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cultural factors

Tatiana Robledo-Mahón, Elisabet Aranda, Chiara Pesciaroli, Alfonso Rodríguez-Calvo, Gloria Andrea Silva-Castro, Jesús González-López, Concepción Calvo
Sewage sludge composting is a profitable process economically viable and environmentally friendly. In despite of there are several kind of composting types, the use of combined system of semipermeable cover film and aeration air-floor is widely developed at industrial scale. However, the knowledge of the linkages between microbial communities structure, enzyme activities and physico-chemical factors under these conditions it has been poorly explored. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial dynamic and community structure using next generation sequencing coupled to analyses of microbial enzymatic activity and culturable dependent techniques in a full-scale real composting plant...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Anaid Rosas-Navarro, Gerald Langer, Patrizia Ziveri
The sinking properties of three strains of Emiliania huxleyi in response to temperature changes were examined. We used a recently proposed approach to calculate sinking velocities from coccosphere architecture, which has the advantage to be applicable not only to culture samples, but also to field samples including fossil material. Our data show that temperature in the sub-optimal range impacts sinking velocity of E. huxleyi. This response is widespread among strains isolated in different locations and moreover comparatively predictable, as indicated by the similar slopes of the linear regressions...
2018: PloS One
Meg Perceval, Kairi Kõlves, Victoria Ross, Prasuna Reddy, Diego De Leo
Farmers and farm workers have been recognised as a group at high risk of suicide in Australia. This study aims to identify and better understand environmental factors associated with suicide among Australian farmers and farm workers. Qualitative analysis was undertaken in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Male and female focus groups were conducted separately with people who lived or worked on a farm in six farming communities. Qualitative analyses showed that a number of environmental influences may contribute to the increased risk of suicide: extreme climatic events; isolation; service availability; access to, and frequent use of firearms; death and suffering of animals; government and legislation; technology; and property values...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Jennifer Bido, Roya Ghazinouri, Jamie E Collins, Desirée Diez Portela, Luis Alcantara, Thomas S Thornhill, Jeffrey N Katz
BACKGROUND: Medical missions to low and middle-income countries are increasingly frequent, with an estimated 6,000 trips sponsored by U.S. organizations accounting for approximately 200,000 surgical cases and $250 million in costs annually. However, these missions have received little critical evaluation. This paper describes the research program Operation Walk (Op-Walk) Boston, and proposes an evaluation model for similar surgical missions. METHODS: We propose an evaluation model, borrowing from the work of Donabedian and enriched by evidence from our research program...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Xue Han, Xiao Kuang, Zhenjie Wang, Xinyu Wang, Hongzhuo Liu
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyapatite(HA) was emerging as the most promising biomaterial owing to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility, and high compressive strength for segmental bone defects. However, due to the lack of synergistic signals of osteogenic cells or growth factors, attempts concerning HA have not achieved ideal therapeutical effect. OBJECTIVE: This work was intended to combine HA particles with nerve growth factor (NGF) to co-accelerate the bone repair...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Dunja Šamec, Branimir Urlić, Branka Salopek-Sondi
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a cruciferous vegetable, characterized by leaves along the stem, which, in recent years, have gained a great popularity as a ´superfood´. Consequently, in a popular culture it is listed in many ´lists of the healthiest vegetables´. Without the doubt, a scientific evidence support the fact that cruciferous vegetables included in human diet can positively affect health and well-being, but remains unclear why kale is declared superior in comparison with other cruciferous...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Udesh Dhawan, Ming-Wen Sue, Kuan Chun Lan, Waradee Buddhakosai, Pao Hui Huang, Yi Cheng Chen, Po-Chun Chen, Wen-Liang Chen
Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly orchestrated process motivated by the nature of physical, chemical composition of Tumor Microenvironment (TME). The role of physical framework of the tumor microenvironment in guiding cells towards EMT is poorly understood. To investigate this, breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were cultured on nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodots ranging in diameter from 10 to 200nm, fabricated through electrochemical approach and collectively referred to as artificial microenvironments...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kate Winskell, Robyn Singleton, Gaelle Sabben
