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Neonatal brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518104/neurodevelopmental-reflex-testing-in-neonatal-rat-pups
#1
Antoinette T Nguyen, Edward A Armstrong, Jerome Y Yager
Neurodevelopmental reflex testing is commonly used in clinical practice to assess the maturation of the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental reflexes are also referred to as primitive reflexes. They are sensitive and consistent with later outcomes. Abnormal reflexes are described as an absence, persistence, reappearance, or latency of reflexes, which are predictive indices of infants that are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, often display aberrant developmental reflexes, as would be observed in human infants...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518065/transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-of-neonatal-stroke-in-p10-rats
#2
Amara Larpthaveesarp, Fernando F Gonzalez
A number of animal models have been used to study hypoxic-ischemic injury, traumatic injury, global hypoxia, or permanent ischemia in both the immature and mature brain. Stroke occurs commonly in the perinatal period in humans, and transient ischemia-reperfusion is the most common form of stroke in neonates. The reperfusion phase is a critical component of injury progression, which occurs over a period of days to weeks, and of the endogenous response to injury. This postnatal day 10 (p10) rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) creates a unilateral, non-hemorrhagic focal ischemia-reperfusion injury that can be utilized to study the mechanisms of focal injury and repair in the full-term-equivalent brain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511187/the-differential-effects-of-erythropoietin-exposure-to-oxidative-stress-on-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-vitro
#3
Praneeti Pathipati, Donna M Ferriero
The neonatal brain is especially susceptible to oxidative stress owing to its reduced antioxidant capacity. Following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, for example, there is a prolonged elevation in levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the immature brain compared to the adult brain, resulting in lasting injury that can lead to life-long disability or morbidity. Erythropoietin (Epo) is one of few multifaceted treatment options that have been promising enough to trial in the clinic for both term and preterm brain injury...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#4
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505223/association-of-short-antenatal-corticosteroid-administration-to-birth-intervals-with-survival-and-morbidity-among-very-preterm-infants-results-from-the-epice-cohort
#5
Mikael Norman, Aurelie Piedvache, Klaus Børch, Lene Drasbek Huusom, Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Elizabeth A Howell, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Rolf F Maier, Ole Pryds, Liis Toome, Heili Varendi, Tom Weber, Emilija Wilson, Arno Van Heijst, Marina Cuttini, Jan Mazela, Henrique Barros, Patrick Van Reempts, Elizabeth S Draper, Jennifer Zeitlin
Importance: Administration-to-birth intervals of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) vary. The significance of this variation is unclear. Specifically, to our knowledge, the shortest effective administration-to-birth interval is unknown. Objective: To explore the associations between ANS administration-to-birth interval and survival and morbidity among very preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe (EPICE) study, a population-based prospective cohort study, gathered data from 19 regions in 11 European countries in 2011 and 2012 on 4594 singleton infants with gestational ages between 24 and 31 weeks, without severe anomalies and unexposed to repeated courses of ANS...
May 15, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504968/inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-involved-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-afgf-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury
#6
Yingying Hu, Zhouguang Wang, Shulin Pan, Mingchu Fang, Huai Jiang, Yuqin Mao, Hao Zhang, Yiming Ji, Fabiao Zhang, Li Lin, Zhenlang Lin, Jian Xiao
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models and human patients. In this study, we investigated whether aFGF intranasal-treatment protected against neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and evaluated the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress. The Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury was used in 7-day-old rats, which were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia. Intranasal aFGF or vehicle was administered immediately after hypoxic-ischaemic injury (100 ng/g) and then twice a day for 1 week to evaluate the long-term effects...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503704/use-of-eeg-in-critically-ill-children-and-neonates-in-the-united-states-of-america
#7
Marina Gaínza-Lein, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
The objective of the study was to estimate the proportion of patients who receive an electroencephalogram (EEG) among five common indications for EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: traumatic brain injury (TBI), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), cardiac arrest, cardiac surgery and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 2010-2012. The KID is the largest pediatric inpatient database in the USA and it is based on discharge reports created by hospitals for billing purposes...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502584/up-regulation-of-mir-325-3p-suppresses-pineal-aralkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-aanat-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury-in-rats
#8
Yuanyuan Yang, Bin Sun, Jian Huang, Lixiao Xu, Jian Pan, Chen Fang, Mei Li, Gen Li, Yanfang Tao, Xiaofeng Yang, Ying Wu, Po Miao, Ying Wang, Hong Li, Jing Ren, Meiqin Zhan, Yiping Fang, Xing Feng, Xin Ding
Survivors of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), besides impairment of psychomotor development, often develop circadian rhythm disorders, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we first verified that mRNA and protein expression of pineal aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key regulator for melatonin (MT) synthesis, along with MT, were severely impaired after HIBD. In addition, we demonstrated that neonatal HIBD disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of locomotor activities in juvenile rats...
