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Neonatal brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209769/seizures-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-white-matter-injury
#1
Monica S Cooper, Mark T Mackay, Michael Fahey, Dinah Reddihough, Susan M Reid, Katrina Williams, A Simon Harvey
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence, syndromes, and evolution of seizure disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP) due to white matter injury (WMI). METHODS: For this population-based cohort study, brain MRI scans and medical records were reviewed in children in the Victorian Cerebral Palsy Register born between 1999 and 2006 recorded as having WMI. Children were excluded if they had features of an undiagnosed syndrome, associated cortical malformation or injury, or no medical contact in the preceding year...
February 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209579/patterns-of-brain-injury-in-newborns-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#2
M A Wien, M T Whitehead, D Bulas, M Ridore, L Melbourne, G Oldenburg, B L Short, A N Massaro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are at risk for brain injury and subsequent neurodevelopmental compromise. Advances in MR imaging and improved accessibility have led to the increased use of routine MR imaging after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Our objective was to describe the frequency and patterns of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-related brain injury based on MR imaging findings in a large contemporary cohort of neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196356/therapeutic-hypothermia-provides-variable-protection-against-behavioral-deficits-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-a-potential-role-for-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#3
Johana Diaz, Suleiman Abiola, Nancy Kim, Oliver Avaritt, Debra Flock, Jenny Yu, Frances J Northington, Raul Chavez-Valdez
BACKGROUND: Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), infants who survive hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) have persistent neurological abnormalities at school age. Protection by TH against HI brain injury is variable in both humans and animal models. Our current preclinical model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and TH displays this variability of outcomes in neuropathological and neuroimaging end points with some sexual dimorphism. The detailed behavioral phenotype of this model is unknown...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193115/characterization-of-death-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-in-the-hypothermia-era
#4
Monica E Lemmon, Renee D Boss, Sonia L Bonifacio, Audrey Foster-Barber, A James Barkovich, Hannah C Glass
This study aimed to characterize the circumstances of death in encephalopathic neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients who died after or during treatment with therapeutic hypothermia between 2007-2014 were identified. Patient circumstance of death was characterized using an established paradigm. Thirty-one of 229 patients died (14%) at a median of 3 days of life. Most who died were severely encephalopathic on examination (90%) and had severely abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings (87%)...
March 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187734/the-potential-neuroprotective-role-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-sodium-butyrate-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#5
Joanna Jaworska, Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Joanna Sypecka, Teresa Zalewska
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), sodium butyrate (SB), has been shown to be neuroprotective in adult brain injury models. Potential explanation for the inhibitor action involves among others reduced inflammation. We therefore anticipated that SB will provide a suitable option for brain injury in immature animals. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by SB after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is associated with anti-inflammatory action...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182680/sensory-modulation-in-preterm-children-theoretical-perspective-and-systematic-review
#6
Tinka Bröring, Kim J Oostrom, Harrie N Lafeber, Elise P Jansma, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children. AIM: This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation) and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173860/ccl11-promotes-migration-and-proliferation-of-mouse-neural-progenitor-cells
#7
Feifei Wang, Nobuyasu Baba, Yuan Shen, Tatsuyuki Yamashita, Emi Tsuru, Masayuki Tsuda, Nagamasa Maeda, Yusuke Sagara
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces massive brain damage during the perinatal period, resulting in long-term consequences to central nervous system structural and functional maturation. Although neural progenitor cells (NPCs) migrate through the parenchyma and home in to injury sites in the rodent brain, the molecular mechanisms are unknown. We examined the role of chemokines in mediating NPC migration after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. METHODS: Nine-day-old mice were exposed to a 120-minute hypoxia following unilateral carotid occlusion...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161194/bumetanide-reduce-the-seizure-susceptibility-induced-by-pentylenetetrazol-via-inhibition-of-aberrant-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-neonatal-rats-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#8
Jiang-Jian Hu, Xing-Liang Yang, Wen-Di Luo, Song Han, Jun Yin, Wan-Hong Liu, Xiao-Hua He, Bi-Wen Peng
Hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) is one of prevalent causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Our data demonstrated that hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induced Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) increasing in hippocampus. Previous studies demonstrated that NKCC1 regulates various stages of neurogenesis. In this study, we studied the role of increased NKCC1 in regulating of HI-induced neurogenesis. HIBD model was established in 7days old Sprague-Dawley rat pup, and the expression of NKCC1 was detected by western blot and qPCR...
