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Neonatal brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155711/monitoring-astrocyte-reactivity-and-proliferation-in-vitro-under-ischemic-like-conditions
#1
Yancy Ferrer-Acosta, Maxine N Gonzalez-Vega, David E Rivera-Aponte, Solianne M Martinez-Jimenez, Antonio H Martins
Ischemic stroke is a complex brain injury caused by a thrombus or embolus obstructing blood flow to parts of the brain. This leads to deprivation of oxygen and glucose, which causes energy failure and neuronal death. After an ischemic stroke insult, astrocytes become reactive and proliferate around the injury site as it develops. Under this scenario, it is difficult to study the specific contribution of astrocytes to the brain region exposed to ischemia. Therefore, this article introduces a methodology to study primary astrocyte reactivity and proliferation under an in vitro model of an ischemia-like environment, called oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155093/histone-acetylation-of-oligodendrocytes-protects-against-white-matter-injury-induced-by-inflammation-and-hypoxia-ischemia-through-activation-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway-in-neonatal-rats
#2
Jichong Huang, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Yan Zhou, Jianghu Zhu, Yafei Li, Tingting Zhu, Fengyan Zhao, Jun Tang, Dezhi Mu
The major pathological damage in encephalopathy of prematurity is white matter injury (WMI). Perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) and inflammation are two major risk factors in the development of WMI. To study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of WMI, we set up a WMI model using lipopolysaccharide-sensitized HI injury in 2-day postnatal rats. Immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the expression of acetylated histone H3 (AH3) in oligodendrocytes, the target cells of WMI; the oligodendrocyte protein markers, NG2, O4, MBP, PLP, and MAG, were detected at different developmental stages...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150648/shedding-light-on-the-neonatal-brain-probing-cerebral-hemodynamics-by-diffuse-optical-spectroscopic-methods
#3
Parisa Farzam, Erin M Buckley, Pei-Yi Lin, Katherine Hagan, P Ellen Grant, Terrie Eleanor Inder, Stefan A Carp, Maria Angela Franceschini
Investigating the cerebral physiology of healthy term newborns' brains is important for better understanding perinatal brain injuries, of which the most common etiologies are hypoxia and ischemia. Hence, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation are important biomarkers of brain health. In this study, we employed a hybrid diffuse optical system consisting of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) to measure hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and indices of cerebral blood flow and metabolism...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146572/cognitive-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-following-birth-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Louise Linsell, Samantha Johnson, Dieter Wolke, Helen O'Reilly, Joan K Morris, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Neil Marlow
OBJECTIVE: To determine the trajectory of cognitive test scores from infancy to adulthood in individuals born extremely preterm compared with term-born individuals. DESIGN: A prospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: 276 maternity units in the UK and Ireland. PATIENTS: 315 surviving infants born less than 26 completed weeks of gestation recruited at birth in 1995 and 160 term-born classroom controls recruited at age 6...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142564/clinical-effects-of-ganglioside-and-fructose-1-6-diphosphate-on-neonatal-heart-and-brain-injuries-after-asphyxia
#5
Xiaojing Zhu, Hongya Li, Congmin Zhang
Objective: To study the clinical effect of ganglioside (GM) and fructose-1, 6-diphosphate (FDP) on neonatal heart and brain injuries after asphyxia. Methods: Ninety-one neonates with asphyxia neonatal heart and brain injuries were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group. Both groups were given symptomatic treatment as soon as possible. On this basis, the observation group was given 200 mL of 5% glucose injection and 20 mg of GM and 250 mg/kg·d FDP by intravenous infusion...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138854/ng25-an-inhibitor-of-transforming-growth-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-activated-kinase-1-ameliorates-neuronal-apoptosis-in-neonatal-hypoxic%C3%A2-ischemic-rats
#6
Hua Wang, Zhong Chen, Yu Li, Qiaoyun Ji
Transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β‑activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was found to be activated by TGF‑β and acts as a central regulator of cell death in various types of disease. However, the expression and function of TAK1 in the neonatal brain following hypoxia‑ischemia (HI) remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting and immunofluorescence were employed to determine the expression and distribution of TAK1 in the brain cortex of a perinatal HI rat model. In addition, the specific inhibitor of TAK1, NG25 was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, prior to insult of the neonatal rat brains, for neuroprotection...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138115/active-forms-of-akt-and-erk-are-dominant-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-newborn-pigs-that-are-unaffected-by-asphyxia
#7
Viktória Kovács, Valéria Tóth-Szűki, János Németh, Viktória Varga, Gábor Remzső, Ferenc Domoki
AIMS: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) often results in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Introduction of therapeutic hypothermia improved HIE outcome, but further neuroprotective therapies are still warranted. The present study sought to determine the feasibility of the activation of the cytoprotective PI-3-K/Akt and the MAPK/ERK signaling pathways in the subacute phase of HIE development in a translational newborn pig PA/HIE model. MAIN METHODS: Phosphorylated and total levels of Akt and ERK were determined by Western blotting in brain samples obtained from untreated naive, time control, and PA/HIE animals at 24-48h survival (n=3-3-6,respectively)...
