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Neonatal brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941572/effects-of-neural-stem-cell-media-on-hypoxic-injury-in-rat-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#1
Na Mi Lee, Soo Ahn Chae, Hong Jun Lee
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries cause serious neurological sequelae, yet there is currently no effective treatment for them. We hypothesized that neurotrophic factors released into the medium by stem cells could supply hypoxia-damaged organotypic hippocampal slice cultures with regenerative abilities. We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus of 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats based on the modified Stoppini method; slices were cultured for 14 days in vitro using either Gahwiler's medium (G-medium) or stem cell-conditioned medium (S-medium) as culture medium...
September 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939695/oxidative-stress-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-in-the-development-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Claire Thornton, Ana A Baburamani, Anton Kichev, Henrik Hagberg
Birth asphyxia in term neonates affects 1-2/1000 live births and results in the development of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy with devastating life-long consequences. The majority of neuronal cell death occurs with a delay, providing the potential of a treatment window within which to act. Currently, treatment options are limited to therapeutic hypothermia which is not universally successful. To identify new interventions, we need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the injury. Here, we provide an overview of the contribution of both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of neonatal brain injury and identify current preclinical therapeutic strategies...
September 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935718/residual-brain-injury-after-early-discontinuation-of-cooling-therapy-in-mild-neonatal-encephalopathy
#3
Peter J Lally, Paolo Montaldo, Vânia Oliveira, Ravi Shankar Swamy, Aung Soe, Seetha Shankaran, Sudhin Thayyil
We examined the brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes in a prospective cohort of 10 babies with mild encephalopathy who had early cessation of cooling therapy. All babies had MRI and spectroscopy within 2 weeks after birth and neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years. Cooling was prematurely discontinued at a median age of 9 hours (IQR 5-13) due to rapid clinical improvement. Five (50%) had injury on MRI or spectroscopy, and two (20%) had an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. Premature cessation of cooling therapy in babies with mild neonatal encephalopathy does not exclude residual brain injury and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934366/early-metabolite-changes-after-melatonin-treatment-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-studied-by-in-vivo1h-mr-spectroscopy
#4
Hester Rijkje Berger, Axel K G Nyman, Tora Sund Morken, Riyas Vettukattil, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Marius Widerøe
Melatonin is a promising neuroprotective agent after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We used in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate effects of melatonin treatment on brain metabolism after HI. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral HI brain injury were treated with either melatonin 10 mg/kg dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or vehicle (5% DMSO and/or PBS) directly and at 6 hours after HI. 1H MR spectra from the thalamus in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere were acquired 1 day after HI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931035/neuroprotection-with-hypothermia-and-allopurinol-in-an-animal-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-is-it-a-gender-question
#5
Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Cristina Durán Fernández-Feijóo, Míriam Lopez-Abad, Maria Goretti Lopez Ramos, Rafael Balada Caballé, Soledad Alcántara-Horillo, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most important causes of neonatal brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard treatment for term newborns after perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury (HI). Despite this, TH does not provide complete neuroprotection. Allopurinol seems to be a good neuroprotector in several animal studies, but it has never been tested in combination with hypothermia. Clinical findings show that male infants with (HI) fare more poorly than matched females in cognitive outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#6
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925896/allopurinol-old-drug-new-indication-in-neonates
#7
Kim V Annink, Axel R Franz, Jan B Derks, Mario Rüdiger, Frank van Bel, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of neonatal mortality and neurological morbidity, even despite hypothermia treatment. Neuronal damage in these infants is partly caused by the production of superoxides via the xanthine-oxidase pathway and concomitant free radical formation. Allopurinol is a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor and can potentially reduce the formation of these superoxides that lead to brain damage in HIE. METHODS: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the animal and clinical data about the neuroprotective effect of allopurinol in HIE and the relevant mechanisms leading to brain injury in HIE...
