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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533677/in-pursuit-of-belonging-acculturation-perceived-discrimination-and-ethnic-racial-identity-among-latino-youths
#1
Adrienne Juliet Michele Baldwin-White, Elizabeth Kiehne, Adriana Umaña-Taylor, Flavio F Marsiglia
Guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems framework and informed by the rejection-identification model, this study examined the relationship between acculturation, discrimination, and ethnic-racial identity (ERI) searching and affirmation among a sample of Latino youths (N = 830; mean age = 12.2 years). Results revealed that higher levels of acculturation were associated with lower levels of searching and affirmation. Furthermore, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher affirmation, but unrelated to searching...
March 2017: Social Work Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530060/-the-truth-about-the-ringworm-affair
#2
REVIEW
Aya Bar Oz
Ringworm of the scalp (Tinea Capitis), a fungal skin ailment that appears on the scalp, was treated until the early sixties by radiation therapy. It was discovered during the seventies that radiation treatment for ringworm may be associated with a higher risk of cancerous and benign tumors in the head and neck area for patients undergoing treatment. In 1995, Israel enacted a law to compensate ringworm irradiation patients which provided monetary compensation for those who were treated between 1946 and 1960...
October 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529756/a-socioecological-framework-for-research-on-work-and-obesity-in-diverse-urban-transit-operators-based-on-gender-race-and-ethnicity
#3
REVIEW
BongKyoo Choi, Peter Schnall, Marnie Dobson, Haiou Yang, Dean Baker, YoungJu Seo
Urban transit (bus and rail) operators, totaling nearly 700,000 persons, are one of the heaviest occupational groups in the United States (US). Little is known about occupational risk factors for weight gain and obesity and their interrelationship with health-related behaviors, particularly among female minority (African Americans and Hispanics) transit operators who are at greater risk for obesity. As a step towards developing successful obesity interventions among urban transit operators, this paper aims to present a new socioecological framework for studying working conditions, chronic strain, health-related behaviors, weight gain/obesity, and obesity disparity in diverse urban transit operators based on gender, race, and ethnicity...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517242/race-ethnicity-is-associated-with-abo-non-identical-liver-transplantation-in-the-united-states
#4
Jin Ge, John P Roberts, Jennifer C Lai
United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) policies allows for ABO non-identical liver transplantation (LT) in candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores greater than 30. Previous studies showed ABO non-identical LT resulted in an 18% and 55% net gain in livers for B and AB candidates. These results suggested that the current liver ABO allocation policies may need refinement. There are, however, strong associations between ABO blood groups and race/ethnicity. We hypothesized that race/ethnicity is associated with ABO non-identical LT and that this is primarily influenced by recipient ABO status...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511684/access-to-pediatric-rheumatology-care-for-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#5
Khulood Khawaja, Mustafa Al-Maini
BACKGROUND: This study looks at access to care for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis through pediatric rheumatology in the UAE, as an example of multi-ethnic society. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis were identified through the hospital electronic medical records system from January 1st 2011 to December 31st 2014. All residents of the United Arab Emirates hold an Emirates identity card. We divided our patients into two groups: Emirati-Emirates, who are native Emirati children and hold the Emirati nationality, as stated on their Emirates identity card, and who therefore have full, comprehensive access to free medical care; and non-Emirati-Emirates, who represent other nationalities, as stated on their Emirates identity card...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511029/conceptualizing-ethnicity-in-alcohol-and-drug-research-epidemiology-meets-social-theory
#6
Geoffrey Hunt, Torsten Kolind, Tamar Antin
Since the 1990s, social scientists have rejected notions of ethnicity as something static and discrete, instead highlighting the context-dependent and fluid nature of multiple identities. In spite of these developments, researchers within the substance use fields continue to assess ethnic group categories in ways that suggest little critical reflection in terms of the validity of the measurements themselves, nor the social, bureaucratic, and political decisions shaping standard measures of ethnicity. This paper highlights these considerations, while also acknowledging the role of socially-delineated ethnic categorizations in documenting health inequities and social injustices...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508706/british-pakistani-lesbians-existing-within-the-confines-of-the-closet
#7
Asifa Siraj
This study explores the complex interaction between ethnicity, gender and [homo]sexuality and how this creates a framework of stigma that compels some British Pakistani lesbians to remain within the closet. The 'closet' here is a metaphor that describes the concealment of one's homosexual identity and the outward 'performance' of heterosexuality. British Pakistani lesbians precariously inhabit a sociocultural environment that constrains the expression of female sexuality. Women who oppose and contravene heteronormative values and ideals unsettle comfortable assumptions of heterosexuality...