November 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133891/decreased-oxygen-saturation-levels-in-neonates-with-transposition-of-great-arteries-impact-on-appearance-of-cerebral-veins-in-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#8
Rajeev Kumar Verma, Desislava Keller, Sebastian Grunt, Sandra Bigi, Christian Weisstanner, Roland Wiest, Jan Gralla, Damian Hutter, Bendicht Wagner
Purpose of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between the pattern of cerebral veins (CV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and blood oxygen saturation, as well as preoperative brain injury, in neonates with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Eleven neonates with TGA underwent MRI preoperatively, including SWI, T1- and T2-weighted scans. Images were retrospectively evaluated and appearance of CV was graded from 0 (normal appearance) to 3 (severe prominent appearance). White matter injuries (WMI) and strokes were analysed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128160/prone-sleeping-position-in-infancy-implications-for-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-function
#9
REVIEW
Kelsee L Shepherd, Stephanie R Yiallourou, Rosemary S C Horne, Flora Y Wong
Advances in neonatal care have improved the survival rates of preterm infants, however, the likelihood of brain injury and neurodevelopmental disability remains a significant problem. Whilst the etiology of preterm brain injury is complex, impairments in the cardio- and cerebro-vascular function have been implicated. During infancy, sleep is vital for brain development. However, instabilities in cardio- and cerebro-vascular function are most marked during sleep. Sleeping position is an important part of a safe sleeping environment...
October 13, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125039/astrocyte-autophagy-flux-protects-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#11
Xue Liu, Fengfeng Tian, Shiquan Wang, Feng Wang, Lize Xiong
The role of autophagy varies with the type of acute brain injury. In general, autophagy mediates a clear neuroprotective effect in intoxication caused by various psychoactive agents, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal cord injury. In contrast, autophagic cell death has also been reported to actively contribute to neuronal loss in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, it still remains to be determined whether autophagy pays a cytoprotective or a cytotoxic role in stroke. Previous studies focused primarily on the role of neurons rather than the role of astrocytes in brain injury...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118462/predictive-role-of-f2-isoprostanes-as-biomarkers-for-brain-damage-after-neonatal-surgery
#12
L J Stolwijk, P M A Lemmers, M Y A van Herwaarden, D C van der Zee, F van Bel, F Groenendaal, M L Tataranno, M Calderisi, M Longini, F Bazzini, M J N L Benders, G Buonocore
Objective: Neonates have a high risk of oxidative stress during anesthetic procedures. The predictive role of oxidative stress biomarkers on the occurrence of brain injury in the perioperative period has not been reported before. Methods: A prospective cohort study of patients requiring major surgery in the neonatal period was conducted. Biomarker levels of nonprotein-bound iron (NPBI) in plasma and F2-isoprostane in plasma and urine before and after surgical intervention were determined...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117330/neonatal-encephalopathy-with-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-systematic-review-investigator-group-datasets-and-meta-analysis
#13
Cally J Tann, Kathryn A Martinello, Samantha Sadoo, Joy E Lawn, Anna C Seale, Maira Vega-Poblete, Neal J Russell, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Paul T Heath
Background: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a leading cause of child mortality and longer-term impairment. Infection can sensitize the newborn brain to injury; however, the role of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease has not been reviewed. This paper is the ninth in an 11-article series estimating the burden of GBS disease; here we aim to assess the proportion of GBS in NE cases. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups reporting GBS-associated NE...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113329/the-clock-gene-brain-and-muscle-arnt-like-1-regulates-autophagy-in-high-glucose-induced-cardiomyocyte-injury
#14
Li Qiao, Bingyan Guo, Hui Zhang, Rong Yang, Liang Chang, Yaling Wang, Xin Jin, Suyun Liu, Yongjun Li