Distinctive longitudinal narrative data, collected during a critical 18-year period in the history of the HIV epidemic, offer a unique opportunity to examine how young Africans are making sense of evolving developments in HIV prevention and treatment. More than 200,000 young people from across sub-Saharan Africa took part in HIV-themed scriptwriting contests held at eight discrete time points between 1997 and 2014, creating more than 75,000 narratives. This article describes the data reduction and management strategies developed for our cross-national and longitudinal study of these qualitative data...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Xiaoping Su, Kuiqing Cui, Shanshan Du, Hongli Li, Fenghua Lu, Deshun Shi, Qingyou Liu
Myostatin (MSTN), a protein encoded by growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and negatively regulates the development and regeneration of muscle. Accordingly, myostatin-deficient animals exhibit a double-muscling phenotype. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient genome-editing tool and has been applied to gene modification in cells from many model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, mouse, rat, sheep, and human. Here, we edited the GDF8 gene in fibroblasts and embryos of Debao pig and swamp buffalo using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
March 19, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Simone Muniz Pacheco, Juliana Hofstätter Azambuja, Taíse Rosa de Carvalho, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Pathise Souto Oliveira, Elita Ferreira da Silveira, Francieli Moro Stefanello, Elizandra Braganhol, Jessié Martins Gutierres, Roselia Maria Spanevello
Altered astrocytic function is a contributing factor to the development of neurological diseases and neurodegeneration. Berry fruits exert neuroprotective effects by modulating pathways involved in inflammation, neurotransmission, and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the lingonberry extract on cellular viability and oxidative stress in astrocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the reversal protocol, primary astrocytic cultures were first exposed to 1 µg/mL LPS for 3 h and subsequently treated with lingonberry extract (10, 30, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h...
March 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Vikas C Ghattargi, Yogesh S Nimonkar, Shaunak A Burse, Dimple Davray, Shreyas V Kumbhare, Sudarshan A Shetty, Meghana A Gaikwad, Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Swapnil P Doijad, Bhimashankar Utage, Om Prakash Sharma, Yogesh S Shouche, Bharati S Meti, Shrikant P Pawar
The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health and efforts need to be done for cultivation and characterisation of bacteria with potential health benefits. Here, we isolated a bacterium from a healthy Indian adult faeces and investigated its potential as probiotic. The cultured bacterial strain 17OM39 was identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strain 17OM39 exhibited tolerance to acidic pH, showed antimicrobial activity and displayed strong cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity and autoaggregation capacity...
March 19, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Burkhard Lehner, Michael Akbar, Nicholas A Beckmann
BASICS: Postoperative surgical site infections of the spine have been described in up to 20% of patients and can result in serious consequences for the patient and substantial treatment costs. Typical bacteria often arise from skin or fecal flora. Various risk factors for infection have been described, including obesity, diabetes, high ASA scores, as well as intraoperative factors such as heavy blood loss, dural tears, or several revision procedures. Consequently, the prophylaxis with pre- and postoperative risk minimization is of particular importance...
March 20, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Francois Pognan, J Andreas Mahl, Maria Papoutsi, David Ledieu, Marc Raccuglia, Diethilde Theil, Sarah B Voytek, Patrick J Devine, Katie Kubek-Luck, Natalie Claudio, Andre Cordier, Annabelle Heier, Carine Kolly, Andreas Hartmann, Salah-Dine Chibout, Page Bouchard, Christian Trendelenburg
A high incidence of hemangiosarcoma (HSA) was observed in mice treated for 2 years with siponimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) functional antagonist, while no such tumors were observed in rats under the same treatment conditions. In 3-month rat (90 mg/kg/day) and 9-month mouse (25 and 75 mg/kg/day) in vivo mechanistic studies, vascular endothelial cell (VEC) activation was observed in both species, but VEC proliferation and persistent increases in circulating placental growth factor 2 (PLGF2) were only seen in the mouse...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Hyeran Cho, Aeri Lee, Kyobum Kim
Background: Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most essential supplement in culture media for cellular proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation. However, due to a limited supply and subsequently rising prices, a series of studies have investigated a biological feasibility of replaceable serums to substitute FBS. Along with the increasing interests to manufacture stem cell-based cellular products, optimizing the composition of culture media including serums and exogenous growth factors (GFs) is of importance...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Sakiko Fujii, Katsumi Fujimoto, Noriko Goto, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Asayo Imaoka, Jinchang Shao, Kazuko Kitayama, Masami Kanawa, Agung Sosiawan, Ketut Suardita, Fusanori Nishimura, Yukio Kato
