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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550762/forensic-age-estimation-by-morphometric-analysis-of-the-manubrium-from-3d-mr-images
#1
Naira P Martínez Vera, Johannes Höller, Thomas Widek, Bernhard Neumayer, Thomas Ehammer, Martin Urschler
Forensic age estimation research based on skeletal structures focuses on patterns of growth and development using different bones. In this work, our aim was to study growth-related evolution of the manubrium in living adolescents and young adults using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is an image acquisition modality that does not involve ionizing radiation. In a first step, individual manubrium and subject features were correlated with age, which confirmed a statistically significant change of manubrium volume (Mvol:p<0...
May 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549797/cortico-amygdalar-maturational-coupling-is-associated-with-depressive-symptom-trajectories-during-adolescence
#2
Nandita Vijayakumar, Nicholas B Allen, Meg Dennison, Michelle L Byrne, Julian G Simmons, Sarah Whittle
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is characterized by increasing prevalence of depressive symptomatology, along with significant structural brain development. While much research has examined focal abnormalities in gray matter structure underlying depression, we employed a structural coupling approach to examine whether longitudinal associations between amygdala and cortical development (referred to as maturational coupling) was related to concurrent changes in depressive symptomatology during adolescence...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#3
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n=43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549535/relationships-of-measured-iohexol-gfr-and-estimated-gfr-with-ckd-related-biomarkers-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
Derek K Ng, George J Schwartz, Bradley A Warady, Susan L Furth, Alvaro Muñoz
BACKGROUND: 2 valid and reliable estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equations for the pediatric population have been developed from directly measured GFR data in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort: the full CKiD and bedside CKiD equations. Although adult GFR estimating equations replicate relationships of measured GFR with biomarkers, it is unclear whether similar patterns exist among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in children and adolescents...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549148/risk-factors-for-invasive-fungal-disease-in-pediatric-cancer-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#5
Brian T Fisher, Paula D Robinson, Thomas Lehrnbecher, William J Steinbach, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Bob Phillips, Lillian Sung
Background.: Although a number of risk factors have been associated with invasive fungal disease (IFD), a systematic review of the literature to document pediatric-specific factors has not been performed. Methods.: We used the Ovid SP platform to search Medline, Medline In-Process, and Embase for studies that identified risk factors for IFD in children with cancer or those who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We included studies if they consisted of children or adolescents (<25 years) who were receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing HSCT and if the study evaluated risk factors among patients with and those without IFD...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548996/distal-junctional-failure-following-pediatric-spinal-fusion
#6
Lorena V Floccari, Alvin W Su, Amy L McIntosh, Karl Rathjen, William J Shaughnessy, A Noelle Larson
BACKGROUND: Adjacent segment pathology is a known complication after spinal fusion, but little has been reported on junctional failure. A series of adolescent patients presented with acute distal junctional failure (DJF). We sought to determine any common features of these patients to develop a prevention strategy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of pediatric patients who developed DJF after instrumented spinal fusion performed at 2 institutions from 1999 to 2013...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548187/-prevalence-of-smoking-among-colombian-adolescents
#7
Javier Martínez-Torres, Martha Peñuela Epalza
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is considered the most important preventable public health problem in developed countries, especially among adolescents. AIM: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors in high school adolescents, from a Colombian city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The self-administered global tobacco youth survey (GTYS) was answered by 831 teenagers aged 14 ± 2 years (54% females). For data analysis, proportions were calculated; for associations, binary and multivariable logistic regression was applied...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547821/effects-of-sleep-on-substance-use-in-adolescents-a-longitudinal-perspective
#8
Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Ty Brumback, Matthew J Worley, Ian M Colrain, Georg E Matt, Lindsay M Squeglia, Susan F Tapert
Substance use (SU) and sleep problems appear interrelated, but few studies have examined the influence of adolescent sleep patterns on development of SU disorders. This study prospectively examined the influence of sleep habits on subsequent SU in youth who later transitioned into heavy drinking. At time 1 (T1), participants (n = 95) were substance-naive 12- to 14-year-olds. Path-analytic models examined whether the effects of T1 risk factors (familial SU disorder, inhibition control, and externalizing and internalizing traits) on time 3 (M = 19...
