GSs have great commercial value as food supplements and medical materials, therefore these enzymes have attracted much attention from both fields of science and industry. However, certain issues concerning the origin and evolution of GS are still to be addressed, although an increasing number of GH70 enzymes have been characterized...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452828/glutamatergic-ventral-pallidal-neurons-modulate-activity-of-the-habenula-tegmental-circuitry-and-constrain-reward-seeking
#12
Jessica Tooley, Lauren Marconi, Jason Bondoc Alipio, Bridget Matikainen-Ankney, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexxai V Kravitz, Meaghan C Creed
BACKGROUND: The ability to appropriately integrate and respond to rewarding and aversive stimuli is essential for survival. The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli. However, the VP is a heterogeneous structure, and how VP subpopulations integrate into larger reward networks to ultimately modulate these behaviors is not known. We identify a noncanonical population of glutamatergic VP neurons that play a unique role in responding to aversive stimuli and constraining inappropriate reward seeking...
January 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452184/production-of-chitinase-from-escherichia-fergusonii-chitosanase-from-chryseobacterium-indologenes-comamonas-koreensis-and-its-application-in-n-acetylglucosamine-production
#13
Tae Il Kim, Dong Hyun Lim, Kwang Soo Baek, Sun Sik Jang, Beom Young Park, Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan
The important platform polysaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) has great potential to be used in the fields of food, cosmetics, agricultural, pharmaceutical, medicine and biotechnology. This GlcNAc is being produced by traditional methods of environment-unfriendly chemical digestion with strong acids. Therefore, researchers have been paying more attention to enzymatic hydrolysis process for the production of GlcNAc. Hence, in this study, we isolated novel chitinase (Escherichia fergusonii) and chitosanase (Chryseobacterium indologenes, Comamonas koreensis) producing strains from Korean native calves feces, and developed the potential of an eco-friendly microbial progression for GlcNAc production from swollen chitin and chitosan by enzymatic degradation...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451311/impaired-phloem-loading-in-zmsweet13a-b-c-sucrose-transporter-triple-knock-out-mutants-in-zea-mays
#14
Margaret Bezrutczyk, Thomas Hartwig, Marc Horshman, Si Nian Char, Jinliang Yang, Bing Yang, Wolf B Frommer, Davide Sosso
Crop yield depends on efficient allocation of sucrose from leaves to seeds. In Arabidopsis, phloem loading is mediated by a combination of SWEET sucrose effluxers and subsequent uptake by SUT1/SUC2 sucrose/H + symporters. ZmSUT1 is essential for carbon allocation in maize, but the relative contribution to apoplasmic phloem loading and retrieval of sucrose leaking from the translocation path is not known. Here we analysed the contribution of SWEETs to phloem loading in maize. We identified three leaf-expressed SWEET sucrose transporters as key components of apoplasmic phloem loading in Zea mays L...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450118/elite-hairy-roots-of-raphanus-sativus-l-as-a-source-of-antioxidants-and-flavonoids
#15
Muthusamy Balasubramanian, Murugesan Anbumegala, Ramasamy Surendran, Muthukrishnan Arun, Girija Shanmugam
An efficient protocol for hairy root induction in radish was established by optimizing several parameters that affect the efficiency of Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformations. Explants wounded using sterile hypodermic needle, infected with Agrobacterium suspension (0.6 OD 600 ) for 10 min and co-cultivated in 1/2 MS medium containing acetosyringone (100 µM) for 2 days displayed maximum percentage of hairy root induction using MTCC 2364 (77.6%) and MTCC 532 (67.6%). On further experiments with MTCC 2364 initiated hairy roots, maximum biomass accumulation (fresh weight = 9...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449852/characterization-of-sugar-contents-and-sucrose-metabolizing-enzymes-in-developing-leaves-of-hevea-brasiliensis
#16
Jinheng Zhu, Jiyan Qi, Yongjun Fang, Xiaohu Xiao, Jiuhui Li, Jixian Lan, Chaorong Tang
Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis , a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV), with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449577/neutralization-of-il-15-abrogates-experimental-immune-mediated-cholangitis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
José L Reyes, Danielle T Vannan, Tina Vo, Aliya Gulamhusein, Paul L Beck, Raylene A Reimer, Bertus Eksteen
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting chronic inflammatory diseases. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that can occur as an extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previously we reported that patients with PSC who are obese have a higher risk of advanced liver disease. Currently it is unknown how obesity accelerates or worsens PSC. We evaluated the progression of PSC in an antigen-driven cholangitis mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in our murine model of immune-mediated cholangitis (OVAbil)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448943/cloning-and-expression-of-the-sucrose-phosphorylase-gene-in-bacillus-subtilis-and-synthesis-of-kojibiose-using-the-recombinant-enzyme
#18
Miaomiao Wang, Jing Wu, Dan Wu
BACKGROUND: Kojibiose as a prebiotic and inhibitor of α-glucosidase exhibits potential for a wide range of applications in the food and medicine fields; however, large-scale separation and extraction of kojibiose from nature is difficult. Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase) can be used for the production of kojibiose, and currently, SPase is only heterologously expressed in E. coli, making it unsuitable for use in the food industry. However, Bacillus subtilis is generally considered to be a safe organism potentially useful for SPase expression...
February 15, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448176/mechanisms-of-phloem-loading
#19
REVIEW
Cankui Zhang, Robert Turgeon
The complex form of higher plants requires continuous, balanced transport of nutrients in the phloem. The initial step of transferring sugars, amino acids, and other materials from photosynthetic cells to the conducting sieve tubes is known as phloem loading. Three phloem loading mechanisms have been described. The first involves release of sucrose into the apoplast and subsequent retrieval by the phloem. The initial release step in this process is now known to be mediated by a new class of transporters, the SWEET proteins...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444673/effect-of-tt-farnesol-and-myricetin-on-in-vitro-biofilm-formed-by-streptococcus-mutans-and-candida-albicans
#20
Guilherme Roncari Rocha, Elkin Jahir Florez Salamanca, Ana Letícia de Barros, Carmélia Isabel Vitorino Lobo, Marlise Inêz Klein
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is considered a multifactorial disease, in which microorganisms play an important role. The diet is decisive in the biofilm formation because it provides the necessary resources for cellular growth and exopolysaccharides synthesis. Exopolysaccharides are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides a 3D structure, support for the microorganisms and form diffusion-limited environments (acidic niches) that cause demineralization of the dental enamel...
February 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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