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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679914/a-multi-site-proof-of-concept-investigation-of-computerized-approach-avoidance-training-in-adolescent-cannabis-users
#1
Joanna Jacobus, Charles T Taylor, Kevin M Gray, Lindsay R Meredith, Anna M Porter, Irene Li, Norma Castro, Lindsay M Squeglia
BACKGROUND: Few effective treatment options exist for cannabis-using youth. This pilot study aimed to test Approach-Avoidance Training to reduce cannabis use with non-treatment-seeking adolescents. METHODS: Eighty cannabis-using non-treatment-seeking adolescents (average age 19) were recruited from San Diego, California and Charleston, South Carolina, and randomized to complete either six sessions of Cannabis Approach-Avoidance Task Training (CAAT-training) designed to reduce automatic approach biases for cannabis cues or CAAT-sham training...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679763/leaving-the-nest-improving-food-allergy-management-on-college-campuses
#2
Ashley A Dyer, Amy O'Keefe, Madeleine K Kanaley, Lauren Kao, Ruchi S Gupta
BACKGROUND: The transition from adolescence to young adulthood marks a developmental period where responsibility for management of chronic conditions such as food allergy shifts from the caregiver to the young adult. Fatal food-induced anaphylaxis is most common among adolescents and young adults. However, colleges are currently not well-positioned to provide integrated support for students with food allergies. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to explore the systems, structures, and policies that currently support students with food allergies at college, assess unmet needs, and develop pilot interventions through the use of patient-centered design processes...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679360/mental-health-of-the-male-adolescent-and-young-man-the-copenhagen-statement
#3
REVIEW
Timothy R Rice, Lesha D Shah, Pilar Trelles, Shih-Ku Lin, Dinne Skjærlund Christensen, Andreas Walther, Leo Sher
BACKGROUND: Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. DATA SOURCES: This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health...
April 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679282/burosumab-first-global-approval
#4
Yvette N Lamb
Burosumab (Crysvita® ; Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd. and Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc.) is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed at fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Excessive FGF23 production has been implicated in various hypophosphataemic diseases. Inhibition of FGF23 by burosumab results in increased renal phosphate reabsorption and increased serum levels of phosphorus and active vitamin D. In February 2018, the EMA granted subcutaneous burosumab conditional marketing authorization for the treatment of X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) with radiographic evidence of bone disease in children one year of age and older and adolescents with growing skeletons...
April 20, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678991/measurement-properties-of-the-health-of-the-nation-outcome-scales-honos-family-of-measures-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#5
Meredith G Harris, Claudia Sparti, Roman Scheurer, Tim Coombs, Jane Pirkis, Torleif Ruud, Steve Kisely, Ketil Hanssen-Bauer, Johan Siqveland, Philip M Burgess
INTRODUCTION: The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) for adults, and equivalent measures for children and adolescents and older people, are widely used in clinical practice and research contexts to measure mental health and functional outcomes. Additional HoNOS measures have been developed for special populations and applications. Stakeholders require synthesised information about the measurement properties of these measures to assess whether they are fit for use with intended service settings and populations and to establish performance benchmarks...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678754/sex-and-age-dependent-effects-of-orexin-1-receptor-blockade-on-open-field-behavior-and-neuronal-activity
#6
Shannon R Blume, Hannah Nam, Sandra Luz, Debra A Bangasser, Seema Bhatnagar
Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Little is known on the role of orexins in mediating arousal behaviors in male and female rats during adolescence or adulthood...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678498/single-parenthood-and-perceived-income-insufficiency-as-challenges-for-meal-patterns-in-childhood
#7
Suvi Parikka, Esko Levälahti, Tuija Martelin, Tiina Laatikainen
Family is an important setting for development of eating behavior in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate associations and direct and indirect pathways between family socioeconomic position (SEP) factors, family type and meal patterns in childhood on weekdays (4-6 meals a day, breakfast skipping, and family dinner). The cross-sectional LATE study was carried out in Finland in 2007-2009. Our dataset comprised 2864 school-aged children (aged ca 7-16 years). Associations between parental BMI, education, labor market status, perceived income sufficiency, family type and childhood meal patterns were first examined by bivariate and multivariate regression analyses separately for children (aged 7-11 years; N = 1920) and adolescents (14-16 years; N = 944)...