May 26, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547137/age-dependent-arthrosonographic-reference-values-of-the-hip-joint-in-healthy-children-and-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-multicenter-ultrasound-study
#9
Ralf Felix Trauzeddel, Hartwig Lehmann, Daniel Windschall, Gerd Ganser, Rainer Berendes, Maria Haller, Manuela Krumrey-Langkammerer, Katharina Palm-Beden, Antje Nimtz-Talaska, Christine Nirschl, Phillip Schoof, Ralf Trauzeddel
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal US is a noninvasive imaging method for diagnosing and monitoring inflammatory rheumatic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To develop age- and gender-related arthrosonographic reference intervals for the hip joint of healthy children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional US study, we examined both hip joints of 445 children and adolescents with an age range of 1 year to 18 years. We measured the distance between the bone surface and the outer margin of the joint capsule to define the bone-capsule distance, the joint capsule and cartilage thickness, and the capsule layer thickness...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546940/refractive-errors-among-children-adolescents-and-adults-attending-eye-clinics-in-mexico
#10
Francisco Gomez-Salazar, Abraham Campos-Romero, Humberto Gomez-Campaña, Cinthia Cruz-Zamudio, Mariano Chaidez-Felix, Nidia Leon-Sicairos, Jorge Velazquez-Roman, Hector Flores-Villaseñor, Secundino Muro-Amador, Alma Marlene Guadron-Llanos, Javier J Martinez-Garcia, Joel Murillo-Llanes, Jaime Sanchez-Cuen, Alejando Llausas-Vargas, Gerardo Alapizco-Castro, Ana Irineo-Cabrales, Enrique Graue-Hernandez, Tito Ramirez-Luquin, Adrian Canizalez-Roman
AIM: To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. METHODS: Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546737/racial-socialization-private-regard-and-behavior-problems-in-african-american-youth-global-self-esteem-as-a-mediator
#11
BreAnna L Davis, Mia A Smith-Bynum, Farzana T Saleem, Tiffany Francois, Sharon F Lambert
Racial socialization messages appear to have varying impacts on the adjustment of African American youth. To further explore this, we examined how two types of racial socialization messages might influence African American youth internalizing and externalizing behavior. The Youth Self Report was used to measure these behavior outcomes. Given that racial socialization messages may not be directly linked to behavior outcomes, we considered private regard, an aspect of racial identity, to serve as a mediator. Additionally, we examined global self-esteem as a mediator of the complex dynamic between racial socialization messages and behavior outcomes...
March 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546095/puberty-suppression-in-transgender-children-and-adolescents
#12
REVIEW
Simone Mahfouda, Julia K Moore, Aris Siafarikas, Florian D Zepf, Ashleigh Lin
The World Professional Association for Transgender Health's standards of care recommend suspending puberty, preferably with the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, in certain gender non-conforming minors (aged under 18 years) who have undergone a psychiatric assessment and have reached at least Tanner stage II of puberty. This approach seeks to lessen the discordance between assigned natal sex and gender identity by temporarily halting the development of secondary sexual characteristics, essentially widening the temporal window for gender clarification...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545755/are-alcohol-trajectories-a-useful-way-of-identifying-at-risk-youth-a-multiwave-longitudinal-epidemiologic-study
#13
David D Vachon, Robert F Krueger, Daniel E Irons, William G Iacono, Matt McGue
OBJECTIVE: Trajectory approaches are a popular way of identifying subgroups of children and adolescents at high risk for developing alcohol use problems. However, mounting evidence challenges the meaning and utility of these putatively discrete alcohol trajectories, which can be analytically derived even in the absence of real subgroups. This study tests the hypothesis that alcohol trajectories may not reflect discrete groups-that the development of alcohol use is continuous rather than categorical...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545654/genetic-approach-to-ambiguous-genitalia-and-disorders-of-sex-development-what-clinicians-need-to-know
#14
Svetlana A Yatsenko, Selma Feldman Witchel
Genetic tools such as microarray and next-generation sequencing have initiated a new era for the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of sex development (DSDs). These tools supplement the traditional approach to the evaluation and care of infants, children, and adolescents with DSDs. These tests can detect genetic variations known to be associated with DSDs, discover novel genetic variants, and elucidate novel mechanisms of gene regulation. Herein, we discuss these tests and their role in the management of patients with DSDs...
May 22, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545471/decisional-balance-inventory-dbi-adolescent-form-for-smoking-psychometric-properties-of-the-persian-version
#15
Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Tahereh Pashaei, Ponnet Koen, Fatemeh Jafari, Rashin Alizadeh
BACKGROUND: One effective model for studying cigarette smoking cessation is the transtheoretical model (TTM). In order to assess to what degree interventions can make variations in individuals' behavior, several questionnaires have been developed based on the TTM. This study aims to describe the development of the Persian version of the Decisional Balance Inventory (DBI) for smoking cessation in Iran and to evaluate its psychometric properties. DESIGN AND METHODS: The forward-backward technique was used to translate the DBI from English into Persian...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545237/emotion-recognition-in-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-a-nonverbal-approach
#16
Régis Pochon, Claire Touchet, Laure Ibernon
Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS) have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545101/family-aggregation-and-risk-factors-in-substance-use-disorders-over-three-generations-in-a-nation-wide-study
#17
Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Helle Jakobsen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. METHOD: A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were born between 1969 and 1986 and were registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had a mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed SUD at some point during their life-time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544983/longitudinal-associations-among-family-environment-neural-cognitive-control-and-social-competence-among-adolescents
#18
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male)...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544861/social-buffering-of-stress-in-development-a-career-perspective
#19
Megan R Gunnar
This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544433/gynecological-challenges-in-the-diagnosis-and-care-of-patients-with-dsd-the-role-of-the-obstetrician-gynecologist-in-the-multidisciplinary-approach-to-the-patient
#20
Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sex development (DSD) are identified when there is atypical chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Given the complexity of DSD conditions, the consensus guidelines recommend that affected individuals be evaluated and cared for by teams with expertise in DSD conditions. Obstetrician gynecologists are experts in genital and reproductive anatomy, hormonal function, fertility, sexuality, and obstetrics, allowing them to provide a unique and essential function within the DSD team. Furthermore, obstetrician gynecologists with expertise in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology may follow individuals from birth into adulthood and provide reproductive health care for all ages, allowing these patients to "grow up" with them...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
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