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Yunier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Ania Cabrales-Rico, Alejandro Perera-Pintado, Anais Prats-Capote, Hilda E Garay-Pérez, Osvaldo Reyes-Acosta, Erik Pérez-García, Araceli Chico-Capote, Alicia Santos-Savio
Interleukin (IL)-15 is an inflammatory cytokine that constitutes a validated therapeutic target in some immunopathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previously, we identified an IL-15 antagonist peptide named [K6T]P8, with potential therapeutic application in RA. In the current work, the metabolic stability of this peptide in synovial fluids from RA patients was studied. Moreover, [K6T]P8 peptide was labeled with 99m Tc to investigate its stability in human plasma and its biodistribution pattern in healthy rats...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Yunfei Wu, Sang-Kyu Lee, Youngchul Yoo, Jinhuan Wei, Suk-Yoon Kwon, Sang-Won Lee, Jong-Seong Jeon, Gynheung An
Sucrose is produced in mesophyll cells and transferred into phloem cells before it is delivered long-distance to sink tissues. However, little is known about how sucrose transport is regulated in plants. Here, we identified T-DNA insertional mutants in Oryza sativa DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER 11 (OsDOF11), which is expressed in the vascular cells of photosynthetic organs and in various sink tissues. The osdof11 mutant plants are semi-dwarf and have fewer tillers and smaller panicles. Although sucrose enhanced root elongation in young wild-type (WT) seedlings, this did not occur in osdof11 seedlings due to reduced sucrose uptake...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Plant
Stine Normann Hansen, David Højland Ipsen, Anne Marie Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg
Western diets, high in fat and energy, are associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animal models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This includes whether diet-induced dyslipidemia per se negatively impacts brain signaling. Here we investigate the effects of dyslipidemia induced by two high fat diets with or without high sucrose on hippocampal and frontal cortical oxidative stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and down-stream markers of synaptic plasticity, as well as alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Opemipo Esther Fasoyin, Bin Wang, Mengguang Qiu, Xiaoyun Han, Kuang-Ren Chung, Shihua Wang
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a very important mechanism employed in the utilization of carbon as an energy source, required for the regulation of growth, development and secondary metabolite production in fungi. Despite the wide study of this mechanism in fungi, little is known about the major CCR gene creA in A. flavus. Hence, we report identification of A. flavus carbon catabolite repression gene creA, which is responsible for the repression of secondary carbon sources. Gene deletion and over-expression was employed to explicate the role of creA in the morphology, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolite production in A...
April 12, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Roberto Megías-Pérez, Sergio Grimbs, Roy N D'Souza, Herwig Bernaert, Nikolai Kuhnert
Fifty-six cocoa bean samples from different origins and status of fermentation were analyzed by a validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-TOF-MS) method. The profile of the low molecular weight carbohydrate (LMWC) was analyzed by high resolution and tandem mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides, sugar alcohols and iminosugars. This study provides, for the first time in a large set of samples, a comprehensive absolute quantitative data set for the carbohydrates identified in cocoa beans (fructose, glucose, mannitol, myo-inositol, sucrose, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose)...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sun Haeng Park, Seol Jang, Eunjung Son, Si Woo Lee, Sun Dong Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue patients experience various neuropsychological symptoms, including fatigue behaviors, chronic pain, and depression. They also display immune system dysregulation. Polygonum aviculare L. extract (PAE) is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory diseases by reportedly decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of PAE would attenuate fatigue symptoms in a mouse model of restraint stress...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Caroline Costa Lucas, Luana Rolim Melo, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins de Sousa, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Moisés Fernandes Martins, Francisco Antônio Félix Xavier, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio
SummaryThere are few reports of cryopreservation and injuries in Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryoprotectants agents and cooling on stage VIII of this species. Fertilized eggs from ovigerous females were removed from the incubation chamber, then placed in 10 ml Falcon tubes with a cryoprotectant solution and saline-free calcium solution. Thus, the embryos underwent a cooling curve of 1°C per min until reaching 5°C, and then were stored for 2 h...
April 15, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Dan Zheng, Li Zhang, Qing-Feng Zhang
Astilbin is the most predominant flavonoid in Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG) with many bioactivities. The interconversion of the astilbin and its three stereoisomers was found with incubation of RSG extract at different temperatures, and the equilibrium ratios were calculated. Under certain conditions, neoastilbin would replace astilbin and become the predominant flavonoid in RSG extract. The effects of ascorbic acid, sucrose, sodium benzoate, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and common metal ions on the isomerization and decomposition of astilbin were studied...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Juliana Gonçalves Pires, Sara Salustiano Zabini, Aline Silva Braga, Rita de Cássia Fabris, Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade, Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Magalhães
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves (alone or combined) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans biofilm and on the prevention of enamel demineralization. METHODS: Strain of S. mutans (ATCC 21175) was reactivated in BHI broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum inhibition biofilm concentration and minimum eradication biofilm concentration were determined in order to choose the concentrations to be tested under biofilm model...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Patrícia Monah Cunha Bartos, Hugo Teixeira Gomes, Lourdes Isabel Velho do Amaral, João Batista Teixeira, Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira
Several biochemical components associated with different stages of somatic embryogenesis in coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) are investigated using foliar explants. Soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids and total proteins were extracted and quantified at different stages of somatic embryogenesis, such as foliar segments (initial explants), primary calluses, embryogenic calluses, globular embryos, torpedoes, cotyledonary embryos and mature fruit zygotic embryos. Total soluble sugar levels increased sixfold at the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis induction...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Thijs van Westen, Robert D Groot
The quality of stored frozen products such as foods and biomaterials generally degrades in time due to the growth of large ice crystals by recrystallization. While there is ample experimental evidence that recrystallization within such products (or model systems thereof) is often dominated by diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening, the application of Ostwald-ripening theories to predict measured recrystallization rates has only met with limited success. For a model system of polycrystalline ice within an aqueous solution of sugars, we here show recrystallization rates can be predicted on the basis of Ostwald ripening theory, provided (1) the theory accounts for the fact the solution can be nonideal, nondilute and of different density than the crystals, (2) the effect of ice-phase volume fraction on the diffusional flux of water between crystals is accurately described, and (3) all relevant material properties (involving binary Fick diffusion coefficients, the thermodynamic factor of the solution, and the surface energy of ice) are carefully estimated...