Dental pulp cells (DPCs) are promising candidates for use as transplantable cells in regenerative medicine. However, ex vivo expansion of these cells typically requires culture media containing fetal bovine serum, which may cause infection and immunological reaction following transplantation. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of DPCs markedly depend upon serum batches. Therefore, the present study examined whether DPCs could be expanded under serum-free conditions. DPCs obtained from four donors were identified to proliferate actively in the serum-free medium, STK2, when compared with those cells in control medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% serum)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Cheong-Yong Yun, Seon Mi Ko, Yong Pyo Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Jungno Lee, Jae Mun Kim, Ju Yeon Kim, Jin Yong Song, Song-Hee Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Rationale: cAMP up-regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor subtype M (MITF-M) and tyrosinase (Tyro) in the generation of heavily pigmented melanosomes. Here, we communicate a therapeutic mechanism of hyperpigmented disorder by α-viniferin, an active constituent of Caragana sinica . Methods: We used cAMP-elevated melanocyte cultures or facial hyperpigmented patches for pigmentation assays, and applied immunoprecipitation, immunobloting, RT-PCR or reporter gene for elucidation of the antimelanogenic mechanism...
2018: Theranostics
Jiang-Kai Dong, Hui-Min Lei, Qian Liang, Ya-Bin Tang, Ye Zhou, Yang Wang, Shengzhe Zhang, Wen-Bin Li, Yunguang Tong, Guanglei Zhuang, Liang Zhang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Liang Zhu, Ying Shen
How to improve the efficacy and reverse the resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as erlotinib, remains a major challenge in the targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-activating mutation. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is the key enzyme of de novo serine biosynthesis over-expressed in various types of cancer including lung cancer. Elevated PHGDH expression is correlated with a worse overall survival in clinical lung adenocarcinoma patients...
2018: Theranostics
Qiongshu Li, Muyun Liu, Man Wu, Xin Zhou, Shaobin Wang, Yuan Hu, Youfu Wang, Yixin He, Xiaoping Zeng, Junhui Chen, Qubo Liu, Dong Xiao, Xiang Hu, Weibin Liu
Placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1), a novel cancer-testis antigen (CTA), is expressed in a number of different human malignancies. It is frequently produced in breast cancer, serving a function in tumorigenesis. Adoptive immunotherapy using T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells against CTA mediates objective tumor regression; however, to the best of our knowledge, targeting PLAC1 using engineered T cells has not yet been attempted. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding TCRα- and β-chains specific for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted PLAC1 were cloned from a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte, generated by in vitro by the stimulation of CD8+ T cells using autologous HLA-A2+ dendritic cells loaded with a PLAC1-specific peptide (p28-36, VLCSIDWFM)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yujie Zhou, Min Liao, Chengguang Zhu, Yao Hu, Ting Tong, Xian Peng, Mingyun Li, Mingye Feng, Lei Cheng, Biao Ren, Xuedong Zhou
The hyphal development of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has been considered as an essential virulent factor for host cell damage. However, the missing link between hyphae and virulence of C. albicans is also been discovered. Here, we identified that the null mutants of ERG3 and ERG11, two key genes in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, can form typical hyphae but failed to cause the oral mucosal infection in vitro and in vivo for the first time. In particular, the erg3Δ/Δ and erg11Δ/Δ strains co-cultured with epithelial cells significantly reduced the adhesion, damage, and cytokine (interleukin-1α (IL-1α)) production, whereas the invasion was not affected in vitro...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Oliver Sheehan, Joseph Watts, Russell D Gray, Quentin D Atkinson
One of the defining trends of the Holocene has been the emergence of complex societies. Two essential features of complex societies are intensive resource use and sociopolitical hierarchy. Although it is widely agreed that these two phenomena are associated cross-culturally and have both contributed to the rise of complex societies, the causality underlying their relationship has been the subject of longstanding debate. Materialist theories of cultural evolution tend to view resource intensification as driving the development of hierarchy, but the reverse order of causation has also been advocated, along with a range of intermediate views...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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