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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319658/moisture-mediated-interactions-between-amorphous-maltodextrins-and-crystalline-fructose
#1
Alpana Thorat, Krystin N Marrs, Mohamed K Ghorab, Vincent Meunier, Laurent Forny, Lynne S Taylor, Lisa J Mauer
The effects of coformulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline fructose, a deliquescent solid, on the moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0 ), and glass transition temperature (Tg ) behaviors were determined. Moisture sorption profiles of binary fructose:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators and by dynamic vapor sorption techniques. Blends exhibited synergistic moisture uptake at RHs below the RH0 of fructose, attributed to partial dissolution of fructose in plasticized MD matrices without a significant reduction in the RH0 of the undissolved fructose...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319117/comparative-genomics-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-subspecies-pathogens-of-important-agricultural-crops
#2
James T Tambong
Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315868/cerebellar-fastigial-nucleus-electrical-stimulation-alleviates-depressive-like-behaviors-in-post-stroke-depression-rat-model-and-potential-mechanisms
#3
Lei Zhang, Mingkui Zhao, Ru-Bo Sui
OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular mechanism of post-stroke depression (PSD), and observe the therapeutic effects of cerebellar fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation (FNS) on the behaviors and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a PSD rat model. METHODS: Healthy SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham, stroke, post-stroke depress and FNS group). Sham group (n = 6) underwent sham operation. The other three groups (n = 6*3) underwent MCAO. Rats were examined twice a week in open filed test...
March 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315700/exploiting-the-aglycon-promiscuity-of-glycosyltransferase-bs-yjic-from-bacillus-subtilis-and-its-application-in-synthesis-of-glycosides
#4
Longhai Dai, Jiao Li, Peiyuan Yao, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Jiangang Yang, Yuanxia Sun
Glycosylation is a prominent biological mechanism for structural and functional diversity of natural products. Uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases with aglycon promiscuity are generally recognised as effective biocatalysts for glycodiversification of natural products for practical applications. In this study, the aglycon promiscuity of glycosyltransferase Bs-YjiC from Bacillus subtilis 168 was explored. Bs-YjiC, with uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) as sugar donor, exhibited robust capabilities to glycosylate 19 structurally diverse types of drug-like scaffolds with regio- and stereospecificities and form O-, N- and S-linkage glycosides...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315108/osmolytic-effect-of-sucrose-on-thermal-denaturation-of-pea-seedling-copper-amine-oxidase
#5
Mojtaba Amani, Aboozar Barzegar, Mohammad Mazani
Protein stability is a subject of interest by many researchers. One of the common methods to increase the protein stability is using the osmolytes. Many studies and theories analyzed and explained osmolytic effect by equilibrium thermodynamic while most proteins undergo an irreversible denaturation. In current study we investigated the effect of sucrose as an osmolyte on the thermal denaturation of pea seedlings amine oxidase by the enzyme activity, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry...
March 18, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314829/phosphorylation-of-wrinkled1-by-kin10-results-in-its-proteasomal-degradation-providing-a-link-between-energy-homeostasis-and-lipid-biosynthesis
#6
Zhiyang Zhai, Hui Liu, John Shanklin
WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a member of the APETALA2 (AP2) class of transcription factors, positively regulates glycolysis and lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we identify mechanistic links between KIN10, the major SUCROSE NON-FERMENTATION-1 (SNF1)-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) involved in sugar/energy homeostasis and the posttranslational regulation of WRI1. Transient expression of WRI1 with OLEOSIN1 (OLE1) in Nicotiana benthamiana stimulates triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, but their coexpression with KIN10 abrogates this effect by inducing proteasomal degradation of WRI1...
