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Kristyna Krasulova, Michal Siller, Ondrej Holas, Zdenek Dvorak, Pavel Anzenbacher
1. The aim of this work was to examine the differences in the inhibitory potency of individual enantiomers and racemic mixtures of selected chiral drugs on human liver microsomal cytochromes P450. 2. The interaction of enantiomeric forms of six drugs (tamsulosin, tolterodine, citalopram, modafinil, zopiclone, ketoconazole) with nine cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2B6, CYP2A6, CYP1A2) was examined. HPLC methods were used to estimate the extent of the inhibition of specific activity in vitro...
2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Boram Lee, Zhexue Wu, Taeho Lee, Xue Fei Tan, Ki Hun Park, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
1. 4'-(p-Toluenesulfonylamide)-4-hydroxychalcone (TSAHC) is a synthetic sulfonylamino chalcone compound possessing anti-cancer properties. The aim of this study was to elucidate the metabolism of TSAHC in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and to characterize the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of TSAHC. 2. TSAHC was incubated with HLMs or recombinant P450 isoforms (rP450) in the presence of an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH)-regenerating system...
2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Porntipa Korprasertthaworn, Thomas M Polasek, Michael J Sorich, Andrew J McLachlan, John O Miners, Geoffrey T Tucker, Andrew Rowland
Olanzapine (OLZ) is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychoses. The metabolism of OLZ is complex and incompletely characterized. This study aimed to elucidate the enzymes and pathways involved in the metabolism of OLZ and to determine the kinetics of OLZ oxidation and glucuronidation by human liver microsomes, recombinant cytochrome P450 (rP450) enzymes, and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (rUGT) enzymes. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to quantify OLZ, its four oxidative metabolites (N-desmethyl-OLZ, 2-hydroxymethyl-OLZ, 7-hydroxy-OLZ, and OLZ-N-oxide), and two N-glucuronides (OLZ-10-N-glucuronide and OLZ-4'-N-glucuronide)...
November 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Toshiyuki Kudo, Yuya Ozaki, Tomomi Kusano, Eri Hotta, Yuka Oya, Seina Komatsu, Hitomi Goda, Kiyomi Ito
1. Buffer conditions in in vitro metabolism studies using human liver microsomes (HLM) have been reported to affect the metabolic activities of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes in different ways, although there are no reports about the dependence of CYP2C8 activity on buffer conditions. 2. The present study investigated the effect of buffer components (phosphate or Tris-HCl) and their concentration (10-200 mM) on the CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 activities of HLM, using paclitaxel and triazolam, respectively, as marker substrates...
2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Chie Emoto, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Raja Venkatasubramanian, Alexander A Vinks
AIMS: Sirolimus is an mTOR inhibitor metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Reported effects of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on sirolimus pharmacokinetics (PK) have shown unexplained discrepancies across studies. We quantitatively assessed the effect of CYP3A5*3 status on sirolimus PK by in vitro assessment and simulation using a physiologically-based PK (PBPK) model. In addition, we explored designs for an adequately powered pharmacogenetic association study. METHOD: In vitro metabolism studies were conducted to confirm individual CYP contribution to sirolimus metabolism...
December 2015: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Motoi Takagi, Masaya Sakamoto, Tomoo Itoh, Ryoichi Fujiwara
While co-administered gemfibrozil can increase the area under the concentration/time curve (AUC) of pioglitazone more than 3-fold, the underlying mechanism of the drug-drug interaction between gemfibrozil and pioglitazone has not been fully understood. In the present study, gemfibrozil preincubation time-dependently inhibited the metabolism of pioglitazone in the cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-activated human liver microsomes. We estimated the kinact and K'app values, which are the maximum inactivation rate constant and the apparent dissociation constant, of gemfibrozil to be 0...
August 2015: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Muhammad Suleman Khan, Daniel T Barratt, Andrew A Somogyi
1. Imatinib is metabolized to N-desmethyl imatinib by CYPs 3A4 and 2C8. The effect of CYP2C8*3 genotype on N-desmethyl imatinib formation was unknown. 2. We examined imatinib N-demethylation in human liver microsomes (HLMs) genotyped for CYP2C8*3, in CYP2C8*3/*3 pooled HLMs and in recombinant CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Effects of CYP-selective inhibitors on N-demethylation were also determined. 3. A single-enzyme Michaelis-Menten model with autoinhibition best fitted CYP2C8*1/*1 HLM (n = 5) and recombinant CYP2C8 kinetic data (median ± SD Ki = 139 ± 61 µM and 149 µM, respectively)...