September 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#8
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919465/uridine-treatment-protects-against-neonatal-brain-damage-and-long-term-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-hyperoxia
#9
Bulent Goren, Aysen Cakir, Cansu Sevinc, Sema Serter Kocoglu, Busra Ocalan, Ceren Oy, Zehra Minbay, Nevzat Kahveci, Tulin Alkan, Mehmet Cansev
Exposure to excessive oxygen in survivors of preterm birth is one of the factors that underlie the adverse neurological outcome in later life. Various pathological changes including enhanced apoptotic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as decreased neuronal survival has been demonstrated in animal models of neonatal hyperoxia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of administering uridine, an anti-apoptotic agent, on cellular, molecular and behavioral consequences of hyperoxia-induced brain damage in a neonatal rat model...
September 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918207/the-association-between-cardiac-physiology-acquired-brain-injury-and-postnatal-brain-growth-in-critical-congenital-heart-disease
#10
Shabnam Peyvandi, Hosung Kim, Joanne Lau, A James Barkovich, Andrew Campbell, Steven Miller, Duan Xu, Patrick McQuillen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the trajectory of perioperative brain growth in relationship to cardiac diagnosis and acquired brain injuries. METHODS: This was a cohort study of term neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain pre- and postoperatively to determine the severity of brain injury and total and regional brain volumes by the use of automated morphometry...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883688/a-controversial-medicolegal-issue-timing-the-onset-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Vittorio Fineschi, Rocco Valerio Viola, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Santurro, Paola Frati
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, as a result of chronic, subacute, and acute insults, represents the pathological consequence of fetal distress and birth or perinatal asphyxia, that is, "nonreassuring fetal status." Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII) is typically characterized by an early phase of damage, followed by a delayed inflammatory local response, in an apoptosis-necrosis continuum. In the early phase, the cytotoxic edema and eventual acute lysis take place; with reperfusion, additional damage should be assigned to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879697/exogenous-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-at-a-50-ng-ml-concentration-has-a-significant-protective-effect-on-bilirubin-induced-cerebral-cortex-neuronal-injury
#12
Jianhua Yuan, Ying Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Hongbiao Ma
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin encephalopathy is a common disabling disease in neonates. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair and regeneration of nerves following injury, as well as the maintenance of neuronal growth and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous BDNF on the apoptosis and survival of in vitro cultured neurons injured by bilirubin as well as determine the optimal BDNF concentration. METHODS: Rat cerebral cortex neurons cultured for 8 days were randomly divided into the control, bilirubin, and BDNF groups...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878622/ganaxolone-a-new-treatment-for-neonatal-seizures
#13
REVIEW
Tamara Yawno, Suzie L Miller, Laura Bennet, Flora Wong, Jonathan J Hirst, Michael Fahey, David W Walker
Neonatal seizures are amongst the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal care service. Seizures can exacerbate existing brain injury, induce "de novo" injury, and are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities in post-neonatal life. In this mini-review, we present evidence in support of the use of ganaxolone, a GABA(A) agonist neurosteroid, as a novel neonatal therapy. We discuss evidence that ganaxolone can provide both seizure control and neuroprotection with a high safety profile when administered early following birth-related hypoxia, and show evidence that it is likely to prevent or reduce the incidence of the enduring disabilities associated with preterm birth, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869278/cerebral-near-infrared-spectroscopy-monitoring-for-prevention-of-brain-injury-in-very-preterm-infants
#14
REVIEW
Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Gorm Greisen, Bodil Als-Nielsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Cerebral injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is common in extremely preterm infants. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous estimation of cerebral oxygenation. This diagnostic method coupled with appropriate interventions if NIRS is out of normal range (that is cerebral oxygenation within the 55% to 85% range) may offer benefits without causing more harms. Therefore, NIRS coupled with appropriate responses to abnormal findings on NIRS needs assessment in a systematic review of randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised studies...
