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cultural factors

Rahul Agrawal, Tina P Dale, Mohammed A Al-Zubaidi, Prit Benny Malgulwar, Nicholas R Forsyth, Ritu Kulshreshtha
MicroRNAs are reported to have a crucial role in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Hypoxia has been identified as a key biophysical element of the stem cell culture milieu however, the link between hypoxia and miRNA expression in stem cells remains poorly understood. We therefore explored miRNA expression in hypoxic human embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells (hESCs and hMSCs). A total of 50 and 76 miRNAs were differentially regulated by hypoxia (2% O2) in hESCs and hMSCs, respectively, with a negligible overlap of only three miRNAs...
2016: PloS One
James Weger-Lucarelli, Claudia Rückert, Nunya Chotiwan, Chilinh Nguyen, Selene M Garcia Luna, Joseph R Fauver, Brian D Foy, Rushika Perera, William C Black, Rebekah C Kading, Gregory D Ebel
In 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) emerged in the Americas, causing millions of infections in dozens of countries. The rapid spread of the virus and the association with disease outcomes such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly make understanding transmission dynamics essential. Currently, there are no reports of vector competence (VC) of American mosquitoes for ZIKV isolates from the Americas. Further, it is not clear whether ZIKV strains from other genetic lineages can be transmitted by American Aedes aegypti populations, and whether the scope of the current epidemic is in part facilitated by viral factors such as enhanced replicative fitness or increased vector competence...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alexander Kirschenbaum, Sudeh Izadmehr, Shen Yao, Kieley L O'Connor-Chapman, Alan Huang, Elias M Gregoriades, Shoshana Yakar, Alice C Levine
Prostate cancer (PCa) is unique in its tendency to produce osteoblastic (OB) bone metastases. There are no existing therapies that specifically target the OB phase that affects 90% of men with bone metastatic disease. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is secreted by PCa cells in OB metastases and increases OB growth, differentiation and bone mineralization. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PAP effects on OB bone metastases are mediated by autocrine and/or paracrine alterations in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system...
October 26, 2016: Endocrinology
Laurel Fogarty, Joe Yuichiro Wakano, Marcus W Feldman, Kenichi Aoki
The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity...
October 25, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Ya Li, Hui Han, Lin Yan He, Qi Wang, Xia Fang Sheng
A hydroponic culture experiment was performed to investigate the effects of endophytic Bacillus megaterium H3 on the plant biomass, Cd accumulation and tolerance of hybrid pennisetum, and the mechanisms involved in the different levels of Cd-contaminated aquatic environments. Strain H3 significantly increased the plant growth (ranging from 13 to 71 %) and total Cd uptake (ranging from 41 to 160 %) but decreased Cd translocation factors of hybrid pennisetum treated with 0-20 μM Cd compared with the controls...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Klaus Häfelein, Andrea Preuße-Prange, Peter Behrendt, Bodo Kurz
Meniscal integrity is a prerequisite for sustained knee joint health and prevention of meniscal degeneration is a main research goal. Cartilage-protective effects of selenium have been described, but little is known about the impact on the meniscus. We therefore investigated the influence of sodium selenite on meniscal explants under tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-stimulated proinflammatory conditions. Meniscal explant disks (3 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were isolated from 2-year-old cattle and incubated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and sodium selenite (low dose, LoD 6...
October 25, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Alberto Bertolini, Elisa Petrussa, Sonia Patui, Marco Zancani, Carlo Peresson, Valentino Casolo, Angelo Vianello, Enrico Braidot
BACKGROUND: Senescence is a key developmental process occurring during the life cycle of plants that can be induced also by environmental conditions, such as starvation and/or darkness. During senescence, strict control of genes regulates ordered degradation and dismantling events, the most remarkable of which are genetically programmed cell death (PCD) and, in most cases, an upregulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in the presence of light. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play multiple essential roles in development, reproduction and defence of plants, partly due to their well-known antioxidant properties, which could affect also the same cell death machinery...
October 26, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
T Giesen, R Adani, S Carmes, C Dumontier, D Elliot, M Calcagni
Skin coverage in hand reconstruction is a challenging and vast chapter in hand surgery; covering every aspect of it in a report is simply not feasible. Therefore, this report focuses on a few specific topics. The coverage of anatomical regions like the fingertips is common ground for hand surgeons worldwide, but in the last 10 years, various refinements have been published in order to optimize the reconstruction of this organ. Nevertheless, in many emergency departments, the amputation of badly injured fingertips, including the thumb, remains the preferred treatment...
October 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
S T Eisenman, S J Gibbons, P-J Verhulst, G Cipriani, D Saur, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and humans is associated with changes in macrophage phenotype and loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the gastric muscle layers. In diabetic mice, classically activated M1 macrophages are associated with delayed gastric emptying, whereas alternatively activated M2 macrophages are associated with normal gastric emptying. This study aimed to determine if secreted factors from M1 macrophages could injure mouse ICC in primary culture...
October 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Rebekah A Richert, Anondah R Saide, Kirsten A Lesage, Nicholas J Shaman
The current study examined the cultural factors (i.e., religious background, religious participation, parents' views of prayer, and parents' concepts of God) that contribute to children's differentiation between the capabilities of human minds and God's mind. Protestant Christian, Roman Catholic, Muslim, and Religiously Non-Affiliated parents and their preschool-aged children were interviewed (N = 272). Children of Muslim parents differentiated the most between God's mind and human minds (i.e., human minds are fallible but God's is not), and children who had greater differentiation between God's and humans' minds had parents who had the least anthropomorphic conceptions of God...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Sampathkumar Rangasamy, Shannon Olfers, Brittany Gerald, Alex Hilbert, Sean Svejda, Vinodh Narayanan
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation in the X-linked MECP2 gene, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. We have created a mouse model ( Mecp2 A140V "knock-in" mutant) expressing the recurrent human MECP2 A140V mutation linked to an X-linked mental retardation/Rett syndrome phenotype. Morphological analyses focused on quantifying soma and nucleus size were performed on primary hippocampus and cerebellum granule neuron (CGN) cultures from mutant ( Mecp2(A140V/y)) and wild type ( Mecp2(+/y)) male mice...
