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ethnic identity

Marya Gwadz, Noelle R Leonard, Sylvie Honig, Robert Freeman, Alexandra Kutnick, Amanda S Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Annual HIV testing is recommended for populations at-risk for HIV in the United States, including heterosexuals geographically connected to urban high-risk areas (HRA) with elevated rates of HIV prevalence and poverty, who are primarily African American/Black or Hispanic. Yet this subpopulation of "individuals residing in HRA" (IR-HRA) evidence low rates of regular HIV testing. HIV stigma is a recognized primary barrier to testing, in part due to its interaction with other stigmatized social identities...
April 20, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Tracy A Becerra-Culqui, Yuan Liu, Rebecca Nash, Lee Cromwell, W Dana Flanders, Darios Getahun, Shawn V Giammattei, Enid M Hunkeler, Timothy L Lash, Andrea Millman, Virginia P Quinn, Brandi Robinson, Douglas Roblin, David E Sandberg, Michael J Silverberg, Vin Tangpricha, Michael Goodman
BACKGROUND: Understanding the magnitude of mental health problems, particularly life-threatening ones, experienced by transgender and/or gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth can lead to improved management of these conditions. METHODS: Electronic medical records were used to identify a cohort of 588 transfeminine and 745 transmasculine children (3-9 years old) and adolescents (10-17 years old) enrolled in integrated health care systems in California and Georgia. Ten male and 10 female referent cisgender enrollees were matched to each TGNC individual on year of birth, race and/or ethnicity, study site, and membership year of the index date (first evidence of gender nonconforming status)...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics
Claire M Matthews, Catherine J Mondloch
When viewing unfamiliar faces, photographs of the same person often are perceived as belonging to different people and photographs of different people as belonging to the same person. Identity matching of unfamiliar faces is especially challenging when the photographs are of a person whose ethnicity differs from that of the observer. In contrast, matching is trivial when viewing familiar faces, regardless of race. Viewing multiple images of an own-race target identity improves accuracy on a line-up task when the target is known to be present (Dowsett et al...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Andre' Oliver, Ghilamichael Andemeskel, Carlise R King, Lyndsey Wallace, Serie McDougal, Kenneth P Monteiro, Avi Ben-Zeev
We provide evidence that stereotype threat, a phenomenon that causes stigmatized individuals to experience group-based evaluative concerns (Steele in Am Psychol 52:613-629, 1997; Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us, W.W. Norton, New York, 2010), impacts affective aspects of Black identity as a function of majority versus minority ecological contexts. Black/African-American students, enrolled in either Africana Studies (Black ecological majority) or Psychology (Black ecological minority), completed private and public regard subscales from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (Sellers et al...
December 2017: Race and Social Problems
Sean Esteban McCabe, Alicia K Matthews, Joseph G L Lee, Phil Veliz, Tonda L Hughes, Carol J Boyd
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to determine the past-year prevalence estimates of any nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder based on sexual identity among U.S. adults, and to examine potential variations in these estimates by age, race/ethnicity, and sexual identity-attraction concordance/discordance. METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected data via in-person interviews with a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (response rate=60...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Meredith G F Worthen, Samantha A Wallace
This study critically examines sexual assault survivors' (people with histories of sexual assault) and those who know survivors' (those who know and/or who are close to people with histories of sexual assault) responses to a mandatory online campus sexual assault education program using both quantitative survey data ( N = 1,899) and qualitative narratives ( n = 41) from a sample of students at a large southern university with special attention to gender, sexual identity, race, ethnicity, college group affiliations (student athletics, fraternities/sororities, LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, queer] ally programs), and the intersections between these identities and affiliations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Daniel K Thompson
This article addresses the intersection of 'homeland' politics and diaspora identities by assessing whether geopolitical changes in Ethiopia affect ethno-national identifications among Ethiopian-origin populations living abroad. Officials in Ethiopia's largest ethnically-defined states recently began working to improve diaspora-homeland relations, historically characterised by ethnically-mobilized support for opposition and insurgency. The emergence of an 'Ethiopian-Somali' identity indicated in recent research, previously regarded as a contradiction in terms, is the most striking of a series of realignments between ethnicity and nationality...
2018: Comparative Migration Studies
Jared Nai, Jayanth Narayanan, Ivan Hernandez, Krishna Savani
Five studies tested the hypothesis that people living in more diverse neighborhoods would have more inclusive identities, and would thus be more prosocial. Study 1 found that people residing in more racially diverse metropolitan areas were more likely to tweet prosocial concepts in their everyday lives. Study 2 found that following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, people in more racially diverse neighborhoods were more likely to spontaneously offer help to individuals stranded by the bombings. Study 3 found that people living in more ethnically diverse countries were more likely to report having helped a stranger in the past month...
April 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Angela X Ocampo, Karam Dana, Matt A Barreto
The past few election cycles have brought increased attention on voting rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, focusing on African Americans, Asian Americans and Latinos. Building on theories of in-group identity, we assess whether or not American Muslims are similarly mobilized to vote consonant with other ethnic minorities in the U.S. whereby in-group attachment and group-level resources encourage participation. Using a national sample of American Muslims, we find that those who live around more co-ethnics and those who actively engage their religious identity are more likely to report they voted, and more likely to vote Democratic...