February 2, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158932/the-association-of-neonatal-morbidity-with-long-term-neurological-outcome-in-infants-who-were-growth-restricted-and-preterm-at-birth-secondary-analyses-from-truffle-trial-of-randomized-umbilical-and-fetal-flow-in-europe
#9
A G Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, N Marlow, C Lees, H Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between neonatal morbidity (NNM) and two-year neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in surviving children after early fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a European randomised trial (TRUFFLE) of delivery for very preterm fetuses dependent on venous Doppler or cardiotocographic criteria. SETTING: Tertiary perinatal centres, participants in TRUFFLE. POPULATION: 402 surviving children after early FGR...
February 3, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158247/neuroprotective-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-against-hyperoxia-induced-injury-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#10
Stefanie Endesfelder, Hanan Makki, Clarissa von Haefen, Claudia D Spies, Christoph Bührer, Marco Sifringer
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective agonist of α2-receptors with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties. Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine have been reported in various brain injury models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on hippocampal neurogenesis, specifically the proliferation capacity and maturation of neurons and neuronal plasticity following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats. Six-day old sex-matched Wistar rats were exposed to 80% oxygen or room air for 24 h and treated with 1, 5 or 10 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine or normal saline...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157062/cranial-ultrasound-findings-in-preterm-infants-predict-the-development-of-cerebral-palsy
#11
Ann Lawaetz Skovgaard, Gitte Zachariassen
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate any association between gestational age, birth weight and findings on cranial ultrasounds during hospitalisation in very preterm infants and mortality and neurological outcome in childhood. METHOD: This study was a retrospective cohort study based on a patient record review. The cohort consisted of very preterm born children (gestational age ≤ 32 + 0) born from 2004 to 2008. For each infant, we obtained results from all cranial ultrasounds performed during hospitalisation...
February 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154122/measurement-of-lactate-content-and-amide-proton-transfer-values-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-a-neonatal-piglet-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-model-using-mri
#12
Y Zheng, X-M Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As amide proton transfer imaging is sensitive to protein content and intracellular pH, it has been widely used in the nervous system, including brain tumors and stroke. This work aimed to measure the lactate content and amide proton transfer values in the basal ganglia of a neonatal piglet hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model by using MR spectroscopy and amide proton transfer imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 58 healthy neonatal piglets (3-5 days after birth; weight, 1-1...
February 2, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152539/hyperoxia-and-the-immature-brain
#13
Bettina Reich, Daniela Hoeber, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Mueser
Despite major advances in obstetrics and neonatal intensive care, preterm infants frequently suffer from neurological impairments in later life. Preterm and also full-term neonates are generally susceptible to injury caused by reactive oxygen species due to the immaturity of endogenous radical scavenging systems. It is well known that high oxygen levels experienced during the critical phase of maturation can profoundly influence developmental processes. Supraphysiological oxygen concentrations used for resuscitation or in the care of critically ill infants are known to have deleterious effects on the developing lung and retina, contributing to the pathophysiology of neonatal diseases like bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity...