High-glucose-induced cardiomyocyte injury is the major cause of diabetic cardiomyopathy, but its regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we report that a circadian clock gene, brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), increases autophagy in high-glucose-induced cardiomyocyte injury. We constructed a hyperglycemia model with cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats. High-glucose-induced inhibition of autophagy and cardiomyocyte injury were attenuated by Bmal1 overexpression and aggravated by its knockdown...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111451/brain-immune-interactions-in-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Bo Li, Katherine Concepcion, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia remains the primary cause of acute neonatal brain injury, leading to a high mortality rate and long-term neurological deficits, such as behavioral, social, attentional, cognitive and functional motor deficits. An ever-increasing body of evidence shows that the immune response to acute cerebral hypoxia-ischemia is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of neonatal brain injury. Hypoxia-ischemia provokes an intravascular inflammatory cascade that is further augmented by the activation of resident immune cells and the cerebral infiltration of peripheral immune cells response to cellular damages in the brain parenchyma...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105061/annual-research-review-not-just-a-small-adult-brain-understanding-later-neurodevelopment-through-imaging-the-neonatal-brain
#16
REVIEW
Dafnis Batalle, A David Edwards, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh
BACKGROUND: There has been a recent proliferation in neuroimaging research focusing on brain development in the prenatal, neonatal and very early childhood brain. Early brain injury and preterm birth are associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, indicating the importance of this early period for later outcome. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY: Although using a wide range of different methodologies and investigating diverse samples, the common aim of many of these studies has been to both track normative development and investigate deviations in this development to predict behavioural, cognitive and neurological function in childhood...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104800/caffeoylquinic-acid-enhances-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#17
Ying Yanqin, Chen Shaohua, Tang Jing, Li Nan
This report evaluates the protective effect of caffeoylquinic acid (CA) injury to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) by promoting the formation of oligodendrocytes. Neonatal rat brain was used to isolate primary OPCs and non-lethal CoCl2 was used to induce hypoxic stress to inhibit the differentiation of OPCs. Differentiation of OPCs was estimated by survival assay and the expressions of myelin-basic-protein (MBP). Moreover, the effect of CA on the Akt signanling pathway was also estimated in the presence and absence of LY294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor) and adrenomedullin (AM) receptor antagonist (AM22-52) by using western blot assay...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102350/prevalence-of-cerebral-palsy-in-uganda-a-population-based-study
#18
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Carin Andrews, Stefan Peterson, Fred Wabwire Mangen, Ann Christin Eliasson, Hans Forssberg
BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies of cerebral palsy have been done in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to examine cerebral palsy prevalence and subtypes, functional impairments, and presumed time of injury in children in Uganda. METHODS: In this population-based study, we used a nested, three-stage, cross-sectional method (Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance System [HDSS]) to screen for cerebral palsy in children aged 2-17 years in a rural eastern Uganda district...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097178/delayed-versus-early-umbilical-cord-clamping-for-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Michael Fogarty, David A Osborn, Lisa Askie, Anna Lene Seidler, Kylie Hunter, Kei Lui, John Simes, William Tarnow-Mordi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of delayed versus early cord clamping on hospital mortality (primary outcome) and morbidity in preterm infants using Cochrane Collaboration Neonatal Review Group methodology. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Chinese articles, cross-referencing citations, expert informants and trial registries to 31 July 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY: RCTs of delayed (≥ 30 seconds) vs early (<30 seconds) clamping in infants born <37 weeks gestation...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095432/pregnancy-induced-hypertension-and-neonatal-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
A Razak, A Florendo-Chin, L Banfield, M G Abdul Wahab, S McDonald, P S Shah, A Mukerji
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is associated with preterm delivery but its independent impact on neonatal outcomes remains unclear. We sought to systematically review and meta-analyze clinical outcomes of preterm infants <37 weeks' gestation born to mothers with and without PIH. STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CINAHL were searched from January 2000 to October 2016. Studies with low-moderate risk of bias reporting neonatal outcomes based on PIH as primary exposure variable were included...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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