April 4, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
Vaibhav V Gujar, Priya Fuke, Anshuman A Khardenavis, Hemant J Purohit
The genome of a fungal strain Penicillium chrysogenum strain HKF42, which can grow on 20% sucrose has been annotated for 7595 protein coding sequences. On mining of CAZymes, we could annotate a β-fructofuranosidase gene responsible for fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) synthesis which is a known prebiotic. The enzyme activity was demonstrated and validated with the generation of FOS as kestose and nystose.
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Antoine Italiano, Jean-Charles Soria, Maud Toulmonde, Jean-Marie Michot, Carlo Lucchesi, Andrea Varga, Jean-Michel Coindre, Stephen J Blakemore, Alicia Clawson, Benjamin Suttle, Alice A McDonald, Mark Woodruff, Scott Ribich, Eric Hedrick, Heike Keilhack, Blythe Thomson, Takashi Owa, Robert A Copeland, Peter T C Ho, Vincent Ribrag
BACKGROUND: Activating enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mutations or aberrations of the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex (eg, mutations or deletions of the subunits INI1 or SMARCA4) can lead to aberrant histone methylation, oncogenic transformation, and a proliferative dependency on EZH2 activity. In this first-in-human study, we aimed to investigate the safety, clinical activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of tazemetostat, a first-in-class selective inhibitor of EZH2...
April 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Busra Aydin, Tugba Ozer, Ebru Toksoy Oner, Kazim Yalcin Arga
Metabolic systems engineering is being used to redirect microbial metabolism for the overproduction of chemicals of interest with the aim of transforming microbial hosts into cellular factories. In this study, a genome-based metabolic systems engineering approach was designed and performed to improve biopolymer biosynthesis capability of a moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T producing levan, which is a fructose homopolymer with many potential uses in various industries and medicine. For this purpose, the genome-scale metabolic model for AAD6T was used to characterize the metabolic resource allocation, specifically to design metabolic engineering strategies for engineered bacteria with enhanced levan production capability...
March 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Chaoling Xue, Zhiguo Liu, Li Dai, Jiaodi Bu, Mengjun Liu, Zhihui Zhao, Zihui Jiang, Weilin Gao, Jin Zhao
Phytoplasmas parasitize plant phloem tissue and cause many economically important plant diseases. Jujube witches' broom disease is a destructive phytoplasma disease of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). To elucidate the influence of phytoplasma on host photosynthetic, carbohydrate and energy metabolisms, four types of jujube tissues showing disease symptoms with different severity were investigated at the structural, physiological and molecular levels. qRT-PCR and HPLC results showed that the down-regulation of genes related to photosynthesis and the lower contents of chlorophyll in diseased leaves...
April 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Carla Gonçalves, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Jacek Kominek, Madalena Salema Oom, Maria José Leandro, Xing-Xing Shen, Dana A Opulente, Xiaofan Zhou, David Peris, Cletus P Kurtzman, Chris Todd Hittinger, Antonis Rokas, Paula Gonçalves
Fructophily is a rare trait that consists of the preference for fructose over other carbon sources. Here, we show that in a yeast lineage (the Wickerhamiella / Starmerella , W/S clade) comprised of fructophilic species thriving in the high-sugar floral niche, the acquisition of fructophily is concurrent with a wider remodeling of central carbon metabolism. Coupling comparative genomics with biochemical and genetic approaches, we gathered ample evidence for the loss of alcoholic fermentation in an ancestor of the W/S clade and subsequent reinstatement through either horizontal acquisition of homologous bacterial genes or modification of a pre-existing yeast gene...
April 12, 2018: ELife
Sonia A Cavigelli, Alexander D Bao, Rebecca A Bourne, Michael J Caruso, Jasmine I Caulfield, Mary Chen, Joshua M Smyth
Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21)...
April 12, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Dante Selenscig, María Del Rosario Ferreira, Adriana Chicco, Yolanda B Lombardo
This work aims to assess the possible beneficial effects of dietary fish oil (FO) on the pre-existing adipose tissue dysfunction through the improvement or reversion of the mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in dyslipemic insulin-resistant rats. Wistar rats were fed a sucrose rich diet (SRD) for 6 months. After that half of the animals continued with the SRD until month 8 while in the other half corn oil was replaced by FO for 2 months (SRD + FO). A reference group consumed a control diet all the time...
April 12, 2018: Food & Function
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