2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Faraz Kazmi, Phyllis Yerino, Joanna E Barbara, Andrew Parkinson
Desloratadine (Clarinex), the major active metabolite of loratadine (Claritin), is a nonsedating antihistamine used for the treatment of seasonal allergies and hives. Previously we reported that the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine, the major human metabolite of desloratadine, involves three sequential reactions, namely N-glucuronidation by UGT2B10 followed by 3-hydroxylation by CYP2C8 followed by deconjugation (rapid, nonenzymatic hydrolysis of the N-glucuronide). In this study we assessed the perpetrator potential of desloratadine based on in vitro studies of its inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLM)...
September 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Dolores Ochoa, Rocío Prieto-Pérez, Manuel Román, María Talegón, Angela Rivas, Ignacio Galicia, Francisco Abad-Santos, Teresa Cabaleiro
AIM: To evaluate the effect of polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and CYP2C8 and gender on the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomeric forms of ibuprofen. MATERIALS & METHODS: 122 healthy volunteers were genotyped for polymorphisms in CY2C8 and CYP2C9 using real-time PCR. RESULTS: CYP2C8 polymorphisms affected neither R- nor S-ibuprofen. CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2 carriers had a lower S-ibuprofen clearance and a higher S-ibuprofen AUC and half-life. R-ibuprofen clearance was decreased in CYP2C9*3 carriers...
2015: Pharmacogenomics
Mi-Young Lee, María Apellániz-Ruiz, Inger Johansson, Svante Vikingsson, Troels K Bergmann, Kim Brøsen, Henrik Green, Cristina Rodríguez-Antona, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
AIM: The CYP2C8*3 allele has been suggested as a risk factor for paclitaxel-induced neuropathy but the data hitherto published are conflicting. MATERIALS & METHODS: In total 435 patients were investigated with respect to maximum neuropathy grade and accumulated paclitaxel dose. The enzymatic properties of CYP2C8.3 variant were analyzed using heterologous mammalian HEK293 cell expression system. RESULTS: No significant association between CYP2C8*3 allele and neuropathy was found, although a trend was observed...
2015: Pharmacogenomics
F Dalle Vedove, C Fava, H Jiang, G Zanconato, J Quilley, M Brunelli, G Vattemi, P Minuz
OBJECTIVE: Plasma concentration of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) derived from cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid is increased in women with preeclampsia (PE) as compared to normal pregnancy (N), and is even higher in fetal plasma (Herse et al. Circulation 2012, Jiang et al. Am J Hypertens 2013). We hypothesized that differences in EET synthesis or metabolism in the feto-placental unit underlie the observed differences in circulating EETs. DESIGN AND METHOD: To evaluate EETs generation as well the expression of the relavant CYP isoforms and of the metabolizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), biopsies of placenta were collected from 19 N and 10 PE at the time of surgical delivery...
June 2015: Journal of Hypertension
Francesca Toselli, Isabelle de Waziers, Mary Dutheil, Marc Vincent, Peter A Wilce, Peter R Dodd, Philippe Beaune, Marie-Anne Loriot, Elizabeth M J Gillam
1. Ethanol consumption and smoking alter the expression of certain drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, potentially influencing the tissue-specific effects of xenobiotics. 2. Amygdala (AMG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are brain regions that modulate the effects of alcohol and smoking, yet little is known about the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these tissues. 3. Here, we describe the first study on the expression of 19 P450s, their redox partners, three ABC transporters and four related transcription factors in the AMG and PFC of smokers and alcoholics by quantitative RT-PCR...
2015: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Yoshihiko Shimokawa, Noriaki Yoda, Satoshi Kondo, Yoshiya Yamamura, Yoshiharu Takiguchi, Ken Umehara
The direct inhibitory potential of twenty five anti-tuberculosis drugs on eight CYP-specific reactions in human liver microsomes was investigated to predict in vivo drug-drug interactions (DDIs) from in vitro data. Rifampicin, rifabutin, and thioacetazone inhibited one CYP reaction. Isoniazid and clofazimine had inhibitory effects on four CYP reactions, and rifapentine, ethionamide, and prothionamide widely inhibited CYP reactions. Based on the inhibition constant (Ki) and the therapeutic total inhibitor concentrations [I]max of eight drugs in human plasma, [I]max/Ki values were calculated to evaluate clinical DDIs...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Steven Lacy, Bih Hsu, Dale Miles, Dana Aftab, Ronghua Wang, Linh Nguyen
Metabolism and excretion of cabozantinib, an oral inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases, was studied in 8 healthy male volunteers after a single oral dose of 175 mg cabozantinib l-malate containing (14)C-cabozantinib (100 µCi/subject). Total mean radioactivity recovery within 48 days was 81.09%; radioactivity was eliminated in feces (53.79%) and urine (27.29%). Cabozantinib was extensively metabolized with 17 individual metabolites identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in plasma, urine, and feces...