September 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868047/in-premature-newborns-intraventricular-hemorrhage-causes-cerebral-vasospasm-and-associated-neurodisability-via-heme-induced-inflammasome-mediated-interleukin-1-production-and-nitric-oxide-depletion
#15
Michael Eisenhut, Samyami Choudhury
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) occurs in 60-70% of neonates weighing 500-750 g and 10-20% of those weighing 1,000-1,500 g. All forms of IVH have been associated with neurocognitive deficits. Both subarachnoid and IVHs have been associated with delayed vasospasm leading to neurological deficits. Pathways linking hemoglobin release from blood clots to vasospasm include heme-induced activation of inflammasomes releasing interleukin-1 (IL-1) that can cause calcium dependent and independent vasospasm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864243/diagnostic-value-of-conventional-mri-combined-with-dti-for-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#16
Ruifang Yan, Dongming Han, Jipeng Ren, Zhansheng Zhai, Fengmei Zhou, Jingliang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NHB) is a common clinical disease and can cause bilirubin encephalopathy in severe cases. It is now widely accepted that increased signal intensity in the globus pallidus on MR T1WI is an important sign of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. And brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has not been used extensively to study hyperbilirubinemia (HB). So we compared newborns with different hyperbilirubinemia of different severities and healthy newborns in order to determine the relationships among MRI signal intensities, serum bilirubin levels, and the molecular changes in brain water diffusion in hyperbilirubinemia...
August 3, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861337/clinical-neuroimaging-in-the-preterm-infant-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#17
REVIEW
Manuel Hinojosa-Rodríguez, Thalía Harmony, Cristina Carrillo-Prado, John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna Torgerson, Zachary Jacokes
Perinatal care advances emerging over the past twenty years have helped to diminish the mortality and severe neurological morbidity of extremely and very preterm neonates (e.g., cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [c-PVL] and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage - Intraventricular Hemorrhage [GMH-IVH grade 3-4/4]; 22 to < 32 weeks of gestational age, GA). However, motor and/or cognitive disabilities associated with mild-to-moderate white and gray matter injury are frequently present in this population (e.g., non-cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [non-cystic PVL], neuronal-axonal injury and GMH-IVH grade 1-2/4)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860214/brain-temperature-is-increased-during-the-first-days-of-life-in-asphyxiated-newborns-developing-brain-injury-despite-hypothermia-treatment
#18
Z P Owji, G Gilbert, C Saint-Martin, P Wintermark
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Therapeutic hypothermia is the current treatment for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is believed to work by decreasing the brain temperature and reducing the baseline metabolism and energy demand of the brain. This study aimed to noninvasively assess brain temperature during the first month of life in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia and healthy neonates were enrolled prospectively...
August 31, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856805/reactive-astrocyte-cox2-pge2-production-inhibits-oligodendrocyte-maturation-in-neonatal-white-matter-injury
#19
Lawrence R Shiow, Geraldine Favrais, Lucas Schirmer, Anne-Laure Schang, Sara Cipriani, Christian Andres, Jaclyn N Wright, Hiroko Nobuta, Bobbi Fleiss, Pierre Gressens, David H Rowitch
Inflammation is a major risk factor for neonatal white matter injury (NWMI), which is associated with later development of cerebral palsy. Although recent studies have demonstrated maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in NWMI, the identity of inflammatory mediators with direct effects on OPCs has been unclear. Here, we investigated downstream effects of pro-inflammatory IL-1β to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in white matter. First, we assessed COX2 expression in human fetal brain and term neonatal brain affected by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
August 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852582/term-neonate-with-atypical-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-presentation-a-case-report
#20
Nick Townley, Emily McNellis, Venkatesh Sampath
We describe a case of atypical hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in a neonate following a normal pregnancy and delivery who was found to have an umbilical vein thrombosis. The infant arrived to our center with continuous bicycling movement of her lower extremities. She had a continuous electroencephalogram that showed burst suppression and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffusely abnormal cerebral cortical/subcortical diffusion restriction which may be secondary hypoxic-ischemic injury. Interestingly, a pathology report noted a focal umbilical vein thrombosis appearing to have compressed an umbilical artery with associated arterial dissection and hematoma...
July 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
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