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ethnic identity

Lisa Rosenthal, Marci Lobel
OBJECTIVE: To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U...
February 15, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Jacquie Boyang Lu, Kristin J Danko, Michael D Elfassy, Vivian Welch, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Noah M Ivers
BACKGROUND: Socially disadvantaged populations carry a disproportionate burden of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. There is an emerging interest in quality improvement (QI) strategies in the care of patients with diabetes, however, the effect of these interventions on disadvantaged groups remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This is a secondary analysis of a systematic review that seeks to examine the extent of equity considerations in diabetes QI studies, specifically quantifying the proportion of studies that target interventions toward disadvantaged populations and conduct analyses on the impact of interventions on disadvantaged groups...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Ariela Popper-Giveon, Yael Keshet
Patients' refusal of treatment based on the practitioner's ethnic identity reveals a clash of values: neutrality in medicine versus patient-centered care. Taking the Israeli-Palestinian conflict into account, this article aims at examining Israeli health care professionals' points of view concerning patients' refusal of treatment because of a practitioner's ethnic identity. Fifty in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 managers and 40 health care professionals, Jewish and Arab, employed at 11 public hospitals...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Hans-Joachim Wolfram, Kenisha Linton, Nona McDuff
In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Cathy J Reback, Jesse B Fletcher, Dallas Swendeman
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit elevated rates of HIV and STI prevalence, indicating increased engagement in sexual risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES: This analysis elucidates associations between participant sociodemographics (i.e., age, racial/ethnic identity, sexual identity, educational attainment, and HIV status) and sexual risk behaviors, particularly substance use before/during sex, and engagement in condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with casual, anonymous, and/or exchange male partners...
February 12, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Shai Shorer, Hadass Goldblatt, Yael Caspi, Faisal Azaiza
The applicability of Western concepts regarding the treatment of trauma in soldiers from indigenous ethnic minority backgrounds has scarcely been researched. This study explored the subjective meaning of living with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among indigenous Bedouin veterans of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), who are of Arab ethnicity and Muslim faith. In-depth, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 Bedouin veterans suffering from PTSD and three Bedouin mental health clinicians working with this population...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Martin Laurie T, May Linnea Warren, Weilant Sarah, Acosta Joie D, Chandra Anita
In 2013, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation embarked on a pioneering effort to advance a Culture of Health. This report focuses on two questions that are central to understanding how individuals and sectors think about health and are motivated to promote it: How can the commonly understood concepts of cultural identity (e.g., ethnic or religious; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender plus; military) and organizational culture be harnessed to develop a Culture of Health? How can incentives be used to promote individual health and engage investors and leaders within organizations or governments to promote health and well-being broadly? This study draws on 43 one-hour semistructured interviews that RAND researchers conducted with stakeholders whose work focused on cultural alignment, incentives, or both to learn how organizations are addressing and leveraging culture and incentives to promote health and well-being, as well as to identify facilitators, barriers, potential best practices, and lessons learned...
January 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Harvey Whitehouse
Whether upheld as heroic or reviled as terrorism, throughout history people have been willing to lay down their lives for the sake of their groups. Why? Previous theories of extreme self-sacrifice have highlighted a range of seemingly disparate factors such as collective identity, outgroup hostility, and kin psychology. This paper attempts to integrate many of these factors into a single overarching theory based on several decades of collaborative research with a range of special populations, from tribes in Papua New Guinea to Libyan insurgents, and from Muslim fundamentalists in Indonesia to Brazilian football hooligans...
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Aasim I Padela, Danish Zaidi
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify mechanisms by which Islamic beliefs, values, and Muslim identity might contribute to health inequities among Muslim populations. Methods: A systematic literature review of empirical studies in Medline from 1980 to 2009 was conducted. The search strategy used three terms covering health-care disparities, ethnicity, and location to uncover relevant papers. Results: A total of 171 articles were relevant based on titles and abstracts...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
Pratyusha Tummala-Narra, Zhushan Li, Janet Chang, Eun Jeong Yang, Jing Jiang, Michael Sagherian, Jenny Phan, Alyssa Alfonso
Guided by an integrative contextual framework of immigrant youth development (García Coll & Marks, 2012), this study investigated the potential role of developmental (e.g., ethnic identity) and contextual factors (e.g., perceived discrimination, stereotyping) in mental health outcomes and help-seeking attitudes, and variations across gender and nativity among Asian American college students. Online surveys assessing perceived subtle and blatant racism, ethnic identity, the internalization of the model minority stereotype, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking help from mental health professionals were administered to Asian American college student participants (n = 465) from diverse ethnic backgrounds and geographic regions in the United States...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Aswita Tan-McGrory, Caroline Bennett-AbuAyyash, Stephanie Gee, Kirk Dabney, John D Cowden, Laura Williams, Sarah Rafton, Arie Nettles, Sonia Pagura, Laurens Holmes, Jane Goleman, LaVone Caldwell, James Page, Patricia Oceanic, Erika J McMullen, Adriana Lopera, Sarah Beiter, Lenny López
BACKGROUND: By 2020, the child population is projected to have more racial and ethnic minorities make up the majority of the populations and health care organizations will need to have a system in place that collects accurate and reliable demographic data in order to monitor disparities. The goals of this group were to establish sample practices, approaches and lessons learned with regard to race, ethnicity, language, and other demographic data collection in pediatric care setting. METHODS: A panel of 16 research and clinical professional experts working in 10 pediatric care delivery systems in the US and Canada convened twice in person for 3-day consensus development meetings and met multiple times via conference calls over a two year period...