August 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Ying Peng, Hui Wu, Xueyuan Zhang, Fengyi Zhang, Huanhuan Qi, Yunxi Zhong, Yu Wang, Hua Sang, Guangji Wang, Jianguo Sun
1. A comprehensive method for the simultaneous characterization of xenobiotic compound inhibition of nine major CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes was established by using 16 CYP-catalyzed reactions of 14 probe substrates with three cocktail incubation sets and a single LC/MS/MS analysis. 2. The three cocktail subgroups were developed to minimize the effects of organic solvents, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mutual substrate interactions: Group I was composed of tolbutamide (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin (CYP2C19), testosterone (CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6); Group II was composed of nifedipine (CYP3A4), midazolam (CYP3A4), coumarin (CYP2A6), bupropion (CYP2B6), diclofenac (CYP2C9); Group III was composed of phenacetin (CYP1A2), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), omeprazole (CYP2C19 and CYP3A4), paclitaxel (CYP2C8), (+)-bufuralol (CYP2D6)...
2015: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Manthena V S Varma, Jian Lin, Yi-an Bi, Emi Kimoto, A David Rodrigues
Gemfibrozil has been suggested as a sensitive cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) inhibitor for clinical investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. However, gemfibrozil drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are complex; its major circulating metabolite, gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide (Gem-Glu), exhibits time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C8, and both parent and metabolite also behave as moderate inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) in vitro. Additionally, parent and metabolite also inhibit renal transport mediated by OAT3...
July 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Juhee Sim, Eunhwa Choi, You-Mie Lee, Gil-Saeng Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Cudratricusxanthone A (CTXA) isolated from the roots of Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae) has several biological activities, including hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, monoamine oxidase inhibitory, and antithrombotic activities. In this study, we investigated the potential herb-drug interaction of CTXA and nine cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) using a cocktail probe assay. CTXA reversibly inhibited the CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation, CYP2C8-catalyzed paclitaxel 6-hydroxylation, and CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 3...
July 2015: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jacqueline A Gibbons, Michiel de Vries, Walter Krauwinkel, Yoshiaki Ohtsu, Jan Noukens, Jan-Stefan van der Walt, Roelof Mol, Joyce Mordenti, Taoufik Ouatas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Two phase I drug interaction studies were performed with oral enzalutamide, which is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: A parallel-treatment design (n = 41) was used to evaluate the effects of a strong cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 inhibitor (oral gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily) or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (oral itraconazole 200 mg once daily) on the pharmacokinetics of enzalutamide and its active metabolite N-desmethyl enzalutamide after a single dose of enzalutamide (160 mg)...
October 2015: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Linh Nguyen, Jaymes Holland, Dale Miles, Caroline Engel, Natacha Benrimoh, Terry O'Reilly, Steven Lacy
Cabozantinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. In vitro data indicate that (1) cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the primary CYP isoenzyme involved in the metabolism of cabozantinib, and (2) CYP2C8 is the CYP isoenzyme most potently inhibited by cabozantinib with potential for in vivo inhibition at clinically relevant plasma exposures. Pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were evaluated clinically between cabozantinib and (1) a CYP3A inducer (rifampin) in healthy volunteers, (2) a CYP3A inhibitor (ketoconazole) in healthy volunteers, and (3) a CYP2C8 substrate (rosiglitazone) in patients with solid tumors...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Zhi-Yu Wang, Meng Chen, Ling-Ling Zhu, Lu-Shan Yu, Su Zeng, Mei-Xiang Xiang, Quan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Coprescribing of clopidogrel and other drugs is common. Available reviews have addressed the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) when clopidogrel is as an object drug, or focused on combination use of clopidogrel and a special class of drugs. Clinicians may still be ignorant of those DDIs when clopidogrel is a precipitant drug, the factors determining the degree of DDIs, and corresponding risk management. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to analyze the pharmacokinetic DDIs of clopidogrel and new P2Y12 receptor inhibitors...
2015: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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