Read by QxMD icon Read

Natural bodybuilding

Jonathan Hoffman, C Philip Gabel
Background: Over recent decades, mind-body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind-body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind-body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris...
November 2, 2015: Physical Therapy Reviews: PTR
Miren García-Cortés, Mercedes Robles-Díaz, Aida Ortega-Alonso, Inmaculada Medina-Caliz, Raul J Andrade
Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Scott Lloyd Robinson, Anneliese Lambeth-Mansell, Gavin Gillibrand, Abbie Smith-Ryan, Laurent Bannock
Bodybuilding competitions are becoming increasingly popular. Competitors are judged on their aesthetic appearance and usually exhibit a high level of muscularity and symmetry and low levels of body fat. Commonly used techniques to improve physique during the preparation phase before competitions include dehydration, periods of prolonged fasting, severe caloric restriction, excessive cardiovascular exercise and inappropriate use of diuretics and anabolic steroids. In contrast, this case study documents a structured nutrition and conditioning intervention followed by a 21 year-old amateur bodybuilding competitor to improve body composition, resting and exercise fat oxidation, and muscular strength that does not involve use of any of the above mentioned methods...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Ipoly Szauder, Attila Kovács, Gábor Pavlik
BACKGROUND: Athlete's heart is a common definition for a broad spectrum of adaptations induced by intense exercise. We intended to compare left ventricular (LV) mechanics in two sports disciplines with different exercise nature: marathon runners (endurance) and bodybuilders (power). METHODS: 24 marathon or ultramarathon runners (R), 14 bodybuilders (B) and 15 healthy, sedentary male volunteers (N) were investigated. Beyond standard echocardiographic protocol, parasternal short-axis and apical recordings optimized for speckle tracking analysis were acquired (Esaote MyLab 25)...
2015: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
C D Rahnema, L E Crosnoe, E D Kim
Colloquially referred to by various misleading monikers ('pro-hormones', 'natural steroids', 'testosterone boosters', etc.) designer anabolic steroids have been popular now for over a decade as a way to achieve classic anabolic steroid-like results from products sold in the legal marketplace. Recent evidence suggests that anabolic steroid use may be the most common cause of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Despite recent regulatory efforts that have banned specific compounds, many anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) remain available in over-the-counter dietary supplements that are legally sold in the United States...
March 2015: Andrology
Leonard B Seeff, Herbert L Bonkovsky, Victor J Navarro, Guqi Wang
Herbal products have been used for centuries among indigenous people to treat symptoms and illnesses. Recently, their use in Western countries has grown significantly, rivaling that of prescription medications. Currently, herbal products are used mainly for weight loss and bodybuilding purposes but also to improve well-being and symptoms of chronic diseases. Many people believe that because they are natural, they must be effective and safe; however, these beliefs are erroneous. Few herbal products have been studied in well-designed controlled trials of patients with liver or other diseases, despite testimony to the contrary...
March 2015: Gastroenterology
E R Helms, P J Fitschen, A A Aragon, J Cronin, B J Schoenfeld
The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum...
March 2015: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Brandon M Kistler, Peter J Fitschen, Sushant M Ranadive, Bo Fernhall, Kenneth R Wilund
The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV)...
December 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Eric R Helms, Alan A Aragon, Peter J Fitschen
The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate...
2014: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Brad J Schoenfeld, Nicholas A Ratamess, Mark D Peterson, Bret Contreras, G T Sonmez, Brent A Alvar
Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs...
October 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kitty K T Cheung, Wing-Yee So, Alice P S Kong, Ronald C W Ma, Francis C C Chow
We report a case of life-threatening hypokalemia in a 28-year-old bodybuilder who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limbs paralysis few days after his bodybuilding competition. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed typical u-waves due to severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.6 mmol/L, reference range (RR) 3.5-5.0 mmol/L). He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and was treated with potassium replacement. The patient later admitted that he had exposed himself to weight loss agents of unknown nature, purchased online, and large carbohydrate loads in preparation for the competition...
