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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053980/incident-mental-disorders-in-the-aftermath-of-traumatic-events-a-prospective-longitudinal-community-study
#1
Eva Asselmann, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Roselind Lieb, Axel Perkonigg, Katja Beesdo-Baum
BACKGROUND: Few strictly prospective-longitudinal community studies examined the role of traumatic events for risk of developing a broad range of incident mental disorders over several years. METHOD: A representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 2797, baseline age 14-24) was prospectively examined in up to three assessment waves over up to 10 years. Traumatic events and DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed at each wave using the DIA-X/M-CIDI...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053976/longitudinal-association-between-mental-disorders-in-childhood-and-subsequent-depression-a-nationwide-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Louise Krarup Gundel, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Søren Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: Depression ranges among the most impairing mental disorders worldwide, and early detection is a global health priority. Little is known about the association between non-affective mental disorders in childhood/adolescence and later depression. METHODS: Nationwide register-based prospective cohort study, estimating cumulative incidences and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for later depression in individuals with and without non-affective mental disorders in early life...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053732/body-typing-of-children-and-adolescents-using-3d-body-scanning
#3
Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Mandy Vogel, Toralf Kirsten, Fabian Glock, Tanja Poulain, Antje Körner, Markus Loeffler, Wieland Kiess, Hans Binder
Three-dimensional (3D-) body scanning of children and adolescents allows the detailed study of physiological development in terms of anthropometrical alterations which potentially provide early onset markers for obesity. Here, we present a systematic analysis of body scanning data of 2,700 urban children and adolescents in the age range between 5 and 18 years with the special aim to stratify the participants into distinct body shape types and to describe their change upon development. In a first step, we extracted a set of eight representative meta-measures from the data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053191/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-smaller-hippocampal-volume-in-adolescence
#4
Luciane R Piccolo, Kimberly G Noble
Perceived stress has been associated with decreased hippocampal, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex volume, as well as decreased memory and executive functioning performance in adulthood. Parents' perceived stress has been linked to decreased hippocampal volume in young children. However, no studies have investigated the links between self-perceived stress and brain structure or function in adolescents. Additionally, findings from previous research with younger or older samples are inconsistent, likely in part due to inconsistencies in participants' age range...
October 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052865/research-review-is-anxiety-associated-with-negative-interpretations-of-ambiguity-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Suzannah Stuijfzand, Cathy Creswell, Andy P Field, Samantha Pearcey, Helen Dodd
BACKGROUND: The tendency to interpret ambiguity as threat (negative interpretation) has been implicated in cognitive models of anxiety. A significant body of research has examined the association between anxiety and negative interpretation, and reviews suggest there is a robust positive association in adults. However, evidence with children and adolescents has been inconsistent. This study aimed to provide a systematic quantitative assessment of the association between anxiety and negative interpretation in children and adolescents...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052841/cognitive-mechanisms-of-inhibitory-control-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Lauren M Schmitt, Stormi P White, Edwin H Cook, John A Sweeney, Matthew W Mosconi
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory control deficits are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associated with more severe repetitive behaviors. Inhibitory control deficits may reflect slower execution of stopping processes, or a reduced ability to delay the onset of behavioral responses in contexts of uncertainty. Previous studies have documented relatively spared stopping processes in ASD, but whether inhibitory control deficits in ASD reflect failures to delay response onset has not been systematically assessed...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052806/profiling-autism-symptomatology-an-exploration-of-the-q-asc-parental-report-scale-in-capturing-sex-differences-in-autism
#7
Sarah Ormond, Charlotte Brownlow, Michelle Sarah Garnett, Agnieszka Rynkiewicz, Tony Attwood
The Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Conditions (Q-ASC) was developed by Attwood et al. (2011) to identify gender-sensitive profiles of autism symptomatology; prioritise and adjust the direction of clinical interventions; and support positive psychosocial outcomes and prognosis into adulthood. The current research piloted the Q-ASC with parents of 238 children with a clinical diagnosis of ASD-Level 1 (without intellectual or language impairment). Data analysis revealed eight interpretable and reliable components of the Q-ASC using Principle components analysis...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052802/the-development-of-episodic-future-thinking-in-middle-childhood
#8
F Ferretti, A Chiera, S Nicchiarelli, I Adornetti, R Magni, S Vicari, G Valeri, A Marini
The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341-361. doi:10.1016/j...
October 20, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052784/exercise-and-bone-health-across-the-lifespan
#9
Lívia Santos, Kirsty Jayne Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
With ageing, bone tissue undergoes significant compositional, architectural and metabolic alterations potentially leading to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disorder, which is characterised by progressive bone weakening and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Although this metabolic disease is conventionally associated with ageing and menopause, the predisposing factors are thought to be established during childhood and adolescence. In light of this, exercise interventions implemented during maturation are likely to be highly beneficial as part of a long-term strategy to maximise peak bone mass and hence delay the onset of age- or menopause-related osteoporosis...