April 17, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678279/the-psychiatric-consequences-of-cannabinoids
#8
Joao P De Aquino, Mohamed Sherif, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, John D Cahill, Mohini Ranganathan, Deepak C D'Souza
With rising rates of cannabis use in the general population and an increasing number of US states legalizing both recreational and medical cannabis use, it is important to be informed about the adverse consequences of cannabinoids. This Commentary provides an overview of the psychiatric effects of plant-based and synthetic cannabinoids, differentiating acute effects from effects associated with persistent use. Cannabinoids produce multiphasic and dose-dependent effects on anxiety, mood, and perception, in addition to impairing cognition and psychomotor function...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678202/using-ryff-s-scales-of-psychological-well-being-in-adolescents-in-mainland-china
#9
Jie Gao, Ros McLellan
BACKGROUND: Psychological well-being in adolescence has always been a focus of public attention and academic research. Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being potentially provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for investigating positive functioning of adolescents. However, previous studies reported inconsistent findings of the reliability and validity of Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-being (SPWB). The present study aimed to explore whether Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being could be applied in Chinese adolescents...
April 20, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677626/positive-alcohol-use-expectancies-moderate-the-association-between-anxiety-sensitivity-and-alcohol-use-across-adolescence
#10
Allison M Borges, Carl W Lejuez, Julia W Felton
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of anxious symptoms and the belief that these symptoms may have negative physical, social, and cognitive consequences, is one personality trait that emerges in early adolescence and may be linked to alcohol use. However, findings are equivocal as to whether elevated AS during adolescence directly predicts alcohol use. Adolescents do report increases in positive alcohol use expectancies during this developmental period, and these expectancies have been found to be significantly associated with alcohol use...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677582/maternal-nicotine-exposure-effects-on-adolescent-learning-and-memory-are-abolished-in-alpha-%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-null-mutant-mice
#11
Celina Mojica, Yu Bai, Shahrdad Lotfipour
The objective of the current study is to test the hypothesis that the deletion of alpha(α)2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) ablate maternal nicotine-induced learning and memory deficits in adolescent mice. We use a pre-exposure-dependent contextual fear conditioning behavioral paradigm that is highly hippocampus-dependent. Adolescent wild type and α2-null mutant offspring are exposed to vehicle or maternal nicotine exposure (200 μg/ml, expressed as base) in the drinking water throughout pregnancy until weaning...
April 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677187/breastfeeding-during-infancy-and-neurocognitive-function-in-adolescence-16-year-follow-up-of-the-probit-cluster-randomized-trial
#12
Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Mikhail Hameza, Glen Doniger, Shimon Amit, Rita Patel, Jennifer Thompson, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Konstantin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development is based almost exclusively on observational studies. In the 16-year follow-up study of a large, cluster-randomized trial of a breastfeeding promotion intervention, we evaluated the long-term persistence of the neurocognitive benefits of the breastfeeding promotion intervention previously observed at early school age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 13,557 participants (79...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676698/the-role-of-religiosity-in-adolescents-compulsive-pornography-use-a-longitudinal-assessment
#13
Taylor Kohut, Aleksandar Stulhofer
Despite increasing concerns that adolescent men are vulnerable to developing compulsive pornography use, little research has been done in this area. Given recent theorizing and research concerning moral incongruence, we hypothesized that symptoms of compulsive pornography use should generally be associated with higher levels of pornography use and increased growth in male adolescent pornography use over time, but that this pattern would be attenuated among very religious participants. These hypotheses were tested with mixed effects growth models using two independent panel samples of male Croatian adolescents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676680/midline-central-fluid-percussion-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-rats
#14
Rachel K Rowe, Jordan L Harrison, Timothy W Ellis, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
OBJECTIVE Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) models hold significant validity to the human condition, with each model replicating a subset of clinical features and symptoms. TBI is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and teenagers; thus, it is critical to develop preclinical models of these ages to test emerging treatments. Midline fluid percussion injury (FPI) might best represent mild and diffuse clinical brain injury because of the acute behavioral deficits, the late onset of behavioral morbidities, and the absence of gross histopathology...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676199/adolescents-multiple-versus-single-primary-attachment-figures-reorganization-of-attachment-hierarchy-and-adjustments-the-important-people-interview-approach
#15
Tomotaka Umemura, Lenka Lacinová, Jakub Kraus, Eliška Horská, Lenka Pivodová
Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation...