2016: F1000Research
Camila Gianella, César Ugarte-Gil, Godofredo Caro, Rula Aylas, César Castro, Claudia Lema
This article analyzes the factors associated with vulnerability of the Ashaninka, the most populous indigenous Peruvian Amazonian people, to tuberculosis (TB). By applying a human rights-based analytical framework that assesses public policy against human rights standards and principles, and by offering a step-by-step framework for a full assessment of compliance, it provides evidence of the relationship between the incidence of TB among the Ashaninka and Peru's poor level of compliance with its human rights obligations...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
B Hirschmugl, G Desoye, P Catalano, I Klymiuk, H Scharnagl, S Payr, E Kitzinger, C Schliefsteiner, U Lang, C Wadsack, S Hauguel-de Mouzon
BACKGROUND: Obesity before pregnancy is associated with impaired metabolic status of the mother and the offspring later in life. These adverse effects have been attributed to epigenetic changes in utero, but little is known about the role of placental metabolism and its contribution to fetal development. OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on the expression of genes involved in placental lipid metabolism in lean and obese women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy-three lean and obese women with healthy pregnancy were recruited at term elective cesarean delivery...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Zhang Yiwen, Gao Shilin, Chen Yingshi, Su Lishi, Luo Baohong, Liu Chao, Li Linghua, Pan Ting, Zhang Hui
Efficient antigen presentation is indispensable for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunotherapy. B-lymphocytes propagated with CD40L have been developed as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), but this capacity needs further optimization. Here, we aimed to expand human B-lymphocytes on a large scale while maintaining their antigen-presenting ability by using both CD40L and B-cell activating factor (BAFF). The addition of BAFF enhanced the expansion efficiency and prolonged the culture time without causing apoptosis of the expanded B-cells...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Leila Maghen, Ekaterina Shlush, Itai Gat, Melissa Filice, Tanya Barretto, Keith Jarvi, Kirk Lo, Andree S Gauthier-Fisher, Clifford L Librach
The expansion of functional testicular biopsy-derived human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSC) ex-vivo may enable the restoration of fertility in pre-pubertal males having undergone gonadotoxic therapies or men with severe male factor infertility. Various somatic cells are known to regulate SSC homeostasis and spermatogenesis in the developing and adult testis. Prior attempts to recapitulate this niche demonstrated the requirement of feeder cells, such as endogenous testicular somatic cells, for germ cell expansion ex-vivo...
October 25, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Petrina Koumarianou, Gonzalo Goméz-López, Pilar Santisteban
Organization of epithelial cells during follicular lumen formation is crucial for thyroid morphogenesis and function of the thyroid gland; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. To investigate this process, we established three-dimensional (3D) epithelial culture model systems using Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells or murine primary thyrocytes that developed polarized spherical structures with a central lumen mimicking thyroid follicles. Using microarray-based differential expression analysis of FRT cells grown under 2D or 3D conditions followed by RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) and morphogenetic analysis, we identified a key role for the thyroid transcription factor Pax8 and its target Cadherin-16 (Cdh16) in the generation of polarized follicle-like structures...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Ryan C Johnson, Michael W Ellis, Carey D Schlett, Eugene V Millar, Patrick T LaBreck, Deepika Mor, Emad M Elassal, Jeffrey B Lanier, Cassie L Redden, Tianyuan Cui, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Danett K Bishop, Eric R Hall, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
: Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Although Staphylococcus aureus is associated with purulent SSTI, it is unclear to what degree this pathogen causes nonpurulent cellulitis. To inform effective prevention strategies and to provide novel insights into SSTI pathogenesis, we aimed to determine the etiology of SSTI in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study in US Army Infantry trainees with SSTI (cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis) from July 2012 through December 2014...
2016: PloS One
Karen H Keddy, Arvinda Sooka, Anthony M Smith, Alfred Musekiwa, Nomsa P Tau, Keith P Klugman, Frederick J Angulo
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013...
2016: PloS One
Paulo R D V Godoy, Ana Paula L Montaldi, Elza T Sakamoto-Hojo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal tumor and novel strategies are required to overcome resistance. Transcription factor 12 (HEB) has been associated with neural and stem cell proliferation, is overexpressed in certain tumor types and is induced in irradiated U87MG cells. The present study aimed to determine whether HEB knockdown, with or without irradiation, may sensitize GBM cells. U87MG GBM and ACBRI‑371 primary human astrocytes were cultured in monolayers or neurospheres. Cell proliferation and death, cell cycle and sub‑G1 detection, and cluster of differentiation (CD) 133 immunofluorescence were analyzed by flow cytometry, whereas HEB protein expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and western blotting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mingzhou Yuan, Junmin Chen, Zhiyong Zeng
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) often develop myeloma bone disease (MBD). The development of MBD from MM is considered to be caused by an abnormal bone marrow microenvironment. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is a member of the transforming growth factor‑β superfamily. In patients with MM, MIC‑1 is expressed at high levels, however, whether this increased expression of MIC‑1 is associated with the development of MBD from MM remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether MIC‑1 is essential for the osteoclastic differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) by using a co‑culture system, in which the PBMNCs were co‑cultured with RPMI‑8226 cells...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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