May 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495306/long-term-effects-of-enriched-environment-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-on-behavior-bdnf-and-synaptophysin-levels-in-rat-hippocampus-effect-of-combined-treatment-with-g-csf
#9
Myrsini Griva, Rosa Lagoudaki, Olga Touloumi, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Filippos Karalis, Thomas Georgiou, Georgia Kokaraki, Constantina Simeonidou, Despina A Tata, Evangelia Spandou
Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is neuroprotective in adult and neonatal animal models of brain ischemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether post-weaning EE would be effective in preventing functional deficits and brain damage by affecting markers of synaptic plasticity in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We also examined the possibility that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a growth factor with known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models, combined with EE stimulation could enhance the potential beneficial effect of EE...
May 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494696/oxidative-injuries-induced-by-maternal-low-protein-diet-in-female-brainstem
#10
Shirley Maria de Sousa, Glauber Rudá F Braz, Cristiane de Moura Freitas, David Filipe de Santana, Donald F Sellitti, Mariana P Fernandes, Claudia J Lagranha
Many studies have shown that a maternal low-protein diet increases the susceptibility of offspring to cardiovascular disease in later-life. Moreover, a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in females than in males is understood to be largely due to the protective effect of high levels of estrogens throughout a woman's reproductive life. However, to our knowledge, the role of estradiol in moderating the later-life susceptibility of offspring of nutrient-deprived mothers to cardiovascular disease is not fully understood...
May 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494460/persistently-altered-metabolic-phenotype-following-perinatal-excitotoxic-brain-injury
#11
Benjamin J Blaise, Leslie Schwendimann, Vibol Chhor, Vincent Degos, Mark P Hodson, Guido Dallmann, Matthias Keller, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
Excitotoxicity plays a key role during insults to the developing brain such as neonatal encephalopathy, stroke, and encephalopathy of prematurity. Such insults affect many thousands of infants each year. Excitotoxicity causes frank lesions due to cell death and gliosis and disturbs normal developmental process, leading to deficits in learning, memory, and social integration that persist into adulthood. Understanding the underlying processes of the acute effects of excitotoxicity and its persistence during brain maturation provides an opportunity to identify mechanistic or diagnostic biomarkers, thus enabling and designing possible therapies...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492551/haploinsufficiency-in-the-mitochondrial-protein-chchd4-reduces-brain-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#12
Yanyan Sun, Tao Li, Cuicui Xie, Yiran Xu, Kai Zhou, Juan Rodriguez, Wei Han, Xiaoyang Wang, Guido Kroemer, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Mitochondria contribute to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by releasing potentially toxic proteins into the cytosol. CHCHD4 is a mitochondrial intermembrane space protein that plays a major role in the import of intermembrane proteins and physically interacts with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of CHCHD4 haploinsufficiency on mitochondrial function and brain injury after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. CHCHD4(+/-) and wild-type littermate mouse pups were subjected to unilateral cerebral HI on postnatal day 9...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#13
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490020/maternal-inflammation-results-in-altered-tryptophan-metabolism-in-rabbit-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#14
Monica Williams, Zhi Zhang, Elizabeth Nance, Julia L Drewes, Wojciech G Lesniak, Sarabdeep Singh, Diane C Chugani, Kannan Rangaramanujam, David R Graham, Sujatha Kannan
Maternal inflammation has been linked to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders such as cerebral palsy, schizophrenia, and autism. We had previously shown that intrauterine inflammation resulted in a decrease in serotonin, one of the tryptophan metabolites, and a decrease in serotonin fibers in the sensory cortex of newborns in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy. In this study, we hypothesized that maternal inflammation results in alterations in tryptophan pathway enzymes and metabolites in the placenta and fetal brain...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486224/long-term-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-cerebral-palsy-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#15