2014: Case Reports in Endocrinology
S Mosler, S Geisler, J Hengevoss, T Schiffer, M Piechotta, M Adler, P Diel
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of training, anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones on myostatin-interacting proteins in order to identify manipulations of myostatin signalling. To identify whether analysis of the myostatin interacting proteins follistatin and myostatin propeptide is suitable to detect the abuse of anabolic steroids, their serum concentrations were monitored in untrained males, bodybuilders using anabolic steroids and natural bodybuilders. In addition, we analysed follistatin and myostatin propeptide serum proteins in females during menstrual cycle...
July 2013: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Lindy M Rossow, David H Fukuda, Christopher A Fahs, Jeremy P Loenneke, Jeffrey R Stout
UNLABELLED: Bodybuilding is a sport in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance. This case study tracked a drug-free male bodybuilder (age 26-27 y) for the 6 mo before and after a competition. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide the most comprehensive physiological profile of bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery ever compiled. METHODS: Cardiovascular parameters, body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, critical power, mood state, resting energy expenditure, and hormonal and other blood parameters were evaluated...
September 2013: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Daniel A Hackett, Nathan A Johnson, Chin-Moi Chow
Bodybuilding involves performing a series of poses on stage where the competitor is judged on aesthetic muscular appearance. The purpose of this study was to describe training practices and ergogenic aids used by competitive bodybuilders and to determine whether training practices comply with current recommendations for muscular hypertrophy. A web-based survey was completed by 127 competitive male bodybuilders. The results showed that during the off-season phase of training (OFF), the majority of respondents performed 3-6 sets per exercise (95...
June 2013: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nevio Cimolai, Tomas Cimolai
Yohimbine is a naturally sourced pharmacological agent, which produces hyperadrenergic physiological effects. In excess doses, it may typically cause agitation, anxiety, hypertension, and tachycardia. There is no conclusive evidence for this drug to be of benefit in bodybuilding, exercise tolerance, physical performance, or desirable alterations of body mass. Although tolerated generally well in low doses, the potential for dose-dependent toxicity should be recognized.
December 2011: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Cassandra Phoenix, Brett Smith
OBJECTIVES: In Western society, the narrative of decline dominates the aging process. We know very little about the complexities of how people resist this narrative. The purpose of this article is to understand how a group of mature natural bodybuilders resisted the narrative of decline. METHODS: In-depth life story interviews were conducted with 13 natural bodybuilders aged between 50 and 73 years. Verbatim transcripts were produced and the data analyzed using a structural narrative analysis...
September 2011: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Morey J Kolber, Kristina S Beekhuizen, Ming-Shun S Cheng, Madeleine A Hellman
The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors...
June 2010: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Timothy Baghurst, Cathy Lirgg
The purpose of this study was to identify differences in traits associated with muscle dysmorphia between collegiate football players (n=66), weight trainers for physique (n=115), competitive non-natural bodybuilders (n=47), and competitive natural bodybuilders (n=65). All participants completed demographic questionnaires in addition to the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (Rhea, Lantz, & Cornelius, 2004). Results revealed a significant main effect for group, and post hoc tests found that the non-natural bodybuilding group did not score significantly higher than the natural bodybuilding group on any subscale except for Pharmacological Use...
June 2009: Body Image
Allan Astrup Jensen
BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Glass wools are man-made vitreous fibres, which consist principally of sodium, calcium and magnesium silicates, but may contain smaller amounts of other elements, including boron. The boron contents originate from the use of borates in the glass melting process as a glass former and a flux agent. During the production and application of glass wool insulation products, workers may legally be exposed to glass fibre up to the occupational limit value, commonly of 1 fibre/cm3...
January 2009: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael R Graham, Bruce Davies, Fergal M Grace, Andrew Kicman, Julien S Baker
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were the first identified doping agents that have ergogenic effects and are being used to increase muscle mass and strength in adult males. Consequently, athletes are still using them to increase physical performance and bodybuilders are using them to improve size and cosmetic appearance. The prevalence of AAS use has risen dramatically over the last two decades and filtered into all aspects of society. Support for AAS users has increased, but not by the medical profession, who will not accept that AAS use dependency is a psychiatric condition...
2008: Sports Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"