April 20, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675766/the-relationship-between-sensorimotor-and-handwriting-performance-in-chinese-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Cecilia W P Li-Tsang, Tim M H Li, Choco H Y Ho, Mandy S W Lau, Howard W H Leung
Impaired sensorimotor control, as a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), could be a driving factor to handwriting problems. This study examined the Chinese and English handwriting and sensorimotor skills of 15 ASD and 174 typically developing Chinese adolescents. Participants with ASD had lower writing speed and poor manual dexterity (MD) than the typically developing participants. MD was a significant mediator between ASD and handwriting speed. Ground time and airtime represent the length of time when the pen touches the paper and is held in air, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675588/parenting-a-child-with-phenylketonuria-an-investigation-into-the-factors-that-contribute-to-parental-distress
#17
Olivia Ambler, Emma Medford, Dougal J Hare
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic condition that can lead to the onset of intellectual disabilities if not strictly managed through a low-protein diet. Parents are responsible for supervising their child's treatment for PKU, which may impact on their experience of distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors that contribute to distress in parents who care for a child with PKU, distinct from parents in the general population. Thirty-eight parents of children and adolescents with PKU and 32 parents in the general population completed the questionnaires measuring parental psychological resilience, child behaviour problems, perceived social support and distress...
April 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675047/menstrual-hygiene-management-and-waste-disposal-practices-and-challenges-faced-by-girls-women-of-developing-countries
#18
REVIEW
Rajanbir Kaur, Kanwaljit Kaur, Rajinder Kaur
Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of personal and menstrual hygiene management...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674994/a-cross-sectional-study-on-cerebral-hemodynamics-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-pediatric-population
#19
Corey M Thibeault, Samuel Thorpe, Michael J O'Brien, Nicolas Canac, Mina Ranjbaran, Ilyas Patanam, Artin Sarraf, James LeVangie, Fabien Scalzo, Seth J Wilk, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Robert B Hamilton
The microvasculature is prominently affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (concussion). Assessment of cerebral hemodynamics shows promise as biomarkers of TBI, and may help inform development of therapies aimed at promoting neurologic recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution in cerebral hemodynamics observable with transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound in subjects suffering from a concussion at different intervals during recovery. Pediatric subjects between the ages of 14 and 19 years clinically diagnosed with a concussion were observed at different points post-injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674599/development-and-a-pilot-application-process-of-the-korean-psychological-autopsy-checklist-for-adolescents
#20
Mina Jeon, Han Nah Cho, Soo Young Bhang, Jun Won Hwang, Eun Jin Park, Yeon Jung Lee
Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the Korean Psychological Autopsy Checklist for Adolescent (K-PAC-A) and conduct a pilot study. Methods: A number of steps were undertaken in the development of the K-PAC-A including literature reviews, consultations, and a pilot study. The Korean psychology autopsy checklist 2.0 (K-PAC 2.0) was carefully reviewed to adopt some domains and questions which can be applied to adolescents. Results: In addition to the adoption of some domains and questions from the K-PAC 2...
April 20, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
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