February 3, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148737/antenatal-suppression-of-il-1-protects-against-inflammation-induced-fetal-injury-and-improves-neonatal-and-developmental-outcomes-in-mice
#14
Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Peck-Yin Chin, Lydia Belarbi, Marie-Ève Brien, Sheetal Pundir, Martin H Berryer, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Ankush Madaan, David J Sharkey, Alexis Lupien-Meilleur, Xin Hou, Christiane Quiniou, Alexandre Beaulac, Ines Boufaied, Amarilys Boudreault, Adriana Carbonaro, Ngoc-Duc Doan, Jean-Sebastien Joyal, William D Lubell, David M Olson, Sarah A Robertson, Sylvie Girard, Sylvain Chemtob
Preterm birth (PTB) is commonly accompanied by in utero fetal inflammation, and existing tocolytic drugs do not target fetal inflammatory injury. Of the candidate proinflammatory mediators, IL-1 appears central and is sufficient to trigger fetal loss. Therefore, we elucidated the effects of antenatal IL-1 exposure on postnatal development and investigated two IL-1 receptor antagonists, the competitive inhibitor anakinra (Kineret) and a potent noncompetitive inhibitor 101.10, for efficacy in blocking IL-1 actions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142140/dha-reduces-oxidative-stress-after-perinatal-asphyxia-a-study-in-newborn-piglets
#15
Rønnaug Solberg, Mariangela Longini, Fabrizio Proietti, Serafina Perrone, Cosetta Felici, Alessio Porta, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurological morbidity in infants and children. Oxidative stress due to free radical formation and the initiation of abnormal oxidative reactions appears to play a key role. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), a main component of brain membrane phospholipids, may act as a neuroprotectant after hypoxia-ischemia by regulating multiple molecular pathways and gene expression. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that DHA provides significant protection against lipoperoxidation damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in a neonatal piglet model of severe hypoxia-reoxygenation...
February 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141793/sex-specific-associations-between-cerebrovascular-blood-pressure-autoregulation-and-cardiopulmonary-injury-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#16
Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Jamie Perin, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Charlamaine Parkinson, Maureen Gilmore, Jacky Jennings, Frances J Northington, Jennifer K Lee
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary injury is common in neonatal encephalopathy, but the link with cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral autoregulation is associated with cardiopulmonary injury in neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: The cerebral hemoglobin volume index (HVx) from near-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity (MAPOPT)...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139935/systemic-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-2-suppresses-mitochondrial-respiration-and-exacerbates-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-in-the-developing-brain
#17
Amin Mottahedin, Pernilla Svedin, Syam Nair, Carl-Johan Mohn, Xiaoyang Wang, Henrik Hagberg, Joakim Ek, Carina Mallard
Infection and inflammation are known risk factors for neonatal brain injury. Mycoplasma and Gram-positive bacteria, for which Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a key role in recognition and inflammatory response, are among the most common pathogens in the perinatal period. Here, we report that systemic activation of TLR2 by Pam3CSK4 (P3C) increases neural tissue loss and demyelination induced by subsequent hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. High-resolution respirometry of brain isolated mitochondria revealed that P3C suppresses ADP-induced oxidative phosphorylation, the main pathway of cellular energy production...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139254/challenges-in-neurologic-prognostication-after-neonatal-brain-injury
#18
Niranjana Natarajan, Andrea C Pardo
Parents often ask neonatologists and neurologists to determine neurologic prognosis in the preterm and term infant after neonatal brain injury. Prognostication in these populations remains rather full of uncertainties. Knowledge of available diagnostic tests and their limitations allows the clinician to synthesize the most likely outcomes after neurologic injury. In this review, we describe the diagnostic tools available to the clinician, active areas of research, and challenges in neurologic prognostication of the neonate...
January 27, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134843/role-of-antioxidants-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-new-therapeutic-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Olatz Arteaga, Antonia Álvarez, Miren Revuelta, Francisco Santaolalla, Andoni Urtasun, Enrique Hilario
Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is an alarming health and economic problem in spite of the advances in neonatal care. It can cause mortality or detrimental neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits in neonates. When hypoxia-ischemia occurs, a multi-faceted cascade of events starts out, which can eventually cause cell death. Lower levels of oxygen due to reduced blood supply increase the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress, a higher concentration of free cytosolic calcium and impaired mitochondrial function, triggering the activation of apoptotic pathways, DNA fragmentation and cell death...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129361/single-dose-caffeine-protects-the-neonatal-mouse-brain-against-hypoxia-ischemia
#20
Max Winerdal, Vijay Urmaliya, Malin E Winerdal, Bertil B Fredholm, Ola Winqvist, Ulrika Ådén
In this randomized blinded study, we investigated caffeine 5 mg/kg treatment given directly after neonatal brain hypoxia ischemia. Brain morphology, behavior and key brain infiltrating immune populations were examined. Caffeine treatment significantly improves outcome when compared to phosphate buffered saline. Flow cytometric analysis of immune responses revealed no persistent immunological alterations. Given its safety caffeine emerges as a candidate for neuroprotective intervention after neonatal brain injury...
2017: PloS One
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