March 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304127/molecular-regulation-of-sucrose-catabolism-and-sugar-transport-for-development-defence-and-phloem-function
#7
REVIEW
Jun Li, Limin Wu, Ryan Foster, Yong-Ling Ruan
Sucrose (Suc) is the major end product of photosynthesis in mesophyll cells of most vascular plants. It is loaded into phloem of mature leaves for long-distance translocation to non-photosynthetic organs where it is unloaded for diverse uses. Clearly, Suc transport and metabolism is central to plant growth and development and the functionality of the entire vascular system. Despite of vast information in the literature about the physiological roles of individual sugar metabolic enzymes and transporters, there is a lack of systematic evaluation about their molecular regulation from transcriptional to post-translational levels...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303649/transforming-sugars-into-fat-lipid-biosynthesis-using-different-sugars-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#8
Piotr Hapeta, Magdalena Rakicka, Remi Dulermo, Heber Gamboa-Meléndez, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Zbigniew Lazar
In an era of ever-increasing energy demands, a promising technology is being developed: the use of oleaginous microorganisms such as Yarrowia lipolytica to convert waste materials into biofuels. Here, we constructed two Y. lipolytica strains that displayed both increased lipid accumulation and a more efficient use of biomass-derived sugars, including glucose, fructose, galactose, and inulin. The first strain, Y. lipolytica YLZ150, was derived from the French wild-type strain W29. It had inhibited triacylglycerol mobilization (∆tgl4) and β-oxidation (∆pox1-6), and it overexpressed GPD1, DGA2, HXK1, the native Leloir pathway, SUC2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and INU1 from Kluyveromyces marxianus...
March 17, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303198/impacts-of-leaf-age-and-heat-stress-duration-on-photosynthetic-gas-exchange-and-foliar-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-coffea-arabica
#9
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, Christopher Still
Given future climate predictions of increased temperature, and frequency and intensity of heat waves in the tropics, suitable habitat to grow ecologically, economically, and socially valuable Coffea arabica is severely threatened. We investigated how leaf age and heat stress duration impact recovery from heat stress in C. arabica. Treated plants were heated in a growth chamber at 49°C for 45 or 90 min. Physiological recovery was monitored in situ using gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence (the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, FV/FM), and leaf nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mature and expanding leaves before and 2, 15, 25, and 50 days after treatment...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302445/agmatine-attenuates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-anxiety-depression-like-behaviours-and-cognitive-impairment-by-modulating-nitrergic-signalling-pathway
#10
Nitin B Gawali, Vipin D Bulani, Malvika S Gursahani, Padmini S Deshpande, Pankaj S Kothavade, Archana R Juvekar
Agmatine, a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, has shown to exert numerous effects on the CNS. Chronic stress is a risk factor for development of depression, anxiety and deterioration of cognitive performance. Compelling evidences indicate an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in these disorders. Hence, investigation of the beneficial effects of agmatine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression, anxiety and cognitive performance with the involvement of nitrergic pathway was undertaken...
March 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302152/myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischaemia-reperfusion-in-obesity-a-re-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-age
#11
I Webster, R Salie, E Marais, W-J Fan, G Maarman, B Huisamen, A Lochner
BACKGROUND: Reports on the effect of age and obesity on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and ischaemic preconditioning are contradictory. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of age and diet-induced obesity (DIO) on myocardial I/R injury and preconditioning potential. METHODS: Four groups of Wistar male rats were used: age-matched controls (AMC) receiving standard rat chow for (i) 16 weeks and (ii) 16 months respectively; DIO rats receiving a sucrose-supplemented diet for (iii) 16 weeks and (iv) 16 months respectively...
March 17, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302147/soil-transmitted-helminths-and-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-among-individuals-living-in-different-agroecosystems-in-two-rural-communities-in-the-mount-cameroon-area-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Gladys Belanka Nkemnji, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Plasmodium falciparum infections remain public health problems in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mount Cameroon area to determine the prevalence and intensity of STHs and P. falciparum infections in individuals living in different agroecosystems; to assess the influence of these infections on haematological parameters; and to identify the risk factors associated with STH infections. METHODS: STH and malaria parasites were detected using the Kato-Katz method and Giemsa staining of blood films, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301673/comparison-between-different-selection-indices-in-energy-cane-breeding
#13
A A C de Azeredo, L L Bhering, B P Brasileiro, C D Cruz, L C I Silveira, R A Oliveira, J C Bespalhok Filho, E Daros
Sugarcane breeding programs have been adapting to a new market demand: aside from high sucrose yield per hectare, the sector needs new cultivars with higher fiber percentages. The selection of sugarcane clones based on phenotype alone is a complex task. The selected clones should display high performance in a series of yield- and quality-related traits. Selection indices can provide information about which clones can best combine the traits of agronomic interest. In this study, different selection indices were evaluated in a population of 220 clones...