Ryan M McAdams, Bobbi Fleiss, Christopher Traudt, Leslie Schwendimann, Jessica M Snyder, Robin L Haynes, Niranjana Natarajan, Pierre Gressens, Sandra E Juul
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood, with a worldwide prevalence of 1.5-4/1,000 live births. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) contributes to the burden of CP, but the long-term neuropathological findings of this association remain limited. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-four term Macaca nemestrina macaques were included in this long-term neuropathological study: 9 control animals delivered by cesarean section and 25 animals with perinatal asphyxia delivered by cesarean section after 15-18 min of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO)...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479101/the-frequency-and-severity-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-abnormalities-in-infants-with-mild-neonatal-encephalopathy
#16
Brian H Walsh, Jeffrey Neil, JoAnn Morey, Edward Yang, Michelle V Silvera, Terrie E Inder, Cynthia Ortinau
OBJECTIVE: To assess and contrast the incidence and severity of abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort studied infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia at a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2013 and 2015. Two neuroradiologists masked to the clinical condition evaluated brain MRIs for cerebral injury after therapeutic hypothermia using the Barkovich classification system...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469656/neuroprotective-effects-of-autophagy-inhibition-on-hippocampal-glutamate-receptor-subunits-after-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-brain-damage-in-newborn-rats
#17
Li-Xiao Xu, Xiao-Juan Tang, Yuan-Yuan Yang, Mei Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Po Miao, Xin Ding, Ying Wang, Yan-Hong Li, Bin Sun, Xing Feng
Autophagy has been suggested to participate in the pathology of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, its regulatory role in HIBD remains unclear and was thus examined here using a rat model. To induce HIBD, the left common carotid artery was ligated in neonatal rats, and the rats were subjected to hypoxia for 2 hours. Some of these rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (10 mM in 10 μL) or the autophagy stimulator rapamycin (1 g/kg) 1 hour before artery ligation...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456387/erythropoietin-and-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-volume-of-acute-brain-injury-and-1-year-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#18
Sarah B Mulkey, Raghu H Ramakrishnaiah, Robert C McKinstry, Taeun Chang, Amit M Mathur, Dennis E Mayock, Krisa P Van Meurs, G Bradley Schaefer, Chunqiao Luo, Shasha Bai, Sandra E Juul, Yvonne W Wu
In the Neonatal Erythropoietin and Therapeutic Hypothermia Outcomes study, 9/20 erythropoietin-treated vs 12/24 placebo-treated infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy had acute brain injury. Among infants with acute brain injury, the injury volume was lower in the erythropoietin than the placebo group (P = .004). Higher injury volume correlated with lower 12-month neurodevelopmental scores. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01913340.
April 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452086/the-effects-of-nifedipine-and-atosiban-on-perinatal-brain-injury-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-apostel-iii-trial
#19
T A J Nijman, M M Goedhart, C N Naaktgeboren, T R de Haan, D C Vijlbrief, B W Mol, M J N Benders, A Franx, M A Oudijk
OBJECTIVE: Brain injury in prematurely born neonates is strongly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome. The aim of our study is to evaluate if nifedipine reduces overall brain injury compared to atosiban in women with threatened preterm birth. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the APOSTEL III-trial (Dutch Clinical Trial Registry, number NTR2947). This was a randomized clinical trial that allocated women with threatened preterm labor between 25-34 weeks of gestation to nifedipine or atosiban...
April 28, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449983/universal-head-ultrasound-screening-in-full-term-neonates-a-retrospective-analysis-of-6771-infants
#20
Elisa Ballardini, Anna Tarocco, Chiara Rosignoli, Alessandro Baldan, Caterina Borgna-Pignatti, Giampaolo Garani
BACKGROUND: Full-term neonates may have asymptomatic cranial injuries at birth and head ultrasound screening could be useful for early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and type of intracranial abnormalities and the usefulness of head ultrasound screening in these infants. METHODS: A head ultrasound screening was performed on all full-term neonates (gestational age between 37 and 42 weeks), born at Sant'Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, Italy, from June 1, 2008 through May 31, 2013...
March 30, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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