May 16, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503192/the-potential-for-youth-programs-to-promote-african-american-youth-s-development-of-ethnic-and-racial-identity
#8
Aerika Brittian Loyd, Brittney V Williams
Effective programs for youth can reduce problem behaviors and promote positive development. In particular, cultural assets (e.g., ethnic-racial identity) are important for African American youth's health and development. In this article, we argue that youth programs represent an important social context for African American youth's development of positive ethnic-racial identity and we present a conceptual framework for understanding how such programs may affect African American youth's development in this area...
March 2017: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499108/alcohol-outcomes-by-sexual-orientation-and-race-ethnicity-few-findings-of-higher-risk
#9
Paul A Gilbert, Laurie Drabble, Jason Daniel-Ulloa, Karen F Trocki
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to confirm a previously identified race by sexual orientation interaction and to clarify men's alcohol-related risk by using an expanded classification of sexual orientation. METHOD: We collapsed three waves of National Alcohol Survey data, restricting the analytic sample to White (n = 5,689), Black (n = 1,237), and Latino (n = 1,549) men with complete information on sexual orientation and alcohol use. Using self-reported sexual identity and behavior, respondents were categorized as exclusively heterosexual (referent), behaviorally discordant heterosexuals (i...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499012/resistance-to-alzheimer-disease-neuropathologic-changes-and-apparent-cognitive-resilience-in-the-nun-and-honolulu-asia-aging-studies
#10
Caitlin S Latimer, C Dirk Keene, Margaret E Flanagan, Laura S Hemmy, Kelvin O Lim, Lon R White, Kathleen S Montine, Thomas J Montine
Two population-based studies key to advancing knowledge of brain aging are the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) and the Nun Study. Harmonization of their neuropathologic data allows cross comparison, with findings common to both studies likely generalizable, while distinct observations may point to aging brain changes that are dependent on sex, ethnicity, environment, or lifestyle factors. Here, we expanded the neuropathologic evaluation of these 2 studies using revised NIA-Alzheimer's Association guidelines and compared directly the neuropathologic features of resistance and apparent cognitive resilience...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498530/examining-discrimination-ethnic-racial-identity-status-and-youth-public-regard-among-black-latino-and-white-adolescents
#11
Sara Douglass, Adriana J Umaña-Taylor
How positively adolescents believe others feel about their ethnic-racial group (i.e., public regard) is an important part of their ethnic-racial identity (ERI), which is likely informed by contextual and individual factors. Using cluster analyses to generate ERI statuses among Black, Latino, and White adolescents (n = 1,378), we found that associations between peer versus adult discrimination and public regard varied across ERI status and ethnic-racial group. However, among all adolescents, an achieved ERI (i...
March 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495106/israel-health-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Karl Skorecki, Richard Horton
The principle that global human identity and dignity supersede other values is a broadly accepted conviction that guides practice and policies in the realm of human health in most of the world. An assessment of the level of success that Israel has achieved in health, in the face of formidable challenges, including rapid population growth, diverse and often divided ethnic affiliations, and existential security threats, leads us to propose that extension of this principle of global human identity and dignity, together with the objective of a decent society, as overriding values beyond health to other domains of human endeavour within Israel and in its relations with neighbouring peoples, represents an entirely achievable imperative...