March 15, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301585/a-maternal-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-has-sex-specific-effects-on-fetal-glucocorticoids-with-little-consequence-for-offspring-metabolism-and-voluntary-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#14
Eunice H Chin, Kim L Schmidt, Kaitlyn M Martel, Chi Kin Wong, Jordan E Hamden, William T Gibson, Kiran K Soma, Julian K Christians
Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301188/effects-of-inference-on-dopaminergic-prediction-errors-depend-on-orbitofrontal-processing
#15
Yuji K Takahashi, Thomas A Stalnaker, Matthew R Roesch, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Dopaminergic reward prediction errors in monkeys reflect inferential reward predictions that well-trained animals can make when associative rules change. Here, in a new analysis of previously described data, we test whether dopaminergic error signals in rats are influenced by inferential predictions and whether such effects depend on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Dopamine neurons were recorded from controls or rats with ipsilateral OFC lesions during performance of a choice task in which odor cues signaled the availability of sucrose reward in 2 wells...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300727/in%C3%A2-vivo-transport-of-three-radioactive-18-f-fluorinated-deoxysucrose-analogs-by-the-maize-sucrose-transporter-zmsut1
#16
Thu M Tran, Carissa S Hampton, Tom W Brossard, Michael Harmata, J David Robertson, Silvia S Jurisson, David M Braun
Sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins translocate sucrose across cell membranes; however, mechanistic aspects of sucrose binding by SUTs are not well resolved. Specific hydroxyl groups in sucrose participate in hydrogen bonding with SUT proteins. We previously reported that substituting a radioactive fluorine-18 [(18)F] at the C-6' position within the fructosyl moiety of sucrose did not affect sucrose transport by the maize (Zea mays) ZmSUT1 protein. To determine how (18)F substitution of hydroxyl groups at two other positions within sucrose, the C-1' in the fructosyl moiety or the C-6 in the glucosyl moiety, impact sucrose transport, we synthesized 1'-[F(18)]fluoro-1'-deoxysucrose and 6-[F(18)]fluoro-6-deoxysucrose ([(18)F]FDS) analogs...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300618/the-novel-and-potent-anti-depressive-action-of-triptolide-and-its-influences-on-hippocampal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-comorbidity-of-chronic-pain
#17
Xiaofan Hu, Yulin Dong, Xiaohang Jin, Chunkui Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jie Zhao, Juan Shi, Jinlian Li
Chronic pain and depression frequently coexist in clinical setting, and current clinical treatments for this comorbidity have shown limited efficacy. Triptolide (T10), an active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been demonstrated to exert strong analgesic activities in experimental pain models, but whether it possesses anti-depressive actions remains unknown. Using a depression comorbidity of chronic pain rat model induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL), we investigated the potency of T10 for the treatment of comorbid depression in comparison with a widely used antidepressant, fluoxetine (FLX)...
March 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300505/mid-infrared-spectroscopic-analysis-of-saccharides-in-aqueous-solutions-with-sodium-chloride
#18
Mikihito Kanou, Takaharu Kameoka, Ken-Ichiro Suehara, Atsushi Hashimoto
The infrared spectral characteristics of three different types of disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, and sucrose) and four different types of monosaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose) in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride (NaCl) were determined. The infrared spectra were obtained using the FT-IR/ATR method and the absorption intensities respected the interaction between the saccharide and water with NaCl were determined. This study also focused on not only the glycosidic linkage position and the constituent monosaccharides, but also the concentration of the saccharides and NaCl and found that they have a significant influence on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of the disaccharides in an aqueous solution with NaCl...
April 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298685/rapid-quantitative-determination-of-maltose-and-total-sugars-in-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-varieties-using-hptlc
#19
Vincent Lebot
When a raw sweet potato root is analysed, only sucrose, glucose and fructose are present but during cooking, starch is hydrolysed into maltose giving the sweet flavour to cooked roots. This study aimed at developing an HPTLC protocol for the rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in four commercial varieties and to compare them to 243 hybrids grouped by flesh colour (white, orange, purple). In commercial varieties, mean maltose content varied from 10.26 to 15.60% and total sugars from 17...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298377/nectar-properties-and-the-role-of-sunbirds-as-pollinators-of-the-golden-flowered-tea-camellia-petelotii
#20
Shi-Guo Sun, Zhi-Huan Huang, Zhi-Bao Chen, Shuang-Quan Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Properties of floral nectar have been used to predict if a plant species is pollinated by birds. To see whether winter-flowering plants evolve nectar properties corresponding to bird pollinators, nectar properties of several Camellia species (including the golden-flowered tea), as well as the role of floral visitors as effective pollinators, were examined. METHODS: Potential pollinators of Camellia petelotii were identified at different times of day and under various weather conditions...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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