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Neonatal brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#1
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091756/-recommendation-on-temperature-management-after-cardiopulmonary-arrest-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-childhood-beyond-the-neonatal-period-statement-of-the-german-society-for-neonatology-and-pediatric-intensive-care-medicine%C3%A2-gnpi-and-the-scientific-working
#2
S Brenner, C Eich, G Rellensmann, M U Schuhmann, T Nicolai, F Hoffmann
The available data on the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in different patient groups are heterogeneous. Although the benefits have been proven for some collectives, recommendations for the use of hypothermia treatment in other groups are based on less robust data and conclusions by analogy. This article gives a review of the current evidence of temperature management in all age groups and based on this state of knowledge, recommends active temperature management with the primary aim of strict normothermia (36-36...
January 13, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076846/effect-of-trp53-gene-deficiency-on-brain-injury-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#3
Ana A Baburamani, Kristina S Sobotka, Regina Vontell, Carina Mallard, Veena G Supramaniam, Claire Thornton, Henrik Hagberg
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) can result in permanent life-long injuries such as motor and cognitive deficits. In response to cellular stressors such as hypoxia, tumor suppressor protein p53 is activated, potently initiating apoptosis and promoting Bax-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Trp53 genetic inhibition on injury development in the immature brain following HI. HI (50 min or 60 min) was induced at postnatal day 9 (PND9) in Trp53 heterozygote (het) and wild type (WT) mice...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076020/structure-of-the-medullary-veins-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere-and-related-disorders
#4
Toshiaki Taoka, Akio Fukusumi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Shinji Naganawa
Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. As white matter imaging develops such as diffusion tensor imaging or susceptibility-weighted imaging, requirements for understanding of white matter structures are increasing, not only for understanding of neuronal tracts but also for that of other structures including the fine anatomy of white matter vessels...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065636/neuroprotection-and-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-brain-an-update-on-the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-xenon
#5
Azeem Alam, Ka Chun Suen, Zac Hana, Robert D Sanders, Mervyn Maze, Daqing Ma
Growing and consistent preclinical evidence, combined with early clinical epidemiological observations, suggest potentially neurotoxic effects of commonly used anesthetic agents in the developing brain. This has prompted the FDA to issue a safety warning for all sedatives and anesthetics approved for use in children under three years of age. Recent studies have identified dexmedetomidine, the potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist, and xenon, the noble gas, as effective anesthetic adjuvants that are both less neurotoxic to the developing brain, and also possess neuroprotective properties in neonatal and other settings of acute ongoing neurologic injury...
January 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062175/intranasal-c3a-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#6
Javier Morán, Anna Stokowska, Frederik R Walker, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Marcela Pekna
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults...
January 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056712/neonatal-head-and-torso-vibration-exposure-during-inter-hospital-transfer
#7
Laurence Blaxter, Mildrid Yeo, Donal McNally, John Crowe, Caroline Henry, Sarah Hill, Neil Mansfield, Andrew Leslie, Don Sharkey
Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046071/routine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-at-term-equivalent-age-detects-brain-injury-in-25-of-a-contemporary-cohort-of-very-preterm-infants
#8
Vera Neubauer, Tanja Djurdjevic, Elke Griesmaier, Marlene Biermayr, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, significant investigation has been undertaken by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to identify preterm infants at risk for adverse outcome. The primary objective is to provide a comprehensive characterization of cerebral injury detected by conventional MRI at term-equivalent age in an unselected, consecutive, contemporary cohort of preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks. Secondly, this study aims to identify risk factors for the different injury types in this population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045472/inhaled-nitric-oxide-for-respiratory-failure-in-preterm-infants
#9
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Neil Finer, Thomas Pennaforte
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure and the potential risks of iNO differ substantially in preterm infants, necessitating specific study in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine effects of treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or other serious brain injury and on adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043688/neonatal-surgery-for-noncardiac-congenital-anomalies-neonates-at-risk-of-brain-injury
#10
Lisanne J Stolwijk, Kristin Keunen, Linda S de Vries, Floris Groenendaal, David C van der Zee, Maud Y A van Herwaarden, Petra M A Lemmers, Manon J N L Benders
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of brain injury after neonatal surgery for noncardiac congenital anomalies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). STUDY DESIGN: An MRI was obtained in 101 infants at 7 days [range: 1-115] after neonatal surgery for major noncardiac congenital anomalies. Brain injury was assessed using T1, T2, diffusion weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging. RESULTS: Thirty-two preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestation) and 69 full-term infants were included...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042096/different-response-to-antiepileptic-drugs-according-to-the-type-of-epileptic-events-in-a-neonatal-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#11
Luc Morin, Julie Enderlin, Pierre-Louis Leger, Gaëtan Perrotte, Philippe Bonnin, Nina Dupuis, Olivier Baud, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Stéphane Auvin
Perinatal arterial stroke is the most frequent form of cerebral infarction in children. Neonatal seizures are the most frequent symptom during the neonatal period. The current management of perinatal stroke is based on supportive care. It is currently unknown if treatment of the seizures modifies the outcome, and no clinical studies have focused on seizures during neonatal stroke. We studied the effect of phenobarbital and levetiracetam on an ischemic-reperfusion stroke model in P7 rats using prolonged electroencephalographic recordings and a histologic analysis of the brain (24h after injury)...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039618/birth-settings-and-the-validation-of-neonatal-seizures-recorded-in-birth-certificates-compared-to-medicaid-claims-and-hospital-discharge-abstracts-among-live-births-in-south-carolina-1996-2013
#12
Qing Li, Dorothea D Jenkins, Stephen L Kinsman
Objective Neonatal seizures in the first 28 days of life often reflect underlying brain injury or abnormalities, and measure the quality of perinatal care in out-of-hospital births. Using the 2003 revision of birth certificates only, three studies reported more neonatal seizures recorded among home births ​or planned out-of-hospital births compared to hospital births. However, the validity of recording neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction across birth settings in birth certificates has not been evaluated...