May 2018: Social Science Research
Said Harith Al Rawahi, Koula Asimakopoulou, Jonathon Timothy Newton
Objective/Aims: To determine the barriers and enablers to behavioural change to reduce free sugar intake related to dental caries in a sample of UK adults who identify their ethnicity as White. Materials and methods: Qualitative study comprising semi-structured interviews of 27 participants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis methods. The Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour model (COM-B) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used to guide the derivation of themes...
2018: BDJ Open
Daniel Demant, Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Julie-Anne Carroll, Jason A Ferris, Larissa Maier, Monica J Barratt, Adam R Winstock
OBJECTIVES: We examined protective and non-protective effects of disadvantaged social identities and their intersections on lifetime substance use and risky alcohol consumption. METHODS: Data from 90,941 participants of the Global Drug Survey 2015 were analysed. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for lifetime use of nine psychoactive substances, as well as high-risk/harmful alcohol use. Disadvantaged identities from three categories (ethnicity, sexual identity, gender), and interactions between these were compared...
March 31, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Sheree M Schrager, Jeremy T Goldbach, Mary Rose Mamey
Although construct measurement is critical to explanatory research and intervention efforts, rigorous measure development remains a notable challenge. For example, though the primary theoretical model for understanding health disparities among sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual) adolescents is minority stress theory, nearly all published studies of this population rely on minority stress measures with poor psychometric properties and development procedures. In response, we developed the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI) with N = 346 diverse adolescents ages 14-17, using a comprehensive approach to de novo measure development designed to produce a measure with desirable psychometric properties...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rupal Parekh, Arati Maleku, Noelle Fields, Gail Adorno, Donna Schuman, Brandi Felderhoff
Using a social capital and social cohesion lens, we reposition the concept of civic engagement among older adults to examine pathways for building age-friendly communities. We analyzed data drawn from a Community-Based Participatory Research study in the Southern U.S. that explored lived experiences of older adults, age 55 and above, who participated in individual interviews (n = 15) and six focus group discussions (n = 45) to examine their perceptions of social identity, social connectedness, and civic engagement geared toward an age-friendly city...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Joseph G L Lee, Paige E Averett, Tiffany Blanchflower, Kyle R Gregory
INTRODUCTION: Researchers and regulators need to know how changes to cigarette packages can influence population health. We sought to advance research on the role of cigarette packaging by assessing a theory-informed framework from the fields of design and consumer research. The selected Context of Consumption Framework posits cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to visual design. To assess the Framework's potential for guiding research on the visual design of cigarette packaging in the U...
February 2018: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Ruth Abraham, Lars Lien, Ingrid Hanssen
BACKGROUND: The links between migration and health are well documented. Being a refugee exacerbates migrants' vulnerability through trauma and loss. The aim of this study is to identify sources of resilience, coping and posttraumatic growth in female Eritrean refugees living in Norwegian asylum reception centres. METHOD: The study had a qualitative, descriptive and explorative design with two focus group interviews and 10 individual in-depth interviews. Participants included 18 female Eritrean refugees aged 18-60, who had obtained refugee status and were still living in an asylum reception centre...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Monica Solinas-Saunders
Using the empirical powers of theories of intersectionality, the study investigates the association between students' demographics (such as gender identity, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status) and sexual violence victimization. An anonymous survey was employed to collect data from a cluster random sample of 966 students attending face-to-face courses at a midsize urban nonresidential campus. The empirical findings suggest that being older and female are the only statistically significant factors in the analysis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Patricia Wonch Hill, Julia McQuillan, Amy N Spiegel, Judy Diamond
Why are some youth more likely to think of themselves as a science kind of person than others? In this paper, we use a cognitive social-theoretical framework to assess disparities in science identity among middle school-age youth in the United States. We investigate how discovery orientation is associated with science interest, perceived ability, importance, and reflected appraisal, and how they are related to whether youth see themselves, and perceive that others see them, as a science kind of person. We surveyed 441 students in an ethnically diverse, low-income middle school...
February 2018: Sociological Perspectives: SP: Official Publication of the Pacific Sociological Association
Moin Syed, Linda P Juang, Ylva Svensson
The purpose of this conceptual article is to advance theory and research on one critical aspect of the context of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development: ethnic-racial settings, or the objective and subjective nature of group representation within an individual's context. We present a new conceptual framework that consists of four dimensions: (1) perspective (that settings can be understood in both objective and subjective terms); (2) differentiation (how groups are defined in a setting); (3) heterogeneity (the range of groups in a setting); and (4) proximity (the distance between the individual and the setting)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Byron G Adams, Luzelle Naudé, J Alewyn Nel, Fons J R van de Vijver, Sumaya Laher, Johann Louw, Florence Tadi
Intergroup relation perspectives stem from research in Western contexts with clear distinctions between the dominant and nondominant groups. In South Africa, with at least 13 different cultural groups and 11 official languages, no group is dominant in all life spheres. We examine the relationship between identity and in-/out-group orientation across Black-Zulu, Coloured (mixed racial ancestry), Indian, and White-Afrikaans emerging adults ( N = 390; 75% females, M age = 19.97 years, SD = 2.44). Results indicate that personal identity for all groups and ethnic identity for Black-Zulu, Indian, and White-Afrikaans emerging adults were important for intergroup relations...
February 2018: Emerging Adulthood
Rachel M Schmitz, Julissa Sanchez, Bianca Lopez
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups...
March 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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