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Neonatal brain injury

Emily Cohen, Laura Dix, Willem Baerts, Thomas Alderliesten, Petra Lemmers, Frank van Bel
BACKGROUND: A haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) reduces cerebral oxygenation in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) preterm neonates. Reduced cerebral oxygenation has been associated with brain injury. Preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates show higher cerebral oxygenation than AGA peers throughout the first postnatal days. To date, no studies have investigated the effect of hsPDA on cerebral oxygenation in preterm SGA neonates. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effect of hsPDA on cerebral oxygenation in preterm SGA neonates compared to AGA peers...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
Håvard Tetlie Garberg, Marianne U Huun, Lars O Baumbusch, Monica Åsegg-Atneosen, Rønnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can identify and grade acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, non-coding strands of RNA that are released into the circulation in response to tissue stress and injury. Some miRNAs are highly tissue specific and thus may potentially be non-invasive biomarkers of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal expression of selected circulating miRNAs in a clinically relevant piglet model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI)...
October 18, 2016: Neonatology
Julia Jacobs, Emily M Spelbrink
Infants born prematurely are highly vulnerable to brain injury and susceptible to seizures in the first weeks of life. Many neonatal seizures occur without reliable clinical signs and are detectable only on electroencephalogram (EEG); understanding EEG findings in these neonates is crucial for providing appropriate care. This can be challenging, as EEG background activity and patterns vary considerably with gestational age. Some physiologic preterm EEG patterns, such as rhythmic temporal theta activity or delta brushes, may be sharply contoured and appear similar to epileptic EEG patterns later in life...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Jonathan D Teo, Margaret J Morris, Nicole M Jones
OBJECTIVE: In humans, maternal obesity is associated with an increase in the incidence of birth related difficulties. However, the impact of maternal obesity on the severity of brain injury in offspring is not known. Recent studies have found evidence of increased glial response and inflammatory mediators in the brains as a result of obesity in humans and rodents. We hypothesised that hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury is greater in neonatal offspring from obese rat mothers compared to lean controls...
October 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Nir Melamed, Alex Pittini, Jon Barrett, Jyotsna Shah, Eugene W Yoon, Brigitte Lemyre, Shoo K Lee, Kellie E Murphy, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of antenatal corticosteroids and neonatal outcomes of preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates and estimate whether the association is similar to that observed in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data collected on singleton neonates born between 24 0/7 and 33 6/7 weeks of gestation and admitted to tertiary neonatal units in Canada between 2010 and 2014...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jacob R Joseph, Brandon W Smith, Hugh J L Garton
Blunt prenatal trauma is known to have consequences to the developing brain, and can result in subdural hematoma (SDH) or epidural hematoma (EDH). The authors present a case of blunt prenatal trauma resulting in a fetal SDH, intraparenchymal hematoma, and intraventricular hemorrhage, and perform a systematic review of the literature. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Relevant studies (up to April 2016) that reported on cases of fetal SDH or EDH after blunt prenatal trauma were identified from the PubMed database...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Bryn Putbrese, Anne Kennedy
Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a nonspecific finding on fetal imaging. Identification of the specific etiology is important as it affects prognosis and may even change the course of current or future pregnancies. In this review we will focus on the application of fetal MRI to demonstrate intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic brain injury as opposed to other causes of VM. MRI is able to identify the specific etiology of ventriculomegaly with much more sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound and should be considered whenever VM is identified on obstetric ultrasound...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Ursula I Tuor, Min Qiao, Manasi Sule, Melissa Morgunov, Tadeusz Foniok
Stroke is a major cause of disability in adults and children. Recently, we have developed an adult rat model of minor stroke containing a peri-infarct region with a modest T2 increase and mild ischemic damage. We hypothesized that a neonatal minor stroke with mild peri-ischemic changes could also be produced, but with potential ontogenic differences. Using our minor photothrombosis method, we produced a range of severities of ischemic lesions (mini, minor, moderate and severe) within magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices of adult and neonatal rats...