May 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494387/a-review-of-sociocultural-factors-that-may-underlie-differences-in-african-american-and-european-american-anxiety
#13
REVIEW
Patricia D Hopkins, Natalie J Shook
Preliminary evidence indicates there may be differences in the prevalence and severity of anxiety in African Americans and European Americans. A number of sociocultural risk and protective factors have been suggested to contribute to these group differences, such as salience of physical illnesses, discrimination, stigma toward mental illness, religiosity, and ethnic identity. In this paper, the literature concerning each of these factors is reviewed. Overall, the strongest evidence was found for ethnic identity and stigma toward mental illness as factors underlying group differences in anxiety...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493737/autonomy-support-for-conflictual-and-stigmatized-identities-effects-on-ownership-and-psychological-health
#14
Netta Weinstein, Nicole Legate, William S Ryan, Constantine Sedikides, Philip J Cozzolino
Important others' perceptions influence self-perceptions. This presents a challenge for the critical developmental task of integrating all aspects of identity, as identities that are devalued or stigmatized by society are harder to own than valued ones. Across 3 studies, we tested the idea that conflictual or stigmatized identities are harder to own, or integrate into the self, than are nonconflictual ones, and we examine how receiving autonomy support for an identity-support for authentic identity exploration and expression-can facilitate ownership of that identity...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492979/ethnic-identity-acculturation-and-12-month-psychiatric-service-utilization-among-black-and-hispanic-adults-in-the-u-s
#15
Inger Burnett-Zeigler, Yuri Lee, Kipling M Bohnert
A cross-sectional study design was used to examine the associations of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychiatric service utilization among Wave 2 respondents of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions with 12-month psychiatric disorders who self-identified as Black (6587, 19%) and Hispanic (6359, 18%). Weighted multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between ethnic identity, acculturation, and 12-month psychiatric service utilization. Stronger ethnic identity was associated with decreased odds of using psychiatric services among Black (AOR = 0...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488251/ethnic-identity-and-regional-differences-in-mental-health-in-a-national-sample-of-african-american-young-adults
#16
Monnica T Williams, Gerardo Duque, Chad T Wetterneck, L Kevin Chapman, Ryan C T DeLapp
Prior research has found that a strong positive ethnic identity is a protective factor against anxiety and depression in African Americans. In this study, ethnic identity is examined in a geographically representative sample of African American young adults (n = 242), using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) (Phinney in J Adolescent Res 7:156-76, 15). The two-factor structure of the measure (Roberts et al. in J Early Adolescence 19:301-22, 1) was analyzed using a structural equation model and displayed an acceptable fit only when multiple error terms were correlated...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486018/development-and-validation-of-skinfold-model-for-estimation-of-body-density-for-a-safe-weight-reduction-in-young-iranian-wrestlers
#17
Sadjad Riyahi-Alam, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Yaser Kabirizadeh, Nasrin Mansournia, Ewout Steyerberg, Ramin Kordi
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of excessive body mass reduction among wrestlers dictate minimum weight determination through body composition. Although skinfold equations are essential to estimate body composition in the field setting, they are mostly derived from Western societies and may lack generalizability to other populations. PURPOSE: Previously published skinfold equations lacked external validity in predicting body density of Iranian wrestlers. We aimed to derive a new anthropometric model specific to young Iranian male wrestlers...
May 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484716/anatomic-variation-in-morphometry-of-human-coracoid-process-among-asian-population
#18
Manal Fathi, Pike-See Cheah, Umar Ahmad, M Nizlan Nasir, Aye Aye San, Ezamin Abdul Rahim, Paisal Hussin, Rozi Mahmud, Fauziah Othman
Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482846/a-preliminary-needs-assessment-of-american-indians-who-inject-drugs-in-northeastern-montana
#19
Mike Anastario, Kris FourStar, Adriann Ricker, Rebecca Dick, Monica C Skewes, Elizabeth Rink
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use has not been well documented in American Indians living in the USA. American Indian and Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) show higher rates of substance use compared to the general population, and have historically been subject to a number of risk factors that are known to increase the likelihood of substance use. AI/ANs also experience increased risk for infectious diseases that are transmitted via injection drug use and/or sexual activity. Harm reduction approaches have been shown to be effective for decreasing risk of disease transmission in at-risk populations, and may be well suited for AI/AN injection drug users residing in rural reservation communities...
May 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481875/identification-of-a-tlr2-regulated-gene-signature-associated-with-tumor-cell-growth-in-gastric-cancer
#20
A C West, K Tang, H Tye, L Yu, N Deng, M Najdovska, S J Lin, J J Balic, E Okochi-Takada, P McGuirk, B Keogh, W McCormack, P S Bhathal, M Reilly, M Oshima, T Ushijima, P Tan, B J Jenkins
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key regulators of innate immune responses, and their dysregulation is observed in numerous inflammation-associated malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC). However, the identity of specific TLRs and their molecular targets which promote the pathogenesis of human GC is ill-defined. Here, we sought to determine the clinical utility of TLR2 in human GC. TLR2 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated in >50% of GC patient tumors across multiple ethnicities. TLR2 was also widely expressed among human GC cell lines, and DNA microarray-based expression profiling demonstrated that the TLR2-induced growth responsiveness of human GC cells corresponded with the up-regulation of six anti-apoptotic (BCL2A1, BCL2, BIRC3, CFLAR, IER3, TNFAIP3) and down-regulation of two tumor suppressor (PDCD4, TP53INP1) genes...
May 8, 2017: Oncogene
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