October 20, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#10
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
October 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052118/challenging-conventions-of-bullying-thresholds-exploring-differences-between-low-and-high-levels-of-bully-only-victim-only-and-bully-victim-roles
#11
Jeremy T Goldbach, Paul R Sterzing, Marla J Stuart
Using a commonly accepted threshold of 2 to 3 times per month as a marker of bullying-involvement from noninvolvement, approximately 30% of U.S. students report being a bully, victim, or both. Although variation in the frequency of involvement exists, infrequent engagement (less than 2 to 3 times a month) is generally considered noninvolved. However, the question remains: Do these differences have implications for behavioral health patterns, including substance use, depression and school connectedness? The present study used a district-wide random cluster sample of 66 middle and high schools in a mid-size city...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051027/the-conception-of-the-abcd-study-from-substance-use-to-a-broad-nih-collaboration
#12
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Robert T Croyle, Diana W Bianchi, Joshua A Gordon, Walter J Koroshetz, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, William T Riley, Michele H Bloch, Kevin Conway, Bethany G Deesds, Gayathri J Dowling, Steven Grant, Katia D Howlett, John A Matochik, Glen D Morgan, Margaret M Murray, Antonio Noronha, Catherine Y Spong, Eric M Wargo, Kenneth R Warren, Susan R B Weiss
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050902/housing-conditions-modulate-the-reinforcing-properties-of-cocaine-in-adolescent-mice-that-binge-on-fat
#13
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Sandra Montagud-Romero, María A Aguilar, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Binge eating is a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent, excessive eating. To date, several studies have addressed the effects that bingeing on fat has on the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but they have found contradictory and highly variable results. Housing conditions could modulate these results, as most studies employ isolated animals to measure the exact amount of food that is ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of housing conditions on the response of mice to cocaine, modulated by bingeing on a high-fat diet during adolescence...
October 16, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050721/acute-kidney-injury-secondary-to-cell-saver-in-posterior-spinal-fusion
#14
Anas A Minkara, Albert Y Lin, Michael G Vitale, David P Roye
BACKGROUND: Autologous blood transfusion, commonly referred to as cell saver, is frequently used in spinal fusion to salvage red blood cells because of the risk of significant intraoperative blood loss. This case report describes a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to cell saver use. Our objective is to increase the knowledge about the process of red blood cell salvage and this exceedingly rare complication. METHODS: Chart and renal biopsy results for a single case were reviewed and reported in this retrospective study...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050712/a-case-control-study-of-body-composition-prevalence-and-curve-severity-of-the-patients-with-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-in-the-east-part-of-china
#15
Yu Zheng, Yini Dang, Yan Yang, Ning Sun, Tao Wang, Huabo Li, Lijie Zhang, Chengqi He, M S Wong
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of prevalence and curve severity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and the body composition alterations between the patients with AIS and healthy controls. METHODS: Information on the study sample was obtained from a screening database. The AIS cohort was paired with an age- and gender-matched healthy cohort. The stratification of BMI and curve severity was conducted according to the criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Scoliosis Research Society...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049671/application-of-a-discrete-choice-experiment-to-assess-adherence-related-motivation-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#16
Meghan E McGrady, Lisa A Prosser, Aimee N Thompson, Ahna L H Pai
To develop and pilot test a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess the specific factors likely to motivate a given adolescent or young adult with cancer to adhere to medications included in treatment protocols. A multimethod and iterative approach was used. Twenty adolescents and young adults with cancer participated in DCE pilot testing and refinement. Hierarchical Bayes was used to estimate attribute and attribute-level preference scores for each participant. The final DCE included nine choice sets composed of four attributes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048985/commentary-impact-of-meningococcal-group-b-omv-vaccines-beyond-their-brief
#17
Helen Petousis-Harris
Meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccines have been used widely in Cuba, New Zealand, and Brazil. They are immunogenic and initially assessed largely by their ability to induce serum bactericidal activity. Measures of efficacy indicate good protection against homologous strains in older children and adults. Effectiveness appears broader than predicted by immunogenicity and efficacy studies. The recent discovery that meningococcal group B OMVs may protect against the related Neisseria species N.gonorrhoeae suggests more to these interesting antigen collections than meets the eye...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048554/social-risk-and-resilience-factors-in-adolescent-chronic-pain-examining-the-role-of-parents-and-peers
#18
Alexandra C Ross, Laura E Simons, Amanda B Feinstein, Isabel A Yoon, Rashmi P Bhandari
Objective: The current study focuses on social risk and resilience in an adolescent population with chronic pain. Prior research identifies parental cognitions and behaviors as influential in youths' experiences of chronic pain and pain-related disability. Adolescent development is characterized by greater autonomy from parents and an increased emphasis on peer relationships. Study aims explore the potential protective effect of high-quality adolescent peer relationships on associations between parent and adolescent cognitive and behavioral responses to pain...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048520/pain-acceptance-as-a-predictor-of-medical-utilization-and-school-absenteeism-in-adolescents-with-chronic-pain
#19
Michelle A Clementi, Grace S Kao, Evelyn Monico
Objective: Identifying factors contributing to high medical utilization and productivity loss is important, given the high cost of pediatric chronic pain. The current study examined chronic pain acceptance as a predictor of medical utilization and school absenteeism in adolescents with chronic pain. Methods: In all, 122 adolescents (aged 12-21 years) with chronic pain and their parents/guardians completed questionnaires assessing medical visits (past 6 months), medication usage, and number of school absences (past month)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048340/helping-health-services-to-meet-the-needs-of-young-people-with-chronic-conditions-towards-a-developmental-model-for-transition
#20
REVIEW
Albert Farre, Janet E McDonagh
The transition to adult healthcare has been the subject of increased research and policy attention over many years. However, unmet needs of adolescent and young adults (AYAs) and their families continue to be documented, and universal implementation has yet to be realised. Therefore, it is pertinent to re-examine health transition in light of the principles of adolescent medicine from which it emerged, and consider this particular life transition in terms of a developmental milestone rather than a negotiation of structural boundaries between child and adult services...
October 19, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
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