December 30, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038986/differential-effects-of-minocycline-on-microglial-activation-and-neurodegeneration-following-closed-head-injury-in-the-neonate-rat
#13
L A Hanlon, R Raghupathi, J W Huh
The role of microglia in the pathophysiology of injury to the developing brain has been extensively studied. In children under the age of 4 who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), markers of microglial/macrophage activation were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid and were associated with worse neurologic outcome. Minocycline is an antibiotic that decreases microglial/macrophage activation following hypoxic-ischemia in neonatal rodents and TBI in adult rodents thereby reducing neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035478/metformin-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-in-hypoxia-ischemia-neonatal-rats-via-improving-remyelination
#14
Boxiang Qi, Libao Hu, Lei Zhu, Lei Shang, Liping Sheng, Xuecheng Wang, Na Liu, Nana Wen, Xiaohe Yu, Qihong Wang, Yujia Yang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) causes brain injury and myelination damage. Finding efficient methods to restore myelination is critical for the recovery of brain impairments. By applying an H/I rat model, we demonstrate that metformin (Met) treatment significantly ameliorates the loss of locomotor activity and cognition of H/I rat in the Morris water maze and open field task tests. After administration of Met to H/I rat, the proliferation of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the expression of myelin basic protein are obviously increased in the corpus callosum...
December 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029185/case-control-study-demonstrates-that-surfactant-without-intubation-delayed-mechanical-ventilation-in-preterm-infants
#15
Sigrid Dannheim Vik, Torstein Vik, Stian Lydersen, Ragnhild Støen
AIM: This Norwegian study explored whether administering surfactant without intubation (SWI) delayed the need for early mechanical ventilation and reduced respiratory and non-respiratory complications in infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age. METHODS: We compared 262 infants admitted to a level three neonatal intensive care unit: 134 born before the introduction of SWI on 1 December 2011 were in the control group and 128 infants born after this date were in the study group...
December 28, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026756/longitudinal-analysis-of-pre-term-neonatal-cerebral-ventricles-from-3d-ultrasound-images-using-spatial-temporal-deformable-registration
#16
Wu Qiu, Yimin Chen, Jessica Kishimoto, Sandrine Ribaupierre, Bernard Chiu, Aaron Fenster, Bijoy Menon, Jing Yuan
Preterm neonates with a very low birth weight of less than 1,500 grams are at increased risk for developing intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), which is a major cause of brain injury in preterm neonates. Quantitative measurements of ventricular dilatation or shrinkage play an important role in monitoring patients and evaluating treatment options. 3D ultrasound (US) has been developed to monitor ventricle volume as a biomarker for ventricular changes. However, ventricle volume as a global indicator does not allow for precise analysis of local ventricular changes, which could be linked to specific neurological problems often seen in the patient population later in life...
December 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025500/glucocorticoids-protect-neonatal-rat-brain-in-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-hie
#17
Benjamin Harding, Katherine Conception, Yong Li, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from asphyxia in the peripartum period is the most common cause of neonatal brain damage and can result in significant neurologic sequelae, including cerebral palsy. Currently therapeutic hypothermia is the only accepted treatment in addition to supportive care for infants with HIE, however, many additional neuroprotective therapies have been investigated. Of these, glucocorticoids have previously been shown to have neuroprotective effects. HIE is also frequently compounded by infectious inflammatory processes (sepsis) and as such, the infants may be more amenable to treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019006/glucose-and-intermediary-metabolism-and-astrocyte-neuron-interactions-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-rat
#18
Eva Brekke, Hester Rijkje Berger, Marius Widerøe, Ursula Sonnewald, Tora Sund Morken
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and the delayed injury cascade that follows involve excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. The susceptibility to excitotoxicity of the neonatal brain may be related to the capacity of astrocytes for glutamate uptake. Furthermore, the neonatal brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) may be of particular importance for limiting this kind of injury. Also, in the neonatal brain, neurons depend upon de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters via pyruvate carboxylase in astrocytes to increase neurotransmitter pools during normal brain development...
December 26, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018179/temporal-characterization-of-microglia-macrophage-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#19
Nina Hellström Erkenstam, Peter L P Smith, Bobbi Fleiss, Syam Nair, Pernilla Svedin, Wei Wang, Martina Boström, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Kelly L Brown, Karin Sävman, Carina Mallard
Immune cells display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, which may facilitate their participation in both the progression and resolution of injury-induced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal expression of genes associated with classical and alternative polarization phenotypes described for macrophages and to identify related cell populations in the brain following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). HI was induced in 9-day old mice and brain tissue was collected up to 7 days post-insult to investigate expression of genes associated with macrophage activation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011948/molecular-hydrogen-affords-neuroprotection-in-a-translational-piglet-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#20
J Nemeth, V Toth-Szuki, V Varga, V Kovacs, G Remzso, F Domoki
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the major consequence of perinatal asphyxia (PA) in term neonates. Although the newborn piglet is an accepted large animal PA/HIE model, there is no consensus on PA-induction methodology to produce clinically relevant HIE. We aimed to create and to characterize a novel PA model faithfully reproducing all features of asphyxiation including severe hypercapnia resulting in HIE, and to test whether H2 is neuroprotective in this model. Piglets were anaesthetised, artificially ventilated, and intensively monitored (electroencephalography, core temperature, O2 saturation, arterial blood pressure and blood gases)...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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