January 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Michael R Kauth, Terri L Barrera, David M Latini
This study explored the characteristics of lesbian, gay, and transgender veteran users of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services and nonusers, using a national convenience sample. Participants responded to an online, anonymous survey posted on LGBT websites and forwarded through personal contacts, using a snow-ball sampling strategy, resulting in a final sample of 218. Most participants were enrolled in VHA (n = 151). VHA users were older, more ethnically diverse, had less income, and were less public about their sexual or gender minority identity than nonusers...
January 25, 2018: Psychological Services
Ursula M Read, Alexis Karamanos, Maria João Silva, Oarabile R Molaodi, Zinat E Enayat, Aidan Cassidy, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Seeromanie Harding
INTRODUCTION: Studies, predominantly from the US, suggest that positive parenting, social support, academic achievement, and ethnic identity may buffer the impact of racism on health behaviours, including smoking, but little is known about how such effects might operate for ethnically diverse young people in the United Kingdom. We use the Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH), the largest UK longitudinal study of ethnically diverse young people, to address the following questions: a) Is racism associated with smoking? b) Does the relationship between racism and smoking vary by gender and by ethnicity? (c) Do religious involvement, parenting style and relationship with parents modify any observed relationship? and d) What are the qualitative experiences of racism and how might family or religion buffer the impact? METHODS: The cohort was recruited from 51 London schools...
2018: PloS One
Ulrike Boehmer, Melissa A Clark, Timothy C Heeren, Elizabeth Ann Showalter, Lisa Fredman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether caregiving experiences and their health-related outcomes differ by sexual orientation and gender identity in a representative U.S. caregiver sample. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed of the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Alliance for Caregiving online survey that was conducted in 2014. To account for the study design, we used sampling weights and then added propensity score weighting to account for imbalances between LGBT respondents and their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts, that is, non-LGBT caregivers...
January 24, 2018: LGBT Health
Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund, Tak Wing Chan, Elisabeth Ugreninov, Arnfinn H Midtbøen, Jon Rogstad
Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name...
January 24, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Philippa J Murphy, Laura A V Marlow, Jo Waller, Charlotte Vrinten
BACKGROUND: Surveys indicate quite high prevalence of cancer worry in the general population, but little is known about what it is about cancer that worries people. A better understanding of the origins of cancer worry may help elucidate previously found inconsistencies in its behavioural effect on cancer prevention, screening uptake, and help-seeking for symptoms. In this study, we explore the prevalence and population distribution of general cancer worry and worries about specific aspects of cancer previously identified...
January 24, 2018: BMC Cancer
Masami Iwasaki-Goodman
Since 2004, research has been conducted in the Ainu Indigenous community of the Saru River Region of Biratori in Northern Japan examining traditional food use knowledge. The purpose was to improve the socio-cultural environment for the Ainu People by implementing interventions meant to reintroduce traditional Ainu food use, so that they can live with dignity and in harmony with non-Ainu people in the heterogeneous community where Japanese cultural values dominate. Ten years after the start of this research, a series of interviews was conducted with Ainu mothers and daughters active in the community to evaluate the result of the interventions because, in accordance with culturally established Ainu gender roles, the Ainu women prepare the Ainu dishes...
November 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Maura Shramko, Russell B Toomey, Karla Anhalt
Few studies have examined how the amalgamation of minority stressors for youth with multiple marginalized identities is associated with well-being. Additionally, among youth with multiple marginalized identities, identity centrality may clarify the associations between specific types of minority stressors (i.e., bias-based peer victimization, perceived discrimination) and adjustment. This study sought to identify intersectional profiles of perceived peer victimization, perceived discrimination, and identity centrality, specific to either Latinx ethnicity or sexual minority identity in the United States...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Elliot A Tebbe, Bonnie Moradi, Kathleen E Connelly, Alexandra L Lenzen, Mirella Flores
This study investigates sexual minority women's experiences of objectification in the United States. Data from 5 focus groups with 33 sexual minority women were analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012). Results revealed 6 themes and 34 subthemes grouped into "manifestations of objectification: general and explicit intersections," "immediate context of relational and situational characteristics," and "broader context of oppression and privilege along gender and sexualities." First, sexual minority women's experiences of objectification included both general manifestations described in prior research with heterosexual women and manifestations of objectification that reflected intersections of systems of inequality based on sexual orientation, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, and age...
January 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Nicola J Allen, Richard Daneman
Ben Barres, professor of neurobiology at Stanford University and member of the JCB editorial board for over 15 years, passed away on December 27, 2017, after a lengthy battle with pancreatic cancer. Ben left an indelible mark on the scientific community as a scientist, an advocate for equality, and an unbelievably supportive mentor. As a scientist his creative approaches led him to remarkable discoveries about the importance of glial cells in the brain, and his passion elevated these cells from the "other cells in the brain" to a significant place in the consciousness of neurobiology...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
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