October 12, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Mohamed A Hendaus, Fatima A Jomha, Ahmed H Alhammadi
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) affects one to three per 1,000 live full-term births and can lead to severe and permanent neuropsychological sequelae, such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, mental retardation, and visual motor or visual perceptive dysfunction. Melatonin has begun to be contemplated as a good choice in order to diminish the neurological sequelae from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Melatonin emerges as a very interesting medication, because of its capacity to cross all physiological barriers extending to subcellular compartments and its safety and effectiveness...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Bo Zhu, Yumei Chen, Xiaolu Shen, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
BACKGROUND: Recently emerging evidence indicates that endometriotic lesions are wounds undergoing repeated tissue injury and repair (ReTIAR), and platelets induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT), leading ultimately to fibrosis. Due to the commonality of cyclic bleeding as in endometriosis, adenomyotic lesions are also wounds that undergo ReTIAR, and we have recently provided evidence corroborating platelet-induced EMT, FMT and fibrogenesis in adenomyosis...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Qing Ren, Xing-Fang Zhang, Jin-Ying Yang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether erythropoietin (EPO) could protect against white matter damage (WMD) in a preterm equivalent neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemia (HI) model. METHODS: 113 two-day-old male rat pups were divided randomly into three groups: sham-treated, bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO)-treated, BCAO + EPO-treated group. EPO (50 U/10 g body weight) or saline alone was administered intraperitoneally immediately after BCAO surgery...
October 8, 2016: Neurological Research
Vera Vigo, Domenica Immacolata Battaglia, Paolo Frassanito, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Massimo Caldarelli, Luca Massimi
Cephalohematoma, one of the most common neonatal head injuries, generally undergoes spontaneous resorption. When calcified, it may cause cranial vault distortion and depression of the inner skull layer, although it remains asymptomatic. Surgery, indeed, is usually performed for cosmetic purposes. For these reasons, the long-term effects of calcified cephalohematoma (CC) are widely unknown. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a persistent calcified CC causing skull deformity and delayed electroencephalography (EEG) anomalies...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Ursula I Tuor, Manasi Sule, Min Qiao
PURPOSE: To determine whether damage to neonatal brain is exacerbated with multiple mild cerebral insults as detected with MRI and corroborated using histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The combined brain injury produced by multiple procedures was compared in neonatal rats having: Sham surgery at P5, Sham surgery at P5 plus a diffuse mild transient unilateral cerebral hypoxia ischemia (HI) at P7, HI alone, and a minor photothrombotic (PT) stroke at P5 followed by HI...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Brandon J Dixon, Di Chen, Yang Zhang, Jerry Flores, Jay Malaguit, Derek Nowrangi, John H Zhang, Jiping Tang
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an injury that often leads to detrimental neurological deficits. Currently, there are no established therapies for HIE and it is critical to develop treatments that provide protection after HIE. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of interferon beta (IFNβ) to provide neuroprotection and reduce apoptosis after HIE. Postnatal Day 10 rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 hr of exposure to hypoxia (8% O2)...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Mickaël Dinomais
Long-term motor performances after unilateral neonatal stroke are variable. The presence of motor deficits may be related to structural characteristic (size and location) of the infarct site but also in brain area remote from this injury (cerebellum and thalamus). Analyzing in functional MRI and structural MRI the relationship between long-term motor performance and motor system after neonatal stroke could provide cerebral target for therapy.
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Hannah Klein, Glenda K Rabe, Bahri Karacay, Daniel J Bonthius
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection during pregnancy injures the human fetal brain. Neonatal rats inoculated with LCMV are an excellent model of congenital LCMV infection because they develop cerebellar injuries similar to those in humans. To evaluate the role of T-lymphocytes in LCMV-induced cerebellar pathology, congenitally athymic rats, deficient in T-lymphocytes were compared with euthymic rats. Peak viral titers and cellular targets of infection were similar, but viral clearance from astrocytes was impaired in the athymic rats...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Ying Xu, Ye Tian, Yue Tian, Xingyue Li, Ping Zhao
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) in neonates can lead to lifelong cognitive and memory impairment, but protective strategies are lacking at present. It has been demonstrated that autophagy plays a critical role in HIBI, while the function of autophagy in cognitive and memory impairment induced by HIBI in neonates has not been tested. In this study, we tested the impact of autophagy on the impairment of cognitive function and memory in HIBI neonatal rats by using a Morris water maze and investigated its possible mechanisms, which were established as HIBI model by ligating the left common carotid artery in neonatal rats, followed by 2-h hypoxia...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Ala Birca, Vasily A Vakorin, Prashob Porayette, Sujana Madathil, Vann Chau, Mike Seed, Sam M Doesburg, Susan Blaser, Dragos A Nita, Rohit Sharma, Emma G Duerden, Edward J Hickey, Steven P Miller, Cecil D Hahn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether structural and microstructural brain abnormalities in neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) correlate with neuronal network dysfunction measured by analysis of EEG connectivity. METHODS: We studied a prospective cohort of 20 neonates with CHD who underwent continuous EEG monitoring before surgery to assess functional brain maturation and network connectivity, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the presence of brain injury and structural brain development, and diffusion tensor MRI to assess brain microstructural development...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
De-An Zhao, Ling-Yun Bi, Qian Huang, Fang-Min Zhang, Zi-Ming Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism...
September 13, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
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