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Neonatal brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#1
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902983/perinatal-asphyxia-and-erythropoietin-and-vegf-serial-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-responses
#2
Deirdre U Sweetman, Chike Onwuneme, William R Watson, John F A Murphy, Eleanor J Molloy
BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of hypoxic-ischaemic origin are at risk of oxidative and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which may induce abnormal inflammatory responses involving excessive cytokine production and release in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Systemic inflammation is found in infants with NE, and we therefore were interested in cytokines associated with hypoxia, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (Epo). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between Epo, VEGF levels, brain injury and outcome in a group of term infants exposed to perinatal asphyxia (PA) compared to controls...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901512/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alveolar-and-white-matter-developmental-failure-in-premature-infants
#3
Vadim S Ten
At birth, some organs in premature infants are not developed enough to meet challenges of the extra-uterine life. Although growth and maturation continues after premature birth, postnatal organ development may become sluggish or even arrested, leading to organ dysfunction. There is no clear mechanistic concept of this postnatal organ developmental failure in premature neonates. This review introduces a concept-forming hypothesis: Mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction is a fundamental mechanism of organs maturation failure in premature infants...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896259/prenatal-diagnosis-of-spontaneous-twin-anemia-polycythemia-sequence-and-postnatal-examination-of-placental-vascular-anastomoses
#4
Jin Young Bae, Jin Ju Oh, Seong Yeon Hong
Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is characterized by a wide discrepancy of hemoglobin between two monochorionic fetuses without sign of twin oligo-polyhydramnios sequence. A primiparous woman with monochorionic diamniotic twin transferred for preterm labor. Ultrasonographic evaluation at 32+3 weeks of gestation revealed increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (77.4 cm/sec, 1.69 multiples of median) in donor and decreased in recipient twin (36.4 cm/sec, 0.79 multiples of median), the twin was diagnosed with TAPS...
November 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887996/effects-of-erythropoietin-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury-in-rat-model
#5
Qing Ren, Zhong-Hui Jiang, Xing-Fang Zhang, Qiao-Zhi Yang
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain remains a major cause of morbidity.To date, few therapeutic strategies could provide complete neuroprotection. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be beneficial in several models of neonatal HI. This study examines the effect of treatment with erythropoietin on postnatal day 2 (P2) rats introduced with HI injury. METHOD: Rats at P2 were randomized into four groups: sham, bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO), BCAO + early EPO, and BCAO + late EPO groups...
November 22, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868190/intensive-care-medicine-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#6
M W Dünser, R M Towey, J Amito, M Mer
We undertook an audit in a rural Ugandan hospital that describes the epidemiology and mortality of 5147 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The most frequent admission diagnoses were postoperative state (including following trauma) (2014/5147; 39.1%), medical conditions (709; 13.8%) and traumatic brain injury (629; 12.2%). Intensive care unit mortality was 27.8%, differing between age groups (p < 0.001). Intensive care unit mortality was highest for neonatal tetanus (29/37; 78.4%) and lowest for foreign body aspiration (4/204; 2...
November 21, 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865947/immune-responses-in-perinatal-brain-injury
#7
Jacqueline C Y Lai, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, C Joakim Ek, Xiaoyang Wang, Henrik Hagberg, Carina Mallard
The perinatal period has often been described as immune deficient. However, it has become clear that immune responses in the neonate following exposure to microbes or as a result of tissue injury may be substantial and play a role in perinatal brain injury. In this article we will review the immune cell composition under normal physiological conditions in the perinatal period, both in the human and rodent. We will summarize evidence of the inflammatory responses to stimuli and discuss how neonatal immune activation, both in the central nervous system and in the periphery, may contribute to perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury...
November 16, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863079/prevalence-and-pattern-of-executive-dysfunction-in-school-age-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#8
Jacqueline H Sanz, Madison M Berl, Anna C Armour, Jichuan Wang, Yao I Cheng, Mary T Donofrio
OBJECTIVE: Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. DESIGN: Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire...
November 11, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857787/a-study-of-neurosonogram-abnormalities-clinical-correlation-with-neurosonogram-findings-and-immediate-outcome-of-high-risk-neonates-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Niranjan Nagaraj, Pramod Kumar Berwal, Anusha Srinivas, Ramnarayan Sehra, Sarika Swami, Prathyusha Jeevaji, Gotam Swami, Lokesh Choudary, Ayush Berwal
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sonography of the brain is now an essential part of newborn care, particularly in high risk and unstable premature infants. Cranial ultrasound is the most available and easily repeatable imaging technique for the neonatal brain showing brain development and the most frequently occurring forms of cerebral injury in the preterm and terms. This study aims to assess the importance of cranial ultrasound as an investigatory modality for high-risk neonates and to find out the morphology of various cerebral lesions and correlate clinically...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857456/magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#10
Binoj Varghese, Rose Xavier, V C Manoj, M K Aneesh, P S Priya, Ashok Kumar, V K Sreenivasan
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury results in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and serious long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is an ideal and safe imaging modality for suspected hypoxic-ischemic injury. The pattern of injury depends on brain maturity at the time of insult, severity of hypotension, and duration of insult. Time of imaging after the insult influences the imaging findings. Mild to moderate hypoperfusion results in germinal matrix hemorrhages and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm neonates and parasagittal watershed territory infarcts in full-term neonates...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830959/neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-an-update-on-disease-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#11
Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, Barış Ekici, Burak Tatlı
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most important reason for morbidity and mortality in term-born infants. Understanding pathophysiology of the brain damage is essential for the early detection of patients with high risk for HIE and development of strategies for their treatments. Areas covered: This review discusses pathophysiology of the neonatal HIE and its treatment options, including hypothermia, melatonin, allopurinol, topiramate, erythropoietin, N-acetylcyctein, magnesium sulphate and xenon...
November 10, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826422/hyperbaric-oxygen-modalities-are-differentially-effective-in-distinct-brain-ischemia-models
#12
REVIEW
Robert P Ostrowski, Katarzyna Stępień, Emanuela Pucko, Ewa Matyja
The effectiveness and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning and post-treatment modalities have been demonstrated in experimental models of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, including global brain ischemia, transient focal and permanent focal cerebral ischemia, and experimental neonatal hypoxia-ischemia encephalopathy. In general, early and repetitive post-treatment of HBO appears to create enhanced protection against brain ischemia whereas delayed HBO treatment after transient focal ischemia may even aggravate brain injury...
March 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812200/melatonin-suppresses-toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-caspase-3-signaling-activation-coupled-with-reduced-production-of-proinflammatory-mediators-in-hypoxic-microglia
#13
Linli Yao, Pengfei Lu, Eng-Ang Ling
Microglia activation and associated inflammatory response play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases including neonatal hypoxic brain injury. Here we show that caspase3 expression was upregulated in activated microglia after hypoxic exposure, and remarkably, the cell viability remained unaffected alluding to the possibility of a non-apoptotic role of caspase3 in activated microglia. Chemical inhibition of caspase3 suppressed microglia activation as evident by an obvious reduction in expression of proinflammatory mediators and NF-κB signaling activation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811363/resveratrol-post-treatment-protects-against-neonatal-brain-injury-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#14
Shulin Pan, Songlin Li, Yingying Hu, Hao Zhang, Yanlong Liu, Huai Jiang, Mingchu Fang, Zhengmao Li, Kebin Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Zhenlang Lin, Jian Xiao
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a devastating disease with limited treatment options. Preventive treatment with resveratrol has indicated to be well tolerated and has lower toxicity in both experimental models and human patients. However, whether resveratrol administration post-hypoxic-ischemic protects against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury is not known. Here we reported that post-treatment with resveratrol significantly reduced brain damage at 7-day after the injury. We found that resveratrol reduced the expression levels of key inflammatory factors at the mRNA and protein levels, and at least partially via inhibiting microglia activation...
November 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806664/complement-c5a-is-present-in-csf-of-human-newborns-and-is-elevated-in-association-with-preterm-birth
#15
Rozalia Pataky, A Forbes Howie, Guillermina Girardi, James P Boardman
Neuroinflammation contributes to developmental brain injury associated with preterm birth, but the mediators that drive it are incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that complement C5a is present and injurious in the brains of fetal mice exposed to preterm labour. Here, we demonstrate that C5a is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of newborn human infants, and that levels are elevated in those born preterm. The difference is not explained by systemic infection. The role of complement activation in the neonatal brain and its role as a potential therapeutic target for preterm brain injury warrants further study...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805577/sex-differences-in-mouse-hippocampal-astrocytes-after-in-vitro-ischemia
#16
Vishal Chanana, Abdulfettah Tumturk, Douglas Kintner, Eshwar Udho, Peter Ferrazzano, Pelin Cengiz
Astrogliosis following hypoxia/ischemia (HI)-related brain injury plays a role in increased morbidity and mortality in neonates. Recent clinical studies indicate that the severity of brain injury appear to be sex dependent, and that the male neonates are more susceptible to the effects of HI-related brain injury, resulting in more severe neurological outcomes as compared to females with comparable brain injuries. The development of reliable methods to isolate and maintain highly enriched populations of sexed hippocampal astrocytes is essential to understand the cellular basis of sex differences in the pathological consequences of neonatal HI...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796751/docosahexaenoic-acid-reduces-cerebral-damage-and-ameliorates-long-term-cognitive-impairments-caused-by-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-rats
#17
Olatz Arteaga, M Revuelta, L Urigüen, L Martínez-Millán, E Hilario, A Álvarez
As the interest in the neuroprotective possibilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for brain injury has grown in the recent years, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of this fatty acid in an experimental model of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rats. To this end, motor activity, aspects of learning, and memory function and anxiety, as well as corticofugal connections visualized by using tracer injections, were evaluated at adulthood. We found that in the hours immediately following the insult, DHA maintained mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and transmembrane potential, as well as the integrity of synaptic processes...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796747/neonatal-dexamethasone-treatment-exacerbates-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-white-matter-injury
#18
Chia -Yu Yeh, Che-Ming Yeh, Ting-Hsuan Yu, Kan-Hsun Chang, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been widely used to prevent or ameliorate morbidity of chronic lung disease in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Despite its beneficial effect on neonatal lung function, growing concern has arisen about adverse effects of this clinical practice on fetal brain development. We demonstrated previously that neonatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment may render the newborn brain to be more vulnerable to hypoxia/ischemia (HI)-induced gray matter injury...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793236/isoflurane-provides-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-by-suppressing-apoptosis
#19
De-An Zhao, Ling-Yun Bi, Qian Huang, Fang-Min Zhang, Zi-Ming Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781299/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-mri-identifiable-injury-protect-white-matter-and-improve-long-term-functional-outcomes-after-neonatal-focal-stroke-in-rats
#20
Cindy T van Velthoven, Mark Dzietko, Michael F Wendland, Nikita Derugin, Joel Faustino, Cobi J Heijnen, Donna M Ferriero, Zinaida S Vexler
Cell therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and neonatal ischemic brain injury. Delayed intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after experimental hypoxia-ischemia and after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in neonatal rats has shown improvement in long-term functional outcomes, but the effects of MSCs on white matter injury (WMI) are insufficiently understood. In this study we used longitudinal T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize chronic injury after tMCAO induced in postnatal day 10 (P10) rats and examined the effects of delayed MSC administration on WMI, axonal coverage, and long